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Full text of "Dickens and his illustrators: Cruikshank, Seymour, Buss, "Phiz", Cattermole, Leech, Doyle, Stanfield, Maclise, Tenniel, Frank Stone, Landseer, Palmer, Topham, Marcus Stone, and Luke Fildes; with twenty-two portraits and facsimiles of seventy original drawings now reproduced for the first time"

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Plate  I 

From  a  scarce  I^iihograph  by 
SOL.    EYTINGE,   Junr. 

This  Portrait  was  published  during  the  Novelist's  last  visit  to  America 
(1867-68),  by  Fields,  Osgood  &  Co.,  of  Boston,  their  advertisement  describing 
it  as  "an  Authentic  Portrait  of  Charles  Dickens,  drawn  on  stone  by  S. 
Eytinge,  Jr.,  whose  Illustrations  of  Dickens's  Novels  have  been  so  popular." 
The  late  Mr.  J.  R.  Osgood  did  not  recall  any  sitting  for  the  Portrait, 
but  remembers  that  Eytinge  often  saw  Dickens  while  making  the  drawing. 
The  impression  from  which  the  present  reproduction  was  made  is  particularly 
interesting  on  account  of  the  quotation  from  "A  Christmas  Carol"  in  the 
autograph  of  Dickens. 

LeHt  by  Mr.  Sluart  M.  Samuel. 


,        DICKENS 


















are  respectfully  dedicated 



IN  the  matter  of  pictorial  embellishment,  the  writings  of  Charles 
Dickens  may  be  regarded  as  occupying  a  unique  position.  The 
original  issues  alone  present  a  remarkable  array  of  illustrations ; 
and  when  we  remember  the  innumerable  engravings  specially  prepared 
for  subsequent  editions,  as  well  as  for  independent  publication,  we  are 
fain  to  confess  that,  in  this  respect  at  least,  the  works  of  "  Boz  "  take 
precedence  of  those  of  any  other  novelist.  These  designs,  too,  are  ol 
particular  interest,  inasmuch  as  they  are  representative  of  nearly  every 
branch  of  the  art  of  the  book-illustrator;  both  the  pencil  of  the 
draughtsman  and  the  needle  of  the  etcher  have  been  requisitioned, 
while  the  brush  of  the  painter  has  depicted  for  us  many  striking 
scenes  culled  from  the  pages  of  Dickens. 

The  evolution  of  a  successful  picture,  as  exhibited  by  means  of  pre- 
paratory sketches,  is  eminently  instructive  to  the  student  of  Art.  The 
present  volume  should  therefore  appeal  not  merely  to  the  Dickens 
Collector,  but  to  all  who  appreciate  the  artistic  value  of  tentative  studies 
wrought  for  a  special  purpose.  The  abso\ute/acstmi/es,  here  given  for  the 
first  time,  enable  us  to  obtain  an  insight  into  the  methods  adopted  by  the 
designers  in  developing  their  conceptions,  those  methods  being  further 
manifested  by  the  aid  of  correspondence  which,  happily,  is  still  extant. 

Referring  to  Dickens's  intercourse  with  his  Illustrators,  Forster 
significantly  observes  that  the  artists  certainly  had  not  an  easy  time  with 
him.     The  Novelist's  requirements  were  exacting  even  beyond  what  is 


viii  PREFACE 

ordinary  between  author  and  illustrator ;  for  he  was  apt  (as  he  him- 
self admitted)  "to  build  up  temples  in  his  mind  not  always  makeable 
with  hands."  While  resenting  the  notion  that  Dickens  ever  received 
from  any  artist  "the  inspiration  he  was  always  striving  to  give," 
his  biographer  assures  us  that,  so  far  as  the  illustrations  are  con- 
cerned, he  had  rarely  anything  but  disappointments, — a  declaration 
which  apparently  substantiates  the  statement  (made  on  good  authority) 
that  the  Novelist  would  have  preferred  his  books  to  remain  un- 
adorned by  the  artist's  pencil.  That  the  vast  majority  of  his  readers 
approved  of  such  embellishment  cannot  be  questioned,  for  the  genius 
of  Cruikshank  and  "  Phiz "  has  done  much  to  impart  reality  to  the 
persons  imagined  by  Dickens.  We  are  perhaps  even  more  indebted 
to  the  excellent  illustrations  than  to  the  Author's  descriptions  for 
the  ability  to  realise  the  outward  presentments  of  Pickwick,  Fagin, 
Micawber,  and  a  host  of  other  characters,  simply  because  the  material 
eye  absorbs  impressions  more  readily  than  the  mental  eye. 

That  Dickens's  association  with  his  Illustrators  was  something 
more  than  mere  coadjutorship  is  evidenced  both  in  Forster's  "  Life  " 
and  in  the  published  "  Letters."  From  these  sources  we  derive  much 
information  tending  to  prove  the  existence  of  a  warm  friendship  sub- 
sisting between  Author  and  Artists ;  indeed,  the  latter  (with  two  or 
three  exceptions)  were  privileged  to  enjoy  the  close  personal  intimacy 
of  Dickens  and  his  family  circle.  Recalling  the  fact  that  the  Novelist 
not  unfrequently  availed  himself  of  the  traits  and  idiosyncrasies  of  his 
familiars,  it  seems  somewhat  strange  that  in  the  whole  range  of  his 
creations  we  fail  to  discover  a  single  attempt  at  the  portraiture  of  an 
artist ;  for  those  dilettanti  wielders  of  the  brush.  Miss  La  Creevy  and 
Henry  Gowan,  can  scarcely  be  included  under  that  denomination. 


During  the  earlier  part  of  this  century  the  illustrators  of  books 
seldom,  if  ever,  resorted  to  the  use  of  the  living  model.  Such  experts 
as  Cruikshank,  Seymour,  "Phiz,"  Maclise,  Doyle,  and  Leech  were 
no  exceptions  to  this  rule ;  but  at  the  beginning  of  the  sixties  there 
arose  a  new  "school"  of  designers  and  draughtsmen,  prominent 
among  them  being  Leighton,  Millais,  Walker,  and  Sandys.  Those 
popular  Royal  Academicians,  Mr.  Marcus  Stone  and  Mr.  Luke  Fildes 
(the  illustrators  respectively  of  "Our  Mutual  Friend"  and  "Edwin 
Drood  "),  are  almost  the  only  surviving  members  of  that  confraternity  ; 
they,  however,  speedily  relinquished  black-and-white  Art  in  order  to 
devote  their  attention  to  the  more  fascinating  pursuit  of  painting. 
While  admitting  the  technical  superiority  of  many  of  the  illustrations 
in  the  later  editions  of  Dickens's  works  (such  as  those  by  Frederick 
Barnard  and  Charles  Green),  the  collector  and  bibliophile  claim  for 
the  designs  in  the  original  issue  an  interest  which  is  lacking  in  subse- 
quent editions ;  that  is  to  say,  they  possess  the  charm  of  association 
— a  charm  that  far  outweighs  possible  artistic  defects  and  conventions  ; 
for,  be  it  remembered,  these  designs  were  produced  under  the  direct 
influence  and  authorisation  of  Dickens,  and  by  artists  who  worked 
hand  in  hand  with  the  great  romancer  himself. 

It  is  averred  that  "  Phiz,"  who  rightly  retains  the  premier  position 
among  Dickens's  Illustrators,  placed  very  little  value  upon  his  tenta- 
tive drawings,  which,  as  soon  as  they  had  served  their  purpose,  were 
either  thrown  upon  the  fire  or  given  away  incontinently  to  those  who 
had  the  foresight  to  ask  for  them.  Fortunately,  the  recipients  were  dis- 
criminating enough  to  treasure  these  pencilHngs,  many  of  them  having 
since  been  transferred  to  the  portfolios  of  collectors.  For  the  privilege 
of  reproducing  interesting  examples  I  am  indebted  to  Her  Grace  the 


Duchess  of  St.  Albans,  Mr.  J.  F.  Dexter,  Mr.  M.  H.  Spielmann,  Mr. 
W.  H.  Lever,  Messrs.  Robson  &  Co.,  the  Committee  of  Nottingham 
Castle  Museum,  and  others.  I  am  especially  grateful  to  Mr.  Augustin 
Daly,  of  New  York,  for  so  generously  permitting  me  to  photograph 
the  famous  "  Pickwick  "  drawings  by  Seymour,  together  with  a  hitherto 
unpublished  portrait  of  that  artist.  The  portrait  of  Dickens  forming 
the  frontispiece  to  this  volume  is  reproduced  from  a  unique  impression 
of  a  very  scarce  lithograph  in  the  possession  of  Mr.  Stuart  M.  Samuel. 

In  order  to  give  an  effect  of  continuity  to  my  Notes,  I  have  lightly 
sketched  the  career  of  each  Artist,  introducing  in  chronological 
sequence  the  facts  relating  to  his  designs  for  Dickens.  In  several 
cases,  the  proof-sheets  of  these  chapters  have  been  revised  by  the  re- 
presentatives of  the  Artists  to  whom  they  refer,  and  for  valued  aid  in 
this  direction  my  cordial  thanks  are  due  to  the  Rev.  A.  J.  Buss,  Mr. 
Field  Stanfield,  Mr.  A.  H.  Palmer,  and  Mr.  F.  W.  W.  Topham.  Those 
of  Dickens's  Illustrators  who  are  still  with  us  have  furnished  me  with 
much  information,  and  have  kindly  expressed  their  approval  of  what  I 
have  written  concerning  them.  I  therefore  avail  myself  of  this  oppor- 
tunity of  tendering  my  sincere  thanks,  for  assistance  thus  rendered,  to 
Mr.  Marcus  Stone,  R.A.,  Mr.  Luke  Fildes,  R.A.,  Mr.  W.  P.  Frith,  R. A., 
and  Sir  John  Tenniel,  R.I.,  whose  mark  of  approbation  naturally  im- 
parts a  special  value  to  the  present  record.  I  am  still  further  indebted 
to  Mr.  Stone  and  Mr.  Fildes  for  the  loan  of  a  number  of  their  original 
drawings  and  sketches  for  Dickens,  which  have  not  hitherto  been 

Owing  to  the  circumstance  that  many  of  the  so-called  "  Extra" 
Illustrations  are  now  extremely  rare,  my  list  of  them  could  never 
have  been  compiled  but  for  advantages  afforded  me  by  collectors,  in 


allowing  me  to  have  access  to  their  Dickensiana.  The  kind  offices 
of  Mr.  W.  R.  Hughes,  Mr.  Thomas  Wilson,  Mr.  W.  T.  Pevier, 
and  Mr.  W.  T.  Spencer  are  gratefully  acknowledged  in  this  connec- 
tion, as  well  as  those  of  Mr.  Dudley  Tenney  of  New  York,  who  has 
rendered  me  signal  service  in  respect  of  American  Illustrations. 

To  Forster's  "  Life  of  Dickens "  and  to  the  published  "  Letters"  I 
am  naturally  beholden  for  information  not  otherwise  procurable,  while 
certain  interesting  details  concerning  "  Phiz's  "  drawings  and  etchings 
are  quoted  from  Mr.  D.  C.  Thomson's  •'  Life  and  Labours  of 
Habl6t  K.  Browne,"  which  is  more  extended  in  its  general  scope 
than  my  previously-issued  Memoir  of  the  artist. 

I  am  privileged  to  associate  the  names  of  Miss  Hogarth  and  Mrs. 
Perugini  with  this  account  of  Charles  Dickens  and  his  collaborateurs  i 
to  the  former  I  am  obliged  for  permission  to  print  some  of  the 
Novelist's  correspondence  which  has  never  previously  been  made 
public,  while  the  latter  has  favoured  me  with  the  loan  of  photo- 
graphic portraits.  Finally,  I  must  express  my  indebtedness  for  much 
valuable  aid  to  George  Cattermole's  daughter,  Mrs.  Edward  Franks, 
the  "  cousin "  to  whom  the  Novelist  alluded  in  a  letter  to  her  father 
dated  February  26,  1841,  and  to  whose  "clear  blue  eyes"  he  desired 
to  be  commended. 

F.  G.  KITTON. 

St.  Albans,  SepUmber  1898. 







HABL6t  K.  BROWNE  ("PHIZ") 58 











F.  W.  TOPHAM 189 


LUKE  FILDES,  R-A.  ....               204 



II.  CONCERNING  "EXTRA  ILLUSTRATIONS"      .        .        .        .227 

INDEX 249 



PlaU.  Suhjtct. 

I.  Portrait  of  Charles  Dickens 

X  Portrait  of  GEOftcB  Cruikshank   . 

3.  "Jemima  Evans." — Skitchts  by  Bn 

4.  "  The  Four  Miss  W\\!asK»r—Sk€t<hts  by  Sot 

5.  < '  Thoughts  about  People."— J*//<^^j  fy  Sot 

6.  "  The  Parish  Engine."— i^i«/M«  by  Bon  . 

7.  Studies  for  Scenes  and  Characters. — Sitlches  by  Bat        . 

8.  "  Mr.  Bumble  Degraded  in  the  Eyes  of  the  Paupers."— 

Olivtr  Twisl 

9.  "  Mr.  Claypole  as  he  Appeared  when  his  Master  was 

OvX."— Oliver  Twist 

la     "Oliver  Amazed  at  the  Dodger's  Mode  of  'Going  to 
Work.'  "—Oliver  Twist 

11.  Studies  for  Bill  Sikes,  Nancy,  and  the  Artful  Dodger. — 

Oliver  Twist 

12.  Studies  for  Bill  Sikes  in  the  Condemned  QAX.— Oliver 


13.  Study  for  "  Fagin  in  the  Condemned  CeW."— Oliver  TMst 

14.  First  Idea  for  "  Fagin  in  the  Condemned  Cell "  and  other 

Sketches.— 0/iirr  Twist 

ij.    Portrait  of  Robert  Seymour 

16.  "Mr.  Pickwick  Addresses  ihcO-Mh."— The Pitkwick Papers 

17.  "  The  Pugnacious  Cabman." — Tie  Pickwick  Papers 

18.  "Dr.    Slammer's    Defiance   of  Jingle."— 7X<r   Pickwick 


19.  First  Study  for  "The  Dying  Clown."— 7X<  Pickwick 


aa     "The  Runaway  Chaise."— 7;4f/1rV/Sw* /'o/VrJ     . 

31.     "The   Pickwickians  in   Mr.   Wardle's  Kitchen." — 7X« 

Pickwick  Papers 

28.    Portrait  of  Robert  W.  Buss 

93.     Unused  Design  for  the  Title-Page. —  The  Pickwick  Papers 

24.  "  The  Break-down." — The  Pickwick  Papers    . 

25.  "  A  Souvenir  of  Dickens  " 

26.  Dolly  Varden. — Bamaby  Pudge 

27.  Florence  Dombey  and  Captain  Cuttle. — Dombey  ami  Son 

28.  Portraits  of  Habl6t  K.  Browne  and  Robert  Young  . 

29.  "  A  Sudden  Reci^nition,  Unexpected  on  Both  Sides." — 

Nicholas  Nickleby 

30.  Studies  for  the  Cheeryble  Brothers. — Nicholas  Nickleby  , 

31.  Master   Humphrey  and   the   Deaf  Gentleman. — Master 

Humphreys  Clock 

32.  "The  Dombey  Family." — Dombey  and  Son    . 

33.  "  Paul  and  Mrs.  Pipchin." — Dombey  and  Son , 

34.  "  Mr.  Peggott/s  Dream  comes  True." — David  Copperfitld 

35.  "  Mr.  Chadband  '  Improving'  a  Tough  Subject." — Bleak 

ffoMse      .        .        ,        ,        


Sou  Eytinoe,  Junr. 


G.  Cruikshank 

R.  Seymour 

R.  W,  Buss 

From  Photographs 

H.  K.  Browne 

Fating  page  I 



















No.  of 

Plate.  Subject.  Artist. 

36.  Dolly  \3.r6en.—Bamaby  Rudge H.  K.  Brownb      .  Facing  page  98 

37.  Miss  Haredale. — Barnaby  Rudge 1,  ...           ,,         IIO 

38.  Portrait  of  George  Cattkrmole From  a  Photograph  ...         „        121 

39.  qxi^^H'Wa2sl— The  Old  Curiosity  Shop .        .        .        .        G.  Cattermolk  ...          „        124 

40.  The  Death-bed  of  Little  Nell  (Two  Studies).— 7:4«  Old 

Curiosity  Shop n  ...           ,,        126 

41.  The    Night   Watchman    and    The   "Maypole"   Inn. — 

Barnaby  Rudge ,1  ...          ,,         130 

42.  The  Murder  at  the  Warren.— .ffarxa^y  A'«(i^< .        .        .  „  132 

43.  Portrait  of  John  Leech Sir  J.  E.  Millais,  P.R.A.  ...         „        138 

44.  "  Richard  and  Margaret."— 7X/!  CAjWj.        .        .        .              J.  Leech  ...          „        140 

45.  "John,  Dot,  and  Tilly  Slowboy."— T^A*  Cricket  on  the 

Hearth „  ...          „         142 

46.  "CaXehafWoiW— The  Criciei  on  the //earth       .        .                    „  ...          „        144 

47.  '•  The  Tetteihys."— The  ffaunteJ  JIfan   ....                     „  ...          „        146 

SFrom  a  Photc^raph,  and  ) 
from  the  Painting  by  > 149 
E.  M.  Ward,  R.A.       ) 
49.     Portraits  of  Clarkson  Stanfield,  R.A.,  and  FRANK 

Stone,  A.R.A. From  Photographs  ...          „        153 

JO.     "Vfai"  &nd"VeAce."— The  Battle  o/Lt/e      .        .        .     C  Stanfibld,  R.A.  ...          „        156 

51.  "The  Tower  of  the  Chimes"  and  "The  Spirit  of  the 

Chimes."— 7X«  Chimes D.  Maclisb,  R.A.  ...         ,,        162 

52.  "Milly  and  theOld  Man."— 7'A«.fla«n/«rfiJ/o«     .        .       F.  Stonk,  A.R.A.  ...          „        176 

,„,  ...  «.        ,««  (  From  a  Photograph,  and  ) 

53.  Portraits  of  Sir  John  Tknniei,  R.I..  and  Sir  Edwin       ^^^  ^^^  ^^^J^  ^g^ 

LANDSEER.R.A I     Sir  F.  Grant.  P.R.A.) 

54.  Portraits  of  F.  W.  TOPHAM  and  Samuel  Palmer .        .       From  Photographs  ...          ,,        182 

55.  "  The  Villa  D'Este."—/'iV/«>-« /roOT //*&'      .        .        .  S.  Palmer  186 

56.  Portrait  of  Marcus  Stone,  R.A. From  a  Photograph      193 

57.  Studies  for  "Mr.  Venus  Surrounded  by  the  Trophies  of 

his  Alt"— Our  Afutua I  Friend       ....    Marcus  Stonb,  R.A 194 

58.  Monsieur  Defarge  and  Doctor  Manette. — A  Tale  of  Two 

Cities „  ...          „        196 

59.  "  Black  and  White." — American  Notes   ....                     „  ...          „        198 

60.  "Taking  Leave  of  Joe." — Great  Expectations         .        .                     ,,  ...          „        200 

61.  Portrait  of  Luke  FiLDES,  R.A. From  a  Photograph      204 

62.  Study  for  the  Head  of  Neville  Landless. — The  Mystery  of 

Edwin  Drood .        .                L.  FiLDBS,  R.A.  ...          „        ao6 

63.  Studies  for  Edwin  Drood. — The  Mystery  of  Edwin  Drood                    „  ...          „        208 

64.  Studies  for  Mr.  Jasper. — The  Mystery  of  Edwin  Drood  .                     „  ...          „        210 

65.  Study  for  "  Good-bye,  Rosebud,  Darling." — Th*  Mystery 

of  Edwin  Drood „  ...          „        2t2 

66.  Study  for  Mr.  Grewgious. — The  Mystery  of  Edwin  Drood                    ,,  ...          „        214 

67.  Do.                do.                        do.                  do.                                „  ...          ,,        216 

68.  Portraits  of  Alfred  Crowquill  (A.  H.  Forrester)  and 

Frederick  Barnard,  R.I From  Photographs  ...         „        228 

69.  PortraitsofF.W.  Pailthorpe  and  Charles  Green,  R.I.                 ,,  ...         „       232 

The  Frontispiece  Portrait  of  Charles  Dickens  was  photo-engraved  by  Mr.  E.  Gilbert  Hester,  and  tht 
Collotype  Plates  were  prepared  and  printed  by  Mr.  James  H^att, 


Plate  II 


From  the  Lithograph  by 

This  Portrait  is  a  reproduction  of  a  proof  impression,  showing  the  retouch- 
ing by  Cruikshank  himself. 




First  Start  in  Life— Early  Productions— "  Sketches  by  Boz"— Introduction  to  Dickens — 
First  and  Second  Series  of  the  "  Sketches  "—Extra  Plates— Additional  Designs  for  the 
Complete  Edition — Portraiture  of  Artist  and  Author — Historic  Value  of  Cruikshank's 
Illustrations— Some  Slight  Inaccuracies— Frontispiece  of  the  First  Cheap  Edition— Tenta- 
tive Sketches  and  Unused  Designs—"  Oliver  Twist  "—Incongruities  Detected  in  a  Few 
of  the  Plates— Thackeray's  Eulogium — Working  Tracings  and  Water-Colour  Replicas — 
Trial  Sketches— A  Note  from  Cruikshank  to  Dickens— Sketches  of  Bill  Sikes  in  the 
Condemned  Cell— How  the  Design  for  "Fagin  in  the  Condemned  Cell"  was  Conceived 
— A  Criticism  by  Raskin — The  Cancelled  Plate — Cruikshank's  Claim  to  the  Origin  of 
"Oliver  Twist" — Designs  for  Dickens's  Minor  Writings  in  Bentley's  Miscellany — 
"The  Lamplighter's  Story"— Cruikshank's  Last  Illustration  for  Dickens — "Frauds  on  the 
Fairies  " — The  Artist's  Remuneration — Death. 

TH  E  name  of  George  Cruikshank,  which  stands  first  in  the  long 
and  imposing  list  of  Dickens  Illustrators,  is  familiar  to  every 
one  as  that  of  a  pencil  humorist  of  no  common  calibre, 
whose  genius  as  a  designer  and  whose  marvellous  skill  as  an 
etcher  have  evoked  enthusiastic  praise  from  John  Ruskin  and  other 
eminent  critics.  He  undoubtedly  inherited  his  artistic  talent  from 
his  father,  who  was  not  only  an  etcher  and  engraver,  but  (as 
George  himself  has  recorded)  "a  first-rate  water-colour  draughts- 
man." So  experienced  an  artist  was  therefore  thoroughly  capable  of 
training  his  sons,  George  and  Isaac  Robert,  for  the  same  profession. 

Like  most  boys,  George  dreamt  of  the  sea,  aspiring  to  become 
a  second  Captain  Cook ;  but,  happily,  the  death  of  his  father  com- 
pelled him  to  take  up  seriously  the  work  of  designing,  in  order  that 
he  might  assist  in  maintaining  his  mother  and  sister.     His  first  start 


in  life  originated  in  a  publisher  seeing  some  of  his  sketches,  which 
indicated  such  unusual  talent  that  he  was  immediately  engaged  to 
illustrate  children's  books,  songs,  and  other  cheap  literature  peculiar 
to  the  period.  Then  the  young  artist  essayed  the  more  profitable 
arena  of  political  caricaturing,  distinctly  making  his  mark  as  a  satirist. 
Realising  at  this  time  his  imperfections  as  a  draughtsman,  he  deter- 
mined to  acquire  the  art  of  drawing  with  correctness,  entering  the 
Royal  Academy  as  a  student ;  but,  finding  it  difficult  to  work  on 
pedantic  lines,  his  resolution  soon  waned,  and,  after  one  course  of 
study,  he  left  the  place  for  a  short  interval  of — forty  years !  Although 
he  never  became  the  learned  artist,  nor  was  able  to  draw  with 
academic  accuracy,  he  wielded  his  pencil  with  a  facility  and  vigour 
that  delighted  all  beholders,  and  this  deftness,  combined  with  a 
remarkable  sense  of  humour  and  satire,  speedily  brought  him  com- 
missions from  every  quarter. 

It  was  as  a  book-illustrator  that  George  Cruikshank  undoubtedly 
excelled,  and  some  idea  of  his  industry  in  this  direction  (during  a 
period  of  eighty  years  of  his  busy  life)  may  be  obtained  from  G.  C. 
Reid's  comprehensive  catalogue  of  his  works,  where  we  find  enume- 
rated more  than  five  thousand  illustrations  on  paper,  wood,  copper, 
and  steel.  This,  however,  by  no  means  exhausts  the  list,  for  the 
artist  survived  the  publication  of  the  catalogue  several  years,  and  was 
"  in  harness  "  to  the  end  of  his  long  career.  If  the  works  described 
by  Mr.  Reid  be  supplemented  by  the  profusion  of  original  sketches 
and  ideas  for  his  finished  designs,  the  number  of  Cruikshank's  pro- 
ductions may  be  estimated  at  about  fifteen  thousand ! 

Before  his  introduction  to  Charles  Dickens  in  1836,  the  versatile 
artist  had  adorned  several  volumes,  which,  but  for  his  striking  illus- 
trations, would  probably  have  enjoyed  but  a  brief  popularity.  His 
etchings  and  drawings  on  wood  are  invariably  executed  in  an  ex- 
ceedingly delicate  manner,  at  the  same  time  preserving  a  breadth  of 
effect  unequalled  by  any  aquafortiste  of  his  day.  "Only  those  who 
know  the  difficulties  of  etching,"  observes  Mr.  P.  G.  Hamerton,  "can 


appreciate  the  power  that  lies  behind  his  unpretending  skill ;   there 
is  never,  in  his  most  admirable  plates,  the  trace  of  a  vain  effort." 

Dickens's  clever  descriptions  of  "every-day  life  and   every-day 
people"  were  originally  printed  in  the  Monthly  Maga- 
,      Rr>  '^''*^'  ^^  Evening  Chronicle  and  the  Morning  Chronicle, 

jO-__-^  Bell's  Life  in  London,  and  "The  Library  of  Fiction," 
and  subsequently  appeared  in  a  collected  form  under 
the  general  title  of  "Sketches  by  Bo?."  Early  in  1836  Dickens  sold 
the  entire  copyright  of  the  "  Sketches  "  to  John  Macrone,  of  St.  James's 
Square,  who  published  a  selection  therefrom  in  two  duodecimo  volumes, 
with  illustrations  by  George  Cruikshank.  It  was  at  this  time  that 
Charles  Dickens  first  met  the  artist,  who  was  his  senior  by  about 
a  score  of  years,  and  already  in  the  enjoyment  of  an  established 
reputation  as  a  book-illustrator.-  That  the  youthful  author,  as  well 
as  his  publisher,  realised  the  value  of  Cruikshank's  co-operation 
is  manifested  in  the  Preface  to  the  "  Sketches,"  where  Dickens, 
after  appropriately  comparing  the  issue  of  his  first  book  to  the 
launching  of  a  pilot  balloon,  observes :  "  Unlike  the  generality  of 
pilot  balloons  which  carry  no  car,  in  this  one  it  is  very  possible  for  a 
man  to  embark,  not  only  himself,  but  all  his  hopes  of  future  fame,  and 
all  his  chances  of  future  success.  Entertaining  no  inconsiderable  feeling 
of  trepidation  at  the  idea  of  making  so  perilous  a  voyage  in  so  frail  a 
machine,  alone  and  unaccompanied,  the  author  was  naturally  desirous 
to  secure  the  assistance  and  companionship  of  some  well-known  in- 
dividual, who  had  frequently  contributed  to  the  success,  though  his 
well-known  reputation  rendered  it  impossible  for  him  ever  to  have 
shared  the  hazard,  of  similar  undertakings.  To  whom,  as  possessing 
this  requisite  in  an  eminent  degree,  could  he  apply  but  to  George 
Cruikshank  .''  The  application  was  readily  heard  and  at  once  acceded 
to ;  this  is  their  first  voyage  in  company,  but  it  may  not  be  the 
last"  Each  of  the  two  volumes  contains  eight  illustrations,  and  it 
may  justly  be  said  of  these  little  vignettes  that  they  are  among  the 


artist's  most  successful  efforts  with  the  needle.  Although  highly 
popular  from  the  beginning,  the  "  Sketches  "  were  now  received  with 
even  greater  fervour,  and  several  editions  were  speedily  called  for. 
As  the  late  Mr.  G.  A.  Sala  contended,  the  coadjutorship  of  so  ex- 
perienced a  draughtsman  as  George  Cruikshank,  who  knew  London 
and  London  life  "better  than  the  majority  of  Sunday-school  children 
know  their  Catechism,"  was  of  real  importance  to  the  young  reporter 
of  the  Morning  Chronicle,  with  whose  baptismal  name  (be  it  re- 
membered) his  readers  and  admirers  were  as  yet  unacquainted. 

During  the  following  year  (1837)  Macrone  published  a  Second 
Series  of  the  "  Sketches  "  in  one  volume,  uniform  in  size  and  character 
with  its  predecessors,  and  containing  ten  etchings  by  Cruikshank  ;  for 
the  second  edition  of  this  extra  volume  two  additional  illustrations  were 
done,  viz.,  "The  Last  Cab-Driver"  and  "May-day  in  the  Evening."' 
It  was  at  this  time  that  Dickens  repurchased  from  Macrone  the  entire 
copyright  of  the  "Sketches,"  and  arranged  with  Chapman  &  Hall 
for  a  complete  edition,  to  be  issued  in  shilling  monthly  parts,  octavo 
size,  the  first  number  appearing  in  November  of  that  year.  The 
completed  work  contained  all  the  Cruikshank  plates  (except  that 
entitled  "  The  Free  and  Easy,"  which,  for  some  unexplained  reason, 
was  cancelled)  and  the  following  new  subjects :  "  The  Parish  Engine," 
"The  Broker's  Man,"  "Our  Next-door  Neighbours,"  "Early  Coaches," 
"Public  Dinners,"  "The  Gin-Shop,"  "Making  a  Night  of  It,"  "The 
Boarding-House,"  "The  Tuggses  at  Ramsgate,"  "The  Steam  Ex- 
cursion," "  Mrs.  Joseph  Porter,"  and  "  Mr.  Watkins  Tottle." 

Cruikshank  also  produced  a  design  for  the  pink  wrapper  enclosing 
each  of  the  twenty  monthly  parts ;  this  was  engraved  on  wood  by 
John  Jackson,  the  original  drawing  (adapted  from  one  the  artist 
had  previously  made  for  Macrone)  being  now  in  the  possession  of 
Mr.  William  Wright,  of  Paris.      The  subject  of  the  frontispiece  is 

'  A  set  of  the  twenty-eight  etchings,  proofs  before  letters  (First  and  Second  Series), 
realised  ^^30  at  Sotheby's  in  1889.  Lithographic  replicas  of  the  plates  in  the  Second  Series 
were  published  in  Calcutta  in  1837. 

Plate  III 


Facsimile  of  Unused  Designs  for  ' '  Sketches  by  Boz  "  by 

■rilyjAii-  A*«'«^*'   **^  ^<*»t.  t4»4x^ 



(A«.>-«v>-<^        t^»»V«--^ 


!      \ 

:  '!] 


ij  juJ^i^  L-L  no"^ 



the  same  as  that  of  the  title-page  in  the  Second  Series.  The  altera- 
tion in  the  size  of  the  illustrations  for  this  cheap  edition  necessitated 
larger  plates,  so  that  the  artist  was  compelled  to  re-etch  his  designs. 
These  reproductions,  although  on  an  extended  scale,  were  executed 
with  even  a  greater  degree  of  finish,  and  contain  more  "colour" 
than  those  in  the  first  issue ;  but  the  general  treatment  of  the  smaller 
etchings  is  more  pleasing  by  reason  of  the  superior  freedom  of  line 
therein  displayed.  As  might  be  anticipated,  a  comparison  of  the 
two  sets  of  illustrations  discloses  certain  slight  variations,  which  are 
especially  noticeable  in  the  following  plates :  "  Greenwich  Fair ; " 
musicians  and  male  dancer  added  on  left.  "  Election  for  Beadle ; " 
three  more  children  belonging  to  Mr.  Bung's  family  on  right,  and 
two  more  of  Mr.  Spruggins's  family  on  left,  thus  making  up  the  full 
complement  in  each  case.  "The  First  of  May"  (originally  entitled 
"  May-day  in  the  Evening ") ;  the  drummer  on  the  left,  in  the 
first  edition,  looks  straight  before  him,  while  in  the  octavo  edition 
he  turns  his  face  towards  the  girl  with  the  parasol.  "  London 
Recreations ; "  in  the  larger  design  the  small  child  on  the  right 
is  stooping  to  reach  a  ball,  which  is  not  shown  in  the  earlier 
Additional  interest  is  imparted  to  some  of  the  etchings  in 
"  Sketches  by  Boz "  owing  to  the  introduction  by  the  artist  of 
portraits  of  Charles  Dickens  and  himself,  there  being  no  less  than 
five  delineations  of  the  face  and  figure  of  the  youthful  "  Boz  "  as  he 
then  appeared.  In  the  title-page  of  the  Second  Series  (as  well  as 
in  the  reproduction  of  it  in  the  octavo  edition),  the  identity  of  the 
two  individuals  waving  flags  in  the  car  of  the  balloon  has  been 
pointed  out  by  Cruikshank,  who  wrote  on  the  original  pencil-sketch, 
"  The  parties  going  up  in  the  balloon  are  intended  for  the  author  and 
the  artist," — which  may  be  considered  a  necessary  explanation,  as 
the  likenesses  are  not  very  apparent. 

In  the   plates   entitled    "Early   Coaches,"    "A    Pickpocket    in 
Custody,"  and   "  Making  a  Night  of  It,"   Cruikshank  has  similarly 


attempted  to  portray  his  own  lineaments  and  those  of  Dickens ;  he 
was  more  successful,  however,  in  the  illustration  to  "  Public  Dinners," 
where  the  presentments  of  himself  and  the  novelist,  as  stewards 
carrying  official  wands,  are  more  life-like.  There  exist,  by  the  way, 
several  seriously-attempted  portraits  of  Dickens  by  Cruikshank,  con- 
cerning the  earliest  of  which  it  is  related  that  author  and  artist  were 
members  of  a  club  of  literary  men  known  during  its  brief  existence  as 
"  The  Hook  and  Eye  Club,"  and  that  at  one  of  their  nightly  meetings 
Dickens  was  seated  in  an  arm-chair  conversing,  when  Cruikshank 
exclaimed,  "Sit  still,  Charley,  while  I  take  your  portrait!"  This 
impromptu  sketch,  now  the  property  of  Colonel  Hamilton,  has  been 
etched  by  F.  W.  Pailthorpe,  and  a  similar  drawing  is  included  in 
the  Cruikshank  Collection  at  South  Kensington.  Among  other  con- 
temporary portrait-studies  (executed  in  pencil  and  slightly  tinted  in 
colour)  is  one  bearing  the  following  inscription  in  the  artist's  autograph  : 
"Charles  Dickens,  Author  of  Sketches  by  Boz,  the  Pickwick  Papers, 
&c.,  &c.,  &c.," — an  admission  that  seems  to  dispose  of  Cruikshank's 
subsequent  claim  to  the  authorship  of  "  Pickwick." 

It  has  been  remarked  that  Cruikshank  was  so  accurate  in  the 
rendering  of  details  that  future  antiquaries  will  rely  upon  his  plates 
as  authoritative  in  matters  of  architecture,  costume,  &c.  For  example, 
in  the  etching  of  "  The  Last  Cab-Driver,"  he  has  depicted  an  obsolete 
form  of  cabriolet,  the  driver  being  seated  over  the  right  wheel;  and 
in  that  of  "The  Parish  Engine"  we  may  discover  what  kind  of 
public  fire-extinguisher  was  then  in  use — a  very  primitive  implement 
in  comparison  with  the  modern  "steamer."  In  the  latter  plate,  by 
the  way,  we  behold  the  typical  beadle  of  the  period,  who  after- 
wards figured  as  Bumble  in  "  Oliver  Twist."  Apropos  of  this 
etching,  Mr.  Frederick  Wedmore  points  out  (in  Temple  Bar,  April 
1878)  that  it  is  "an  excellent  example  of  Cruikshank's  eye  for  pictur- 
esque line  and  texture  in  some  of  the  commonest  objects  that  met 
him  in  his  walks  :  the  brickwork  of  the  house,  for  instance,  prettily 
indicated,  the  woodwork  of  the  outside  shutters,  and  the  window,  on 

Plate  IV 


Facsimilt  of  an  Unused  Design  for  "  Sketches  by  Boi "  by 


4/.'   V"  -s-  >^- 

\.  •  ^ 

-^  \ 



^<.   "■,>    -.   IV-*'*  •    ■ 



which  various  lights  are  pleasantly  broken.  I  know  no  artist,"  he 
continues,  "  so  alive  as  Cruikshank  to  the  pretty  sedateness  of  Georgian 
architecture.  Then,  too,  there  is  the  girl  with  basket  on  arm,  a  figure 
not  quite  ungraceful  in  line  and  gesture.  She  might  have  been  much 
better  if  Cruikshank  had  ever  made  himself  that  accurate  draughtsman 
of  the  figure  which  he  hardly  essayed  to  be,  and  she  and  all  her 
fellows — it  is  only  fair  to  remember — might  have  been  better,  again, 
had  the  artist  who  designed  her  done  his  finest  work  in  a  happier 
period  of  English  dre^s."  Mr.  Wedmore  alludes  to  another  etching 
in  "  Sketches  by  Boz  "  as  being  "  perhaps  the  best  of  all  in  Cruikshank 
as  proof  of  that  sensitive  eye  for  what  is  picturesque  and  character- 
istic in  every-day  London.  It  is  called  'The  Streets,  Morning,'  the 
design  somewhat  empty  of  'subject,'  only  a  comfortable  sweep  who 
does  not  go  up  the  chimney,  and  a  wretched  boy  who  does,  are 
standing  at  a  stall  taking  coffee,  which  a  woman,  with  pattens  striking 
on  pavement  and  head  tied  up  close  in  a  handkerchief,  serves  to  the 
scanty  comers  in  the  early  morning  light.  A  lamp-post  rises  behind 
her ;  the  closed  shutters  of  the  baker  are  opposite ;  the  public-house 
of  the  Rising  Sun  has  not  yet  opened  its  doors ;  at  some  house-corner 
further  off  a  solitary  figure  lounges  homeless ;  beyond,  pleasant  light 
morning  shadows  cross  the  cool  grey  of  the  untrodden  street ;  a 
church  tower  and  spire  rise  in  the  delicate  distance,  where  the  turn 
of  the  road  hides  the  further  habitations  of  the  sleeping  town." 

It  may  be  hypercritical  to  resent,  on  the  score  of  inaccuracy,  an 
occasional  oversight  on  the  part  of  Cruikshank ;  but  it  is  nevertheless 
interesting  to  note  that  in  the  plate  entitled  "  Election  for  Beadle," 
Cruikshank  has  omitted  from  the  inscription  on  Spruggins's  placard 
a  reference  to  "the  twins,"  the  introduction  of  which  caused  that 
candidate  to  become  temporarily  a  favourite  with  the  electors ;  in 
"Horatio  Sparkins,"  the  "dropsical"  figure  of  seven  (see  label  on 
right)  is  followed  by  a  little  "id."  instead  of  the  diminutive  "|d." 
mentioned  in  the  text ;  in  "  The  Pawnbroker's  Shop "  it  will  be 
observed  that  the  words  "  Money  Lent "  on  the  glass  door  should 


appear  reversed,  so  as  to  be  read  from  the  outside;  while  in  the 
etching  illustrating  "Private  Theatres,"  the  artist  has  forgotten  to 
include  the  "two  dirty  men  with  the  corked  countenances,"  who  are 
specially  referred  to  in  the  "Sketch." 

The  first  cheap  edition  of  "  Sketches  by  Boz,"  issued  by  Chapman 
&  Hall  in  1850,  contained  a  new  frontispiece,  drawn  on  wood  by 
Cruikshank,  representing  Mr.  Gabriel  Parsons  being  released  from 
the  kitchen  chimney, — an  incident  in  "  Passage  in  the  Life  of 
Mr.  Watkins  Tottle." 

George  Cruikshank  not  unfrequently  essayed  several  "trial" 
designs  before  he  succeeded  in  realising  to  his  satisfaction  the  subject 
he  aimed  at  portraying.  Some  of  these  are  extremely  slight  pencil 
notes — "first  ideas,"  hastily  made  as  soon  as  conceived — while  others 
were  subjected  to  greater  elaboration,  and  differing  but  slightly, 
perhaps,  from  the  etchings  ;  on  certain  drawings  are  marginal  memo- 
randa— such  as  studies  of  heads,  expressions,  and  attitudes — which 
are  valuable  as  showing  how  the  finished  pictures  were  evolved. 
The  majority  of  the  designs  are  executed  in  pencil,  while  a  few  are 
drawn  with  pen-and-ink ;  occasionally  one  may  meet  with  a  sketch 
in  which  the  effect  is  broadly  washed  in  with  sepia  or  indian-ink,  and, 
more  rarely  still,  with  a  drawing  charmingly  and  delicately  wrought 
in  water-colours.  Besides  original  sketches,  the  collection  at  the 
South  Kensington  Museum  contains  a  series  of  working  tracings,  by 
means  of  which  the  artist  transferred  his  subjects  to  the  plates. 
There  are  no  less  than  three  different  suggestions  for  the  frontispiece 
of  the  first  cheap  edition  of  "  Sketches  by  Boz,"  together  with  various 
renderings  of  the  design  for  the  wrapper  of  the  first  complete  edition, 
in  which  the  word  "Boz"  in  the  title  constitutes  a  conspicuous  feature, 
being  formed  of  the  three  letters  superimposed,  while  disposed  about 
them  are  several  of  the  prominent  characters.  Probably  the  most 
interesting  in  this  collection  is  a  sheet  of  slight  sketches  signed  by 
the  artist,  although  they  are  merely  tentative  jottings  for  his 
etchings.     One  of  these  pencillings  (an  unused  subject)  represents  a 


Plate  V 


Faaimile  of  an  Unused  Design  for  "  Sketches  by  Boz  "  by 

V  :n7..T'f 
"aj<?oai  TtJoaA  2thouoht" 

■:.:        ,  :jro  30»fono 


\  ttrx-,.    LU         t  t^.f       !4.  cM* 






man  proposing  a  toast  at  a  dinner-table,  doubtless  intended  as  an 
illustration  for  "Public  Dinners";  and  here,  too,  are  marginal  studies 
of  heads — including  one  of  a  Bill  Sikes  type — together  with  a  signifi- 
cant note  (apparently  of  a  later  date)  in  the  autograph  of  Cruikshank, 
which  reads  thus :  "  Some  of  these  suggestions  to  Chas.  Dickens, 
and  which  he  wrote  to  in  the  second  part  of  '  Sketches  by  Boz ' ! " 

A  large  number  of  studies  for  "  Sketches  by  Boz  "  may  also  be 
seen  in  the  Print  Room  of  the  British  Museum,  many  of  which  are 
very  slight.  In  some  instances  we  find  the  same  subject  rendered 
in  different  ways,  and  it  is  worthy  of  note  that  a  few  of  these 
designs  were  never  etched ;  among  the  most  remarkable  of  the 
unused  sketches  is  a  rough  drawing  for  the  wrapper  of  the  monthly 
parts  (octavo  edition),  with  ostensible  portraits  of  author  and  artist 
introduced.  This  collection  includes  "first  ideas"  for  "Thoughts 
about  People,"  "Hackney  Coaches,"  "The  Broker's  Man,"  &c.,  and 
a  careful  examination  shows  that  the  sketches  for  the  plates  illus- 
trating "  Seven  Dials "  and  "  The  Pickpocket  in  Custody "  are 
entitled  by  the  artist  "  Fight  of  the  Amazons "  and  "  The  Hospital 
Patient"  respectively.  In  one  of  the  trial  sketches  for  "The  Last 
Cabman,"  the  horse  is  represented  as  having  fallen  to  the  ground, 
the  passenger  being  violently  ejected  from  the  vehicle. 

On  August  22,   1836,  Charles   Dickens  entered   into  an  agree- 
ment    with    Richard    Bentley    to    edit   a  new    monthly 
q^    ,  magazine  called  Bentley  s  Miscellany,  and  to  furnish  that 

18^7-^0.      periodical  with  a  serial  tale.     George  Cruikshank's  ser- 
vices as  illustrator  were  also  retained,  and  his  design  for 
the  wrapper  inspired  Maginn  to  indite,  for  "The  Bentley  Ballads," 
the    "Song    of    the    Cover,"    whence    this    characteristic    verse    is 
quoted : — 

"  Bentley,  Boz,  and  Cruikshank  stand 
Like  expectant  reelers ; 
'  Music ! '  '  Play  up ! '  pipe  in  hand 
Beside  \h&  fluted  pillars 


Boz  and  Cruikshank  want  to  dance, — 

None  for  frolic  riper ; 
But  Bentley  makes  the  first  advance, 

Because  he  pays  the  piper." 

The  first  number  of  the  Miscellany  was  issued  in  January  1837, 
and  in  February  appeared  the  initial  chapter  of  the  editor's  story, 
entitled  "Oliver  Twist,  or,  the  Parish  Boy's  Progress,"  which  was 
continued  in  succeeding  numbers  until  its  completion  in  March  1839, 
with  etchings  by  Cruikshank. 

The  dramatic  character  of  this  stirring  romance  of  low  London 
life  afforded  the  artist  unusual  scope  for  the  display  of  his  talent ; 
indeed,  his  powerful  pencil  was  far  more  suited  to  the  theme  than 
that  of  any  of  his  contemporaries.  The  principal  scenes  in  the 
novel  proved  most  attractive  to  him,  and  he  fairly  revelled  in  de- 
lineating the  tragic  episodes  associated  with  the  career  of  Fagin  and 
Sikes.  These  twenty-four  etchings  are  on  the  same  scale  as  those 
in  the  first  collected  edition  of  the  "  Sketches,"  but  they  are  broader 
and  more  effective  in  treatment.  In  October  1838, — that  is,  about 
five  months  before  completion  in  the  Miscellany, — the  entire  story 
was  issued  by  Chapman  &  Hall  in  three  volumes  post  octavo,  and 
there  can  be  no  doubt  that  its  remarkable  success  was  brought  about 
in  no  small  meeisure  by  Cruikshank's  inimitable  pictures.  Nearly 
eight  years  later  (in  January  1846)  a  cheaper  edition,  containing 
all  the  illustrations,  was  commenced  in  ten  monthly  parts,  demy 
octavo,  and  subsequently  published  in  one  volume  by  Bradbury  & 
Evans.  On  the  cover  for  the  monthly  numbers  Cruikshank  has 
portrayed  eleven  of  the  leading  incidents  in  the  story,  some  of  the 
subjects  being  entirely  new,  while  others  are  practically  a  repetition 
of  the  etched  designs.  The  plates  in  this  edition,  having  suffered 
from  previous  wear-and-tear,  were  subjected  to  a  general  touching- 
up,  as  a  comparison  with  the  earlier  issue  clearly  indicates,  such 
reparation  (carried  out  by  jui  engraver  named  Findlay,  much  to 
Cruikshank's  annoyance)  being  especially  noticeable  in  cases  where 


Plate  VI 


FattimiU  of  the  Original  Drawing  for  the  First  Octavo  Edition  of 
"Sketches  by  Bor"  by 


•  )C*.  I*  U-^^    t^i     1^9^'  ' 










l^  Li-^k 










"tones"  have  been  added  to  wall-backgrounds  and  other  parts  of 
the  designs.  Apart  from  actual  proof  impressions,  the  "Oliver 
Twist"  etchings  are  naturally  to  be  found  in  their  best  state  in 
BentUys  Miscellany,  where  they  are  seen  in  their  pristine  beauty. 
In  some  of  the  plates  it  will  be  observed  that  Cruikshank  has  intro- 
duced "  roulette "  (or  dotted)  work  with  excellent  effect,  although, 
of  course,  this  disqualifies  them  as  examples  of  pure  etching.  The 
first  cheap  edition  of  "Oliver  Twist,"  issued  in  1850  by  Chapman 
&  Hall,  contains  a  frontispiece  only  by  George  Cruikshank,  repre- 
senting Mr.  Bumble  and  Oliver  in  Mrs.  Mann's  parlour,  as  described 
in  the  second  chapter. 

It  has  been  said  that  Cruikshank  could  not  draw  a  pretty  woman. 
At  any  rate,  he  neglected  his  opportunity  in  "  Oliver  Twist,"  for  he 
fails  in  so  depicting  Rose  Maylie,  while  his  portrayal  of  Nancy  is  par- 
ticularly ugly  and  repelling,  whereas  she  certainly  possessed  physical 
charms  not  unfrequently  found  in  women  of  her  class.  Although  the 
artist  has  imparted  too  venerable  an  appearance  to  the  Artful  Dodger, 
he  hcis  seized  in  a  wonderful  manner  the  characteristics  of  criminal 
types  in  his  rendering  of  Fagin  and  Bill  Sikes.  In  many  of  Cruik- 
shank's  etchings  the  accessories  are  very  dpropos,  and  sometimes  not 
without  a  touch  of  quiet  humour.  For  example,  in  the  plate  repre- 
senting Oliver  recovering  from  the  fever,  there  is  seen  over  the 
chimney-piece  a  picture  of  the  Good  Samaritan,  in  allusion  to  Mr. 
Brownlow's  benevolent  intentions  with  respect  to  the  invalid  orphan ; 
while  in  that  depicting  Mr.  Bumble  and  Mrs.  Comey  taking  tea, 
may  be  noticed  the  significant  figure  of  Paul  Pry  on  the  mantel- 
shelf. Some  of  the  designs  are  marked  by  slight  incongruities,  which, 
however,  do  not  detract  from  their  interest.  In  the  etching  "  Oliver 
Plucks  up  a  Spirit,"  it  will  be  observed  that  the  small  round  table 
which  the  persecuted  lad  overthrows  during  his  desperate  attack 
upon  Noah  Claypole  could  not  possibly  assume,  by  such  accidental 
means,  the  inverted  position  as  here  shown.  In  the  plate  entitled 
"The  Evidence  Destroyed,"  the  lantern  (according  to  the  text)  should 


have  been  lowered  into  the  dark  well,  but  doubtless  the  error  was 
intentional  on  the  part  of  the  artist,  in  order  to  secure  effect;  in 
"  Mr.  Fagin  and  his  Pupil  Recovering  Nancy,"  the  girl  is  represented 
as  being  exceedingly  robust,  whereas  she  was  really  "so  reduced  with 
watching  and  privation  as  hardly  to  be  recognised  as  the  same  Nancy." 
Again,  in  the  illustration  depicting  Sikes  attempting  to  destroy  his 
dog,  we  see  in  the  distance  the  dome  of  St.  Paul's,  while,  as  a  matter 
of  fact,  the  desperate  ruffian  had  not  reached  a  point  so  near  the 
metropolis  when  he  thought  of  drowning  the  faithful  animal.*  In 
"The  Last  Chance,"  where  the  robber  contemplates  dropping  from 
the  roof  of  Fagin's  house  to  escape  his  pursuers,  the  rope  (described 
in  the  letterpress  as  being  thirty-four  feet  long)  is  barely  half  that 
length,  and  could  never  have  extended  to  the  ground ;  while  the  dog, 
who  lay  concealed  until  his  master  had  tumbled  off  the  parapet,  must 
have  been  distinctly  visible  to  all  observers  if  he  stood  so  promi- 
nently on  the  ridge-tiles  as  here  indicated.  The  latter  etching  is  one 
of  the  most  fascinating  of  the  series,  for  here  Cruikshank  has  realised 
every  feature  of  the  dramatic  scene, — the  harassed  expression  on 
the  evil  face  of  the  hunted  criminal,  the  squalid  tenements  half 
shrouded  by  approaching  darkness,  the  excitement  of  the  people 
crowding  the  windows  of  the  opposite  houses  ;  indeed,  the  tragic 
and  repulsive  element  in  the  picture  constitutes  a  remarkable  effort 
on  the  part  of  the  artist. 

In  considering  the  story  as  a  whole,  it  is  difHcult  to  say  how 
much  of  the  powerful  impression  we  are  conscious  of  may  be  due  to 
the  illustrator.  In  his  famous  eulogy  on  Cruikshank,  Thackeray 
remarked :  "  We  are  not  at  all  disposed  to  undervalue  the  works  and 
genius  of  Mr.  Dickens,  and  we  are  sure  that  he  would  admit  as  readily 
as  any  man  the  wonderful  assistance  that  he  has  derived  from  the 
artist  who  has  given  us  portraits  of  his  ideal  personages,  and  made 

'  In  a  large  water-colour  replica  of  this  subject,  signed  "  George  Cruikshank,  Octr.  14th, 
1873,  in  my  82nd  year,"  the  artist  stated  that  the  landscape  represented  the  old  Pentonville 
fields,  north  of  London. 



Plate  VII 


Facsimile  of  the  Original  Sketches  by 

In  the  centre  of  the  sheet  the  Artist  has  written  :  "  Some  of  these  suggestions 
to  Chas.  Dickens,  nnd  which  he  wrote  to  in  the  second  part  of  '  Sketches  by 
Boi."  " 


^*>    it-« 







-5  ;,,..o 

r   >;'C  ^  t*AirC  t:  ^  (^ 



-t  ^ 

A  s 


->£:. .. : 

?rJ\'Kcfc»L«^  (-<f  '^''•. 



•'^  A'-. 

^'^-^'^  -■  ^- 


them  familiar  to  all  the  world.  Once  seen,  these  figures  remain  im- 
pressed on  the  memory,  which  otherwise  would  have  had  no  hold 
upon  them,  and  the  Jew  and  Bumble,  and  the  heroes  and  heroines 
of  the  Boz  Sketches,  become  personal  acquaintances  with  each  of  us. 
O  that  Hogarth  could  have  illustrated  Fielding  in  the  same  way ! 
and  fixed  down  on  paper  those  grand  figures  of  Parson  Adams,  and 
Squire  Allworthy,  and  the  great  Jonathan  Wild."  Again,  with 
more  especial  reference  to  the  "Oliver  Twist"  designs,  the  kindly 
"  Michael  Angelo  Titmarsh  "  wrote  :  "  The  sausage  scene  at  Fagin's ; 
Nancy  seizing  the  boy ;  that  capital  piece  of  humour,  Mr.  Bumble's 
courtship,  which  is  even  better  in  Cruikshank's  version  than  in  Boz's 
exquisite  account  of  the  interview  ;  Syke's  ^  farewell  to  his  dog ;  and 
the  Jew — the  dreadful  Jew — that  Cruikshank  drew!  What  a  fine 
touching  picture  of  melancholy  desolation  is  that  of  Sykes  and  the 
dog !  The  poor  cur  is  not  too  well  drawn,  the  landscape  is  stiff  and 
formal ;  but  in  this  case  the  faults,  if  faults  they  be,  of  execution 
rather  add  to  than  diminish  the  effect  of  the  picture ;  it  has  a  strange, 
wild,  dreary,  broken-hearted  look ;  we  fancy  we  see  the  landscape 
as  it  must  have  appeared  to  Sykes,  when  ghastly  and  with  bloodshot 
eyes  he  looked  at  it.  As  for  the  Jew  in  the  dungeon,  let  us  say 
nothing  of  it — what  can  we  say  to  describe  it  .■* " 

—  The  complete  set  of  twenty- four  working  tracings  of  the  original 
designs  for  "  Oliver  Twist,"  some  of  which  exhibit  variations  from 
the  finished  etchings,  realised  jC^^o  at  Sotheby's  in  March  1892. 
Water-colour  replicas  of  all  the  subjects  were  prepared  by  Cruikshank 
in  1866  for  Mr.  F.  W.  Cosens,  which  the  artist  supplemented  by 
thirteen  smaller  drawings  and  a  humorous  title-page,  the  entire  series 
being  reproduced  in  colour  for  an  edition  de  luxe  of  "  Oliver  Twist," 
published  by  Chapman  &  Hall  in  1894.  The  Cruikshank  Collec- 
tions in  the  British  and  South  Kensington  Museums  include  many 
of  the   artist's  sketches  and    "first   ideas"  for  the   "Oliver  Twist" 

'  The  name  of  Sikes  is  frequently  thus  mis-spelt.     It  is  odd  that  Dickens  himself  first 
wrote  it  "  Sykes,"  as  may  be  seen  in  the  original  manuscript  of  the  story. 


/  plates,  as  well  as  a  number  of  the  matured  designs.  Here  are  several 
/  trial  sketches  for  the  monthly  wrapper  of  the  first  octavo  edition, 
/  executed  in  pencil  with  slight  washes  of  sepia  added ;  the  original 
/  drawings  for  "Rose  Maylie  and  Oliver"  (known  to  collectors  as  the 
"Fireside"  plate,  to  which  reference  will  presently  be  made),  and 
for  "Mr.  Bumble  Degraded  in  the  Eyes  of  the  Paupers"  (with 
marginal  sketches),  the  title  of  which  is  appended  in  Dickens's  auto- 
graph, where,  instead  of  "the  eyes,"  the  word  "presence"  was 
originally  written.  Here,  also,  we  find  the  first  sketch  of  Noah 
Claypole  enjoying  an  oyster-supper,  with  the  following  query  written 
by  the  artist:  "Dr.  Dickens,  'Title'  wanted — will  any  of  these  do? 
Yours,  G.  Ck."  The  proposed  titles  are  then  given,  thus:  "Mr. 
Claypole  Astonishing  Mr.  Bumble  and  'the  Natives' ;"  "  Mr.  Claypole 
Indulging;"  "Mr.  Claypole  as  he  Appeared  when  his  Master  was 
Out," — the  latter  being  adopted.  On  the  back  of  a  pen-and-ink  draw- 
ing of  "  Oliver's  Reception  by  Fagin  and  the  Boys,"  Cruikshank  sug- 
gested a  different  title,  viz.,  "OHver  Introduced  to  the  Old  Gentleman 
by  Jack  Dawkins."  A  beautiful  little  water-colour  drawing  of  the 
subject,  entitled  "  Oliver  Introduced  to  the  Respectable  Old  Gentle- 
man," is  in  the  Print  Room  of  the  British  Museum,  where  we  may 
also  discover  a  portrait  of  Oliver  himself — a  profile  study  of  the  head 
as  seen  in  the  drawing  now  referred  to.  On  the  back  of  a  sketch  of 
Mr.  Brownlow  at  the  bookstall  (for  the  plate  entitled  "  Oliver  Amazed 
at  the  Dodger's  Mode  of  'Going  to  Work'")  is  the  rough  draft  of  an 
unsigned  note  in  the  autograph  of  Cruikshank,  evidently  addressed 
to  Dickens : — 

"  Thursday  Eg..,  June  15,  '37. 

"  Mv  DEAR  Sir, — Can  you  let  me  have  a  subject  for  the  second 
Plate  ?  The  first  is  in  progress.  By  the  way,  would  you  like  to  see 
the  Drawing  ?    I  can  spare  it  for  an  hour  or  two  if  you  will  send  for  it" 

I  am  enabled  to  reproduce  in  facsimile  a  very  interesting  sheet 
of  sketches  for  prominent  characters  in   "Oliver  Twist,"  containing 

Plate  VIII 


Facsimile  of  the  Original  Sketch  for  "Oliver  Twist "  by 

The  Inscription  above  the  Sketch  is  in  the  Autograph  of  Dickens. 



Ar*^.  r7t.,,Xi 

^■'C^u.^-OA.    ^,»^,^    ^    Jl^l^      y,^      ^.^«^^ 




^.  77:r^-^-^ 


no  less  than  five  studies  of  Fagin,  including  the  "first  idea"  for  the 
famous  etching  of  the  Jew  in  the  condemned  cell.  Still  more  note- 
worthy are  four  studies  of  Bill  Sikes  in  the  condemned  cell,  evidently 
made  early  in  the  progress  of  the  book,  thus  seeming  to  indicate  that 
the  artist  conjectured  this  would  be  the  fate  of  the  burglar  instead  of 
the  Jew ;  or  is  it  possible  that  the  existence  of  these  studies  may  be 
considered  as  a  corroboration  of  his  assertion  (in  a  letter  to  the 
Times,  presently  to  be  quoted)  that  he,  and  not  Dickens,  must  be 
credited  with  the  idea  of  putting  either  Sikes  or  Fagin  in  the  cell  ? 

Concerning  Cruikshank's  powerful  conception  of  Fagin  in  the 
condemned  cell  ("the  immortal  Fagin  of  'Oliver  Twist,'"  as 
Thackeray  styled  him),  it  is  related  by  Mr.  George  Hodder  (in 
"  Memories  of  my  Time  ")  that  when  the  great  George  brought  forth 
this  picture,  where  the  Jew  is  seen  biting  his  finger-nails  and  suffering 
the  tortures  of  remorse  and  chagrin,  Horace  Mayhew  took  an  oppor- 
tunity of  asking  him  by  what  mental  process  he  had  conceived  such  an 
extraordinary  notion ;  and  his  answer  was,  that  he  had  been  labouring 
at  the  subject  for  several  days,  but  had  not  succeeded  in  getting  the 
effect  he  desired.  At  length,  beginning  to  think  the  task  was  almost 
hopeless,  he  was  sitting  up  in  bed  one  morning,  with  his  hand 
covering  his  chin  and  the  tips  of  his  fingers  between  his  lips,  the 
whole  attitude  expressive  of  disappointment  and  despair,  when  he 
saw  his  face  in  a  cheval-glass  which  stood  on  the  flioor  opposite 
to  him.  "  That's  it ! "  he  involuntarily  exclaimed  ;  "  that's  just  the 
expression  I  want  I "  and  by  this  accidental  process  the  picture  was 
formed  in  his  mind.  Many  years  afterwards  Cruikshank  declared 
this  statement  to  be  absurd,  and  when  interrogated  by  Mr.  Austin 
Dobson,  who  met  the  artist  at  Mr.  Frederick  Locker's  house  in  1877, 
he  said  he  had  never  been  perplexed  about  the  matter,  but  attributed 
the  story  to  the  fact  that,  not  being  satisfied  whether  the  knuckles 
should  be  raised  or  depressed,  he  had  made  studies  of  his  own  hand 
in  a  glass,  and  illustrated  his  account  by  putting  his  hand  to  his 
mouth,  looking,  with  his  hooked  nose,  wonderfully  like  the  character 


he  was  speaking  of.  Respecting  another  illustration  in  the  story, 
where  "The  Jew  and  Morris  Bolter  begin  to  Understand  each  Other," 
Professor  Ruskin  observes  that  it  is  "the  intensest  rendering  of 
vulgarity,  absolute  and  utter,"  with  which  he  is  acquainted. 

The  latter  portion  of  "  Oliver  Twist "  was  written  in  anticipation 
of  the  magazine,  in  order  that  the  complete  story  might  be  promptly 
launched  in  volume  form.  The  illustrations  for  the  final  chapters 
had  consequently  to  be  produced  simultaneously  and  with  all  possible 
speed,  so  that  the  artist  had  no  time  to  submit  his  designs  to  Dickens. 
One  of  these  plates,  viz.,  "  Rose  Maylie  and  Oliver,"  depicted  a  scene 
in  the  new  home  of  the  Rev.  Harry  Maylie;  he,  his  wife,  and  mother, 
are  seated  by  the  fire,  while  Oliver  stands  by  Rose  Maylie's  side. 
When  Dickens  first  saw  this  etching  he  so  strongly  disapproved  of  it 
that  the  plate  was  forthwith  cancelled  and  another  design  substituted  ; 
but,  the  book  being  then  on  the  eve  of  publication,  it  was  impossible 
to  prevent  a  small  number  of  impressions  of  this  illustration  being 
circulated,  and  copies  of  the  work  containing  the  scarce  "  Fireside  " 
plate  are  therefore  eagerly  sought  after  by  collectors.  Dickens,  in 
expressing  to  Cruikshank  his  disapprobation  of  this  etching,  un- 
doubtedly realised  the  delicacy  of  the  situation,  in  the  possibility  of 
injuring  the  susceptibilities  of  the  artist,  as  the  following  carefully- 
worded  intimation  testifies : — 

"  I  returned  suddenly  to  town  yesterday  afternoon,  to  look  at 
the  latter  pages  of  '  Oliver  Twist '  before  it  was  delivered  to  the 
booksellers,  when  I  saw  the  majority  of  the  plates  in  the  last  volume 
for  the  first  time. 

"  With  reference  to  the  last  one — Rose  Maylie  and  Oliver — without 
entering  into  the  question  of  great  haste,  or  any  other  cause,  which 
may  have  led  to  its  being  what  it  is,  I  am  quite  sure  there  can  be 
little  difference  of  opinion  between  us  with  respect  to  the  result.  May 
I  ask  you  whether  you  will  object  to  designing  this  plate  afresh,  and 
doing  so  at  once,  in  order  that  as  few  impressions  as  possible  of  the 
present  one  may  go  forth  ? 

Plate  IX 


Facsimile  of  the  Original  Sketch  for  "  OUver  Twist "  by 

The  Inscriptions  are  in  the  Autograph  of  the  Artist. 

^IH   / 

;  ,'/'  1 

■A  -i 




T   ' 


JlV^  CMyjfirCi.    (^  Uf^jui^o^ 


"  I  feel  confident  you  know  me  too  well  to  feel  hurt  by  this 
enquiry,  and,  with  equal  confidence  in  you,  I  have  lost  no  time  in 
preferring  it" 

It  seems,  however,  that  Cruikshank  did  not  immediately  proceed 
to  carry  out  the  author's  wish,  but  endeavoured  to  improve  the  plate 
by  retouching  and  adding  further  tints  by  means  of  stippling,  &c.  In 
the  South  Kensington  Collection  there  is  an  early  proof  of  the  etching 
in  which  the  shadow  tints  are  washed  in  with  a  brush,  and  the  fact 
that  these  alterations  were  subsequently  carried  out  is  established  by 
the  existence  of  a  unique  impression  of  the  plate  in  its  second  state. 
This  proof  was  probably  submitted  to  Dickens  and  again  rejected, 
for  no  impressions  having  the  stippled  additions  are  known  to  have 
been  published.  The  substituted  design,  bearing  the  same  title  as 
the  suppressed  one,  does  not  much  excel  it  in  point  of  interest,  as 
the  artist  himself  readily  admitted ;  it  represents  Rose  Maylie  and 
Oliver  standing  in  front  of  the  tablet  put  up  in  the  church  to 
the  memory  of  Oliver's  mother,  this  etching  appearing  in  Bentlefs 
Miscellany  and  in  all  but  the  earliest  copies  of  the  book.  The 
substituted  plate  (like  many  others  in  the  volume)  was  afterwards 
considerably  "touched  up,"  for  it  will  be  noticed  that  in  the  earlier 
impressions  Rose's  dress  is  light  in  tone,  while  subsequently  it  was 
changed  to  black. 

A  very  circumstantial  story  relative  to  Cruikshank's  connection 
with  "Oliver  Twist"  was  published  in  a  Transatlantic  journal 
called  T/u  Round  Table,  and  reprinted  immediately  after  Dickens's 
death  in  a  biography  of  the  novelist  by  Dr.  Shelton  Mackenzie, 
who  avers  that  he  had  been  informed  that  Dickens  intended  to 
locate  Oliver  in  Kent,  and  to  introduce  hop-picking  and  other  pic- 
turesque features  of  the  county  he  knew  so  well :  that  the  author 
changed  his  purpose,  and  brought  the  boy  to  London  :  and  further, 
that  for  such  important  alterations  in  the  plot  Cruikshank  was 
responsible.  But  the  more  remarkable  portion  of  this  narrative 
is    Dr.    Mackenzie's   account    of  his    visit    to  Cruikshank   in    1847, 


at  the  artist's  house  in   Myddleton  Terrace,   Pentonville,  concerning 

which  he  writes  : — 

"  I  had  to  wait  while  he  was  finishing  an  etching,  for  which  a 
printer's  boy  was  waiting.  To  while  away  the  time,  I  gladly  complied 
with  his  suggestion  that  I  should  look  over  a  portfolio  crowded  with 
etchings,  proofs,  and  drawings,  which  lay  upon  the  sofa.  Among 
these,  carelessly  tied  together  in  a  wrap  of  brown  paper,  was  a  series 
of  some  twenty-five  to  thirty  drawings,  very  carefully  finished,  through 
most  of  which  were  carried  the  now  well-known  portraits  of  Fagin,  Bill 
Sikes  and  his  dog,  Nancy,  the  Artful  Dodger,  and  Master  Charles 
Bates— all  well  known  to  the  readers  of  '  Oliver  Twist  '—and  many 
others  who  were  not  introduced.  There  was  no  mistake  about  it,  and 
when  Cruikshank  turned  round,  his  work  finished,  I  said  as  much. 
He  told  me  that  it  had  long  been  in  his  mind  to  show  the  life  of  a 
London  thief  by  a  series  of  drawings,  engraved  by  himself,  in  which, 
without  a  single  line  of  letterpress,  the  story  would  be  strikingly  and 
clearly  told.  '  Dickens,'  he  continued,  '  dropped  in  here  one  day  just 
as  you  have  done,  and,  while  waiting  until  I  could  speak  with  him, 
took  up  that  identical  portfolio  and  ferreted  out  that  bundle  of 
drawings.  When  he  came  to  that  one  which  represents  Fagin  in 
the  condemned  cell,  he  silently  studied  it  for  half-an-hour,  and  told 
me  that  he  was  tempted  to  change  the  whole  plot  of  his  story ;  not 
to  carry  Oliver  Twist  through  adventures  in  the  country,  but  to  take 
him  up  into  the  thieves'  den  in  London,  show  what  their  life  was,  and 
bring  Oliver  safely  through  it  without  sin  or  shame.  I  consented  to 
let  him  write  up  to  as  many  of  the  designs  as  he  thought  would  suit 
his  purpose ;  and  that  was  the  way  in  which  Fagin,  Sikes,  and  Nancy 
were  created.  My  drawings  suggested  them,  rather  than  his  strong 
individuality  suggested  my  drawings." 

Forster  naturally  characterises  this  story  as  a  deliberate  untruth, 
related  with  "a  minute  conscientiousness  and  particularity  of  detail 
that  might  have  raised  the  reputation  of  Sir  Benjamin  Backbite 
himself,"  and  points  out  that  the  artist's  version,  as  here  narrated,  is 

Plate  X 

OF    'GOING    TO    WORK'" 

Facsimile  of  the  First  Sketch  for  the  Etching  by 



TL,(>^    fUr^h 



completely  refuted  by  Dickens's  letter  to  Cruikshank,  which  unques- 
tionably proves  that  the  closing  illustrations  had  not  even  been  seen 
by  the  novelist  until  the  book  was  ready  for  publication.  Cruik- 
shank, on  reading  in  the  Times  a  criticism  of  Forster's  biography, 
in  which  this  charge  against  Dickens  was  commented  upon,  at  once 
indited  the  following  letter  to  that  journal,  where  it  appeared  on 
December  30,  1871  :— 

"  To  the  Editor  of  •  The  Times' 

"  Sir, — As  my  name  is  mentioned  in  the  second  notice  of  Mr.  John 
Forster's  '  Life  of  Charles  Dickens,'  in  your  paper  of  the  26th  inst, 
in  connection  with  a  statement  made  by  an  American  gentleman  (Dr. 
Shelton  Mackenzie)  respecting  the  origin  of  '  Oliver  Twist,'  I  shall  be 
obliged  if  you  will  allow  me  to  give  some  explanation  upon  this  subject. 
For  some  time  past  I  have  been  preparing  a  work  for  publication,  in 
which  I  intend  to  give  an  account  of  the  origin  of  '  Oliver  Twist,'  and 
I  now  not  only  deeply  regret  the  sudden  and  unexpected  decease  of 
Mr.  Charles  Dickens,  but  regret  also  that  my  proposed  work  was  not 
published  during  his  lifetime.  I  should  not  now  have  brought  this 
matter  forward,  but  as  Dr.  Mackenzie  states  that  he  got  the  information 
from  me,  and  as  Mr.  Forster  declares  his  statement  to  be  a  falsehood, 
to  which,  in  fact,  he  would  apply  a  word  of  three  letters,  I  feel  called 
upon,  not  only  to  defend  the  Doctor,  but  myself  also  from  such  a  gross 
imputation.  D^^j^Mackenzie^Joas  confused  some  circumstances  with 
respect  to  Mr.  Dickens  looking  over  some  drawings  and  sketches 
in  my  studio,  but  there  is  no  doubt  whatever  that  I  did  tell  this 
gentleman  that  I  was  the  originator  of  the  story  of  '  Oliver  Twist,* 
as  I  have  told  very  many  others  who  may  have  spoken  to  me  on 
the  subject,  and  which  facts  I  now  beg  permission  to  repeat  in  the 
columns  of  the  Times,  for  the  information  of  Mr.  Forster  and  the 
public  generzilly. 

"  When  Bentley's  Miscellany  was  first  started,  it  was  arranged  that 


Mr.  Charles  Dickens  should  write  a  serial  in  it,  and  which  was  to  be 
illustrated  by  me ;  and  in  a  conversation  with  him  as  to  what  the 
subject  should  be  for  the  first  serial,  I  suggested  to  Mr.  Dickens  that 
he  should  write  the  life  of  a  London  boy,  and  strongly  advised  him 
to  do  this,  assuring  him  that  I  would  furnish  him  with  the  subject 
and  supply  him  with  all  the  characters,  which  my  large  experience  of 
London  life  would  enable  me  to  do. 

"  My  idea  was  to  raise  a  boy  from  a  most  humble  position  up  to  a 
high  and  respectable  one — in  fact,  to  illustrate  one  of  those  cases  of 
common  occurrence,  where  men  of  humble  origin,  by  natural  ability, 
industry,  honest  and  honourable  conduct,  raise  themselves  to  first- 
class  positions  in  Society.  And  as  I  wished  particularly  to  bring  the 
habits  and  manners  of  the  thieves  of  London  before  the  public  (and 
this  for  a  most  important  purpose,  which  I  shall  explain  one  of  these 
days),  I  suggested  that  the  poor  boy  should  fall  among  thieves,  but 
that  his  honesty  and  natural  good  disposition  should  enable  him  to 
pass  through  this  ordeal  without  contamination ;  and  after  I  had  fully 
described  the  full-grown  thieves  (the  Bill  Sykeses)  and  their  female 
companions,  also  the  young  thieves  (the  Artful  Dodgers)  and  the 
receivers  of  stolen  goods,  Mr.  Dickens  agreed  to  act  on  my  sugges- 
tion, and  the  work  was  commenced,  but  we  differed  as  to  what  sort 
of  boy  the  hero  should  be.  Mr.  Dickens  wanted  rather  a  queer  kind 
of  chap,  and,  although  this  was  contrary  to  my  original  idea,  I  com- 
plied with  his  request,  feeling  that  it  would  not  be  right  to  dictate 
too  much  to  the  writer  of  the  story,  and  then  appeared  '  Oliver 
Asking  for  More ; '  but  it  so  happened  just  about  this  time  that  an 
inquiry  was  being  made  in  the  parish  of  St.  James's,  Westminster, 
as  to  the  cause  of  the  death  of  some  of  the  workhouse  children  who 
had  been  'farmed  out,'  and  in  which  inquiry  my  late  friend  Joseph 
Pettigrew  (surgeon  to  the  Dukes  of  Kent  and  Sussex)  came  forward 
on  the  part  of  the  poor  children,  and  by  his  interference  was  mainly 
the  cause  of  saving  the  lives  of  many  of  these  poor  little  creatures. 
I  called  the  attention  of  Mr.  Dickens  to  this  inquiry,  and  said  that 

Plate  XI 


Facsimile  of  Original   Sketches   by 

Lent  hy  Messrs.  Roism  &•  Co. 


fl3oao(j   ; 


^.■»*     T* 


if  he  took  up  this  matter,  his  doing  so  might  help  to  save  many  a 
poor  child  from  injury  and  death ;  and  I  earnestly  begged  of  him  to 
let  me  make  Oliver  a  nice  pretty  little  boy,  and  if  we  so  represented 
him,  the  public — and  particularly  the  ladies — would  be  sure  to  take 
a  greater  interest  in  him,  and  the  work  would  then  be  a  certain 
success.  Mr.  Dickens  agreed  to  that  request,  and  I  need  not  add 
here  that  my  prophecy  was  fulfilled :  and  if  any  one  will  take  the 
trouble  to  look  at  my  representations  of  'Oliver,'  they  will  see  that 
the  appearance  of  the  boy  is  altered  after  the  two  first  illustrations, 
and,  by  a  reference  to  the  records  of  St.  James's  parish,  and  to  the 
date  of  the  publication  of  the  Miscellany,  they  will  see  that  both 
dates  tally,  and  therefore  support  my  statement. 

"  I  had,  a  long  time  previously  to  this,  directed  Mr.  Dickens's 
attention  to  Field  Lane,  Holborn  Hill,  wherein  resided  many  thieves 
and  receivers  of  stolen  goods,  and  it  was  suggested  that  one  of  these 
receivers,  a  Jew,  should  be  introduced  into  the  story ;  and  upon  one 
occasion  Mr.  Dickens  and  Mr,  Harrison  Ainsworth  called  upon  me 
at  my  house  in  Myddleton  Terrace,  Pentonville,  and  in  course  of 
conversation  I  then  and  there  described  and  performed  the  character 
of  one  of  these  Jew  receivers,  whom  I  had  long  had  my  eye  upon ; 
and  this  was  the  origin  of  '  Fagin.' 

"  Some  time  after  this,  Mr.  Ainsworth  said  to  me  one  day,  '  I 
was  so  much  struck  with  your  description  of  that  Jew  to  Mr.  Dickens, 
that  I  think  you  and  I  could  do  something  together,'  which  notion 
of  Mr.  Ains worth's,  as  most  people  are  aware,  was  afterwards  carried 
out  in  various  works.  Long  before  '  Oliver  Twist '  was  ever  thought 
of,  I  had,  by  permission  of  the  city  authorities,  made  a  sketch  of  one 
of  the  condemned  cells  in  Newgate  prison ;  and  as  I  had  a  great 
object  in  letting  the  public  see  what  sort  of  places  these  cells  were, 
and  how  they  were  furnished,  and  also  to  show  a  wretched  condemned 
criminal  therein,  I  thought  it  desirable  to  introduce  such  a  subject 
into  this  work ;  but  I  had  the  greatest  difficulty  to  get  Mr.  Dickens 
to  allow  me  to  carry  out  my  wishes  in  this  respect ;  but  I  said  I 


must  have  either  what  is  called  a  Christian  or  what  is  called  a  Jew 
in  a  condemned  cell,  and  therefore  it  must  be  'Bill  Sikes'  or 
'  Fagin ; '  at  length  he  allowed  me  to  exhibit  the  latter. 

"  Without  going  further  into  particulars,  I  think  it  will  be  allowed 
from  what  I  have  stated  that  I  am  the  originator  of  '  Oliver  Twist,' 
and  that  all  the  principal  characters  are  mine ;  but  I  was  much  dis- 
appointed by  Mr.  Dickens  not  fully  carrying  out  my  first  suggestion. 

"I  must  here  mention  that  nearly  all  the  designs  were  made 
from  conversation  and  mutual  suggestion  upon  each  subject,  and 
that  I  never  saw  any  manuscript  of  Mr.  Dickens  until  the  work  was 
,  nearly  finished,  and  the  letter  of  Mr.  Dickens  which  Mr.  Forster 
mentions  only  refers  to  the  last  etching— done  in  great  haste — no 
proper  time  being  allowed,  and  of  a  subject  without  any  interest ; 
in  fact,  there  was  not  anything  in  the  latter  part  of  the  manuscript 
that  would  suggest  an  illustration ;  but  to  oblige  Mr.  Dickens  I  did 
my  best  to  produce  another  etching,  working  hard  day  and  night, 
but  when  done,  what  is  it  ?  Why,  merely  a  lady  and  a  boy  standing 
inside  of  a  church  looking  at  a  stone  wall ! 

/-     "  Mr.  Dickens  named  all  the  characters  in  this  work  himself,  but 
/  before  he  had  commenced  writing  the  story  he  told  me  that  he  had 
heard  an   omnibus  conductor   mention   some  one   as   Oliver   Twist, 
which  name,  he  said,  he  would  give  the  boy,  as  he  thought  it  would 
answer  his  purpose.     I  wanted  the  boy  to  have  a  very  different  name, 
I   such  as  Frank  Foundling  or  Frank  Steadfast ;  but  I  think  the  word 
\  Twist  proves  to  a  certain  extent  that  the  boy  he  was  going  to  employ 
for  his  purpose  was  a  very  different  sort  of  boy  from  the  one  intro- 
duced and  recommended  to  him  by,  Sir,  your  obedient  servant, 

George  Cruikshank. 

"  Hampstead  Road,  Decetnber  29,  1871." 

In  1872  Cruikshank  issued  a  pamphlet  entitled  "The  Artist  and 
the  Author,  a  Statement  of  Facts,"  where  he  positively  asserted  that 
not  only  was  he  the  actual  originator  of  "Oliver  Twist,"  but  also 



Facnmilt  of  Original  Sketches  by 


of  many  of  Harrison  Ainsworth's  weird  romances  ;  that  these  authors 
"wrote  up  to  his  suggestions  and  designs,"  just  as  Combe  did  with 
regard  to  "  Dr.  Syntax  "  and  Rowlandson's  previously-executed  illus- 
trations. In  another  published  letter,  dated  more  than  a  year  prior  to 
that  printed  in  the  Times,  the  artist  emphatically  declared  that  the 
greater  part  of  the  second  volume  of  "  Sketches  by  Boz  "  was  written 
from  his  hints  and  suggestions,  and  he  significantly  added,  "  I  am  pre- 
paring to  publish  an  explanation  of  the  reason  why  I  did  not  illustrate 
the  whole  of  Mr.  Dickens's  writings,  and  this  explanation  will  not  at 
all  redound  to  his  credit."  Indeed,  so  thoroughly  was  he  imbued  with 
this  conviction,  that  on  April  20,  1874,  in  responding  to  a  vote  of 
thanks  accorded  him  by  the  Mayor  of  Manchester  for  an  address  on 
Intemperance,  he  reiterated  his  statement  relative  to  the  origin  of 
"Oliver  Twist."  The  Mayor  having  referred  to  the  artist's  designs 
in  Dickens's  novels,  Cruikshank  intimated  that  the  only  work  of  the 
novelist  he  had  illustrated  was  "Sketches  by  Boz";  his  worship  re- 
marked, "You  forget  'Oliver  Twist,'"  whereupon  Cruikshank  replied, 
"That  came  out  of  my  own  brain.  I  wanted  Dickens  to  write  me  a 
work,  but  he  did  not  do  it  in  the  way  I  wished.  I  assure  you  I  went 
and  made  a  sketch  of  the  condemned  cell  maiay  years  before  that  work 
was  published.  I  wanted  a  scene  a  few  hours  before  strangulation, 
and  Dickens  said  he  did  not  like  it,  and  I  said  he  must  have  a  Jew 
or  a  Christian  in  the  cell.  Dickens  said,  '  Do  as  you  like,'  and  I  put 
Fcigin,  the  Jew,  into  the  cell.  Dickens  behaved  in  an  extraordinary 
way  to  me,  and  I  believe  it  had  a  little  effect  on  his  mind.  He  was 
a  most  powerful  opponent  to  Teetotalism,  and  he  described  us  as 
'old  hogs.' "^ 

Unfortunately  for  Cruikshank's  claim  to  the  origin  of  "Oliver 
Twist,"  he  cdlowed  more  than  thirty  years  to  elapse  before  making  it 
public     When  questioned  on  this  point  he  would  say  that  ever  since 

'  This  is,  doubtless,  a  reference  to  an  article  by  Dickens  entitled  "Whole  Hogs," which 
appeared  in  Household  Words,  ^nga&X.  23,  1851,  protesting  against  the  extreme  views  of  the 
Temperance  party. 



these  works  were  published,  and  even  when  they  were  in  progress,  he 
had  in  private  society,  when  conversing  upon  such  matters,  always 
explained  that  the  original  ideas  and  characters  of  these  works. eman- 
ated from  him !  Mr,  Harrison  Ainsworth  has  recorded  that  Dickens 
was  so  worried  by  Cruikshank  putting  forward  suggestions  that  he 
resolved  to  send  him  only  printed  proofs  for  illustration.  In  a 
letter  to  Forster  (January  1838)  the  novelist  wrote,  alluding  to  the 
severity  of  his  labours :  "  I  have  not  done  the  '  Young  Gentleman,' 
nor  written  the  preface  to  '  Grimaldi,'  nor  thought  of  '  Oliver  Twist,'  or 
even  supplied  a  subject  for  the  plate,''  the  latter  intimation  sufficiently 
indicating  that  Dickens  was  more  directly  concerned  in  the  selection  of 
suitable  themes  for  illustration  than  Cruikshank  would  have  us  believe. 
The  author  of  "Sketches  by  Boz"  abundantly  testified  in  those 
remarkable  papers  that  his  eyes,  like  Cruikshank's,  had  penetrated 
the  mysteries  of  London ;  indeed,  we  find  in  the  "Sketches"  all  the 
material  for  the  story  of  poor  Oliver,  where  it  is  more  artistically  and 
dramatically  treated.  It  is  not  improbable,  of  course,  that  from  Cruik- 
shank's familiarity  with  life  in  the  Great  City  he  was  enabled  to  offer 
useful  hints  to  the  young  writer,  and  even  perhaps  to  make  suggestions 
respecting  particular  characters ;  but  this  constitutes  a  very  unim- 
portant share  in  the  production  of  a  literary  work.  To  what  extent 
the  interchange  between  artist  and  author  was  carried  can  never  be 
satisfactorily  determined ;  but  of  this  there  can  be  no  doubt,  that 
Cruikshank's  habit  of  exaggeration,  combined  with  his  eagerness  in 
over-estimating  the  effect  of  his  work,  led  him  (as  Mr.  Blanchard 
Jerrold  remarks)  "into  injudicious  statements  or  over-statements," 
which  were  sometimes  provocative  of  much  unpleasant  controversy. 
It  is,  however,  no  exaggeration  to  say  that  the  pencil  of  George 
Cruikshank  was  as  admirable  in  its  power  of  delineating  char- 
acter as  was  the  mighty  pen  of  Charles  Dickens,  and  that  in  the 
success  and  popularity  of  "  Oliver  Twist"  they  may  claim  an  equal 


Plate  XIII 


Facsimilt  of  a  Trial  Sketch  by 


Certain  humorous  pieces  written  by  Dickens  for  Richard  Bentley 
Minor  ^^""^  ^'^°  illustrated  by  Cruikshank.     The  first  paper, 

Writings  entitled  "  Public  Life  of  Mr.  Tulrumble,  once  Mayor 
In  "Bent'  of  Mudfog"  (published  in  January  1837),  contains  an 
ley's  Mis-  etching  of  Ned  *  Twigger  in  the  kitchen  of  Mudfog 
cellany.  j^j^j]^  ^^j^j   ^^^  j^^j^^   contribution,   purporting  to  be   a 

"  Full  Report  of  the  Second  Meeting  of  the  Mudfog  Association 
for  the  Advancement  of  Everything"  (September,  1838)  is  em- 
bellished with  a  very  ludicrous  illustration,  entitled  "  Automaton  Police 
Office  and  Real  Offenders,  from  the  model  exhibited  before  Section 
B  of  the  Mudfog  Association."  This  design  depicts  the  interior 
of  a  police-court  in  which  all  the  officials  are  automatic  —  an  in- 
genious rendering  of  the  idea  propounded  by  Mr.  Coppernose  to 
the  President  and  members  of  the  Association.  To  the  second  paper 
the  artist  also  supplied  a  woodcut  portrait  of  "  The  Tyrant  Sowster," 
of  whom  he  made  no  less  than  six  studies  before  he  succeeded  in 
producing  a  satisfactory  presentment  of  Mudfog's  "active  and  intelli- 
gent "  beadle. 

In  his  juvenile  days  Dickens  wrote  a  farce  entitled  "  The  Lamp- 
lighter," which,  owing  to  its  non-acceptance  by  the  theatrical  manage- 
ment for  whom  it  Wcis  composed,  he  converted  into  an  amusing  tale 
called  "The  Lamplighter's  Story."  This  constituted  his  share  in 
a  collection  of  light  essays  and  other  papers  gratuitously  supplied 
by  well-known  authors,  and  issued  in  volume  form  under  the  title 
of  "The  Pic  Nic  Papers,"  for  the  benefit  of  the  widow  of  Macrone, 
Dickens's  first  publisher.  The  work,  edited  by  Dickens,  was 
launched  by  Henry  Colborn  in  1 841,  in  three  volumes,  with  fourteen 
illustrations  by  Cruikshank,  "  Phiz,"  and  other  artists.  The  first 
volume  opened  with  "  The  Lamplighter's  Story,"  for  which  Cruik- 
shank provided  an  etching  entitled  "The  Philosopher's  Stone,"  the 
subject  represented  being  the  unexpected  explosion  of  Tom  Grig's 

'  In  the  original  title  on  the  plate,  Ned  Twigger's  Christian  name  is  incorrectly  given 
as  Tom. 


crucible.  This  was  the  last  illustration  executed  by  the  artist  for 
Dickens's  writings,^  and  it  may  be  added  that  some  impressions  of 
the  plate  were  issued  in  proof  state  "before  letters,"  but  these  are 
exceedingly  rare.  Although  for  many  years  afterwards  they  con- 
tinued fast  friends,  it  may  be  (as  Mr.  Graham  Everitt  conjectures) 
that  Cruikshank  found  it  impossible  to  co-operate  any  longer  with 
so  exacting  an  employer  of  artistic  labour  as  Charles  Dickens,  who 
remonstrated,  with  some  show  of  reason,  that  he  was  the  best 
judge  of  what  he  required  pictorially, — an  argument,  however,  which 
did  not  suit  the  independent  spirit  of  the  artist.  Of  his  genius 
Dickens  was  ever  a  warm  admirer,  and  remarking  upon  the  ex- 
clusion of  so  able  a  draughtsman  from  the  honours  of  the  Royal 
Academy,  because,  forsooth!  his  works  were  not  produced  in  cer- 
tain mediums,  the  novelist  pertinently  asks  :  "  Will  no  Associates  be 
found  upon  its  books  one  of  these  days,  the  labours  of  whose  oil 
and  brushes  will  have  sunk  into  the  profoundest  obscurity,  when 
many  pencil-marks  of  Mr.  Cruikshank  and  Mr.  Leech  will  be  still 
fresh  in  half  the  houses  in  the  land  ?  " 

It  will  be  remembered  that  George  Cruikshank  published  a 
version  of  the  Fairy  Tales,  converting  them  into  stories  somewhat 
resembling  Temperance  tracts.  Dickens  was  greatly  incensed,  and, 
half-playfully  and  half-seriously,  protested  against  such  alterations 
of  the  beautiful  little  romances,  this  re-writing  them  "according 
to  Total  Abstinence,  Peace  Society,  and  Bloomer  principles,  and 
expressly  for  their  propagation  ; "  in  an  article  published  in  House- 
hold Words,  October  i,  1853,  entitled  "Frauds  on  the  Fairies," 
the  novelist  enunciates  his  opinions  on  the  subject,  and  gives 
the  story  of  Cinderella  as  it  might  be  "edited"  by  a  gentleman 
with  a  "  mission."  This  elicited  a  reply  from  Cruikshank  (in  a  short- 
lived magazine  bearing  his   name,   and   launched   by  him  in   1854), 

1  Cruikshank  designed  the  illustrations  for  the  "Memoirs  of  Grimaldi,"  1838,  but  this 
work  was  merely  edited  by  Dickens,  and  therefore  does  not  come  within  the  scope  of  the 
present  volume. 

Platk  XIV 



And  Various  Studies  for  Scbnes  and  Ciiaractbrs  in 
"Olivrr  Twist" 

Paciimile  oi   Original   Drawings   by 

VI X    > 

■J  !  '  '  iini  r,i  /■.UJ/i^' 

-•I    SHJtT   •■  '    ' 

K    '^ 


>     ^  ' 









J--     -    •>._■ 






^^^  ^ 


which  took  the  form  of  "  A  Letter  from  Hop-o'-my-Thumb  to  Charles 
Dickens,  Esq.,"  commencing  with  "Right  Trusty,  Well-Beloved, 
Much-Read,  and  Admired  Sir,"  the  artist  contending  that  he  was 
justified  in  altering  "a  common  fairy-tale"  when  his  sole  object 
was  to  remove  objectionable  passages,  and,  in  their  stead,  to  inculcate 
moral  principles.  There  is  no  doubt,  however,  that  Dickens's  rebuke 
seriously  affected  the  sale  of  the  Fairy  Library. 

In  1847  Dickens  instituted  a  series  of  theatrical  entertainments 
for  certain  charitable  objects,  the  distinguished  artists  and  writers 
who  formed  the  goodly  company  of  amateur  actors  including  George 
Cruikshank.  On  one  occasion  they  made  a  tour  in  the  provinces, 
giving  performances  at  several  important  towns,  and  on  the  conclusion 
of  this  "splendid  strolling"  Dickens  wrote  an  amusing  little  jeu 
cCesprti  in  the  form  of  a  history  of  the  trip,  adopting  for  the  purpose 
the  phraseology  of  Mrs.  Gamp.  It  was  to  be  a  new  "Piljian's 
Projiss,"  with  illustrations  by  the  artist-members ;  but,  for  some 
reason,  it  was  destined  never  to  appear  in  the  mamner  intended  by 
its  projector.  Forster  has  printed  all  that  was  ever  written  of  the 
little  jest,  where  we  find  a  humorous  description  of  Cruikshank  in 
Mrs.  Gamp's  vernacular :  "  I  was  drove  about  like  a  brute  animal 
and  almost  worritted  into  fits,  when  a  gentleman  with  a  large  shirt- 
collar  and  a  hook  nose,  and  a  eye  like  one  of  Mr.  Sweedlepipe's 
hawks,  and  long  locks  of  hair,  and  wiskers  that  I  wouldn't  have  no 
lady  as  I  was  engaged  to  meet  suddenly  a  turning  round  a  corner, 
for  any  sum  of  money  you  could  offer  me,  says,  laughing,  '  Halloa, 
Mrs.  Gamp,  what  are  you  up  to  ? '  I  didn't  know  him  from  a  man 
(except  by  his  clothes) ;  but  I  says  faintly,  '  If  you're  a  Christian 
man,  show  me  where  to  get  a  second-cladge  ticket  for  Manjester, 
and  have  me  put  in  a  carric^e,  or  I  shall  drop ! '  Which  he  kindly 
did,  in  a  cheerful  kind  of  a  way,  skipping  about  in  the  strangest 
manner  as  ever  I  see,  making  all  kinds  of  actions,  and  looking  and 
vinking  at  me  from  under  the  brim  of  his  hat  (which  was  a  good 
deal  turned  up),  to  that  extent,  that  I  should  have  thought  he  meant 


something  but  for  being  so  flurried  as  not  to  have  no  thoughts  at 
all  until  I  was  put  in  a  carriage.  .  .  ."  When  Mrs.  Gamp  was 
informed,  in  a  whisper,  that  the  gentleman  who  assisted  her  into  the 
carriage  was  "George,"  she  replied,  "What  George,  sir?  I  don't 
know  no  George."  "The  great  George,  ma'am — the  Crookshanks," 
was  the  explanation.  Whereupon  Mrs.  Gamp  continues  :  "  If  you'll 
believe  me,  Mrs.  Harris,  I  turns  my  head,  and  see  the  wery  man 
a  making  picturs  of  me  on  his  thumb-nail  at  the  winder!"  The 
artist  took  part  in  several  plays  under  Dickens's  management,  but, 
cilthough  it  is  not  recorded  that  he  created  great  sensation  as  an 
actor,  it  seems  evident  that  his  impersonations  met  with  the 
approval  of  the  novelist,  who  was  a  thorough  martinet  in  Thespian 
^  That  George  Cruikshank  was  by  no  means  a  prosperous  man  is 
perhaps  explained  by  the  fact  that  he  never  was  highly  remunerated 
for  his  work.  "Time  was,"  wrote  Thackeray,  "when  for  a  picture 
with  thirty  heads  in  it  he  was  paid  three  guineas — a  poor  week's 
pittance,  truly,  and  a  dire  week's  labour ! "  The  late  Mr.  Sala  de- 
clared that  for  an  illustrative  etching  on  a  plate,  octavo  size,  George 
never  received  more  than  twenty-five  pounds,  and  had  been  paid 
as  low  as  ten,— that  he  had  often  drawn  "a  charming  little  vignette 
on  wood"  for  a  guinea.  On  February  i,  1878,  this  remarkable 
designer  and  etcher — the  most  skilled  book-illustrator  ot  his  day — 
passed  painlessly  away  at  his  house  in  Hampstead  Road,  having 
attained  the  ripe  old  age  of  eighty-five.  His  remains  were  interred 
at  Kensal  Green,  but  were  ultimately  removed  to  the  crypt  of  St. 
Paul's  Cathedral,  where  a  bust  by  Adams  perpetuates  his  memory. 


<Ji  U^^  ?7^0C£/T-^ 



Plate  XV 


From  an  Unpublished  Drawing  by 

Lent  by  Mr.  A  ugiistin  Daly. 


Early  Years— A  Taste  for  High  Art— Drawings  on  Wood  for  Figaro  and  Belts  Ufe  in  London— 
Essays  the  Art  of  Etching— Designs  for  "  Maxims  and  Hints  for  an  Angler"— Proposes 
to  Publish  a  Book  of  Humorous  Sporting  Subjects  —A  "  Club  of  Cockney  Sportsmen  " — 
Charles  Whitehead  and  Charles  Dickens — The  Inception  of  "  The  Pickwick  Papers  " 
—Seymour's  Illustrations— The  Artist  Succumbs  to  Overwork— Suicide  of  Seymour— 
Dickens's  Tribute— Seymour's  Last  Drawing  for  " Pickwick "—" The  Dying  Clown"— His 
Original  Designs — Seymour's  Conception  of  Mr.  Pickwick — Letter  from  Dickens  to  the 
Artist— "First  Ideas"  and  Unused  Sketches— A  Valuable  Collection— Scarcity  of  Seymour's 
"Pickwick"  Plates— Design  for  the  Wrapper  of  the  Monthly  Parts— Mrs.  Seymour's 
Account  of  the  Origin  of  "The  Pickwick  Papers"— An  Absurd  Claim  Refuted— "The 
Library  of  Fiction  "— Seymoui^s  Illustrations  for  "  The  Tuggses  at  Ramsgate." 

CONCERNING  the  artist  who  was  primarily  engaged  in  the 
illustration  of  "Pickwick,"  very  little  has  been  recorded, 
owing  perhaps  to  the  fact  that  his  career,  which  terminated 
so  tragically  and  so  prematurely,  was  brief  and  uneventful.  The 
following  particulars  of  his  life  and  labours,  culled  from  various 
sources,  will,  I  trust,  enable  the  reader  to  appreciate  Robert 
Seymour's  true  position  respecting  his  connection  with  Charles 
Dickens's  immortal  work. 

Born  "in  or  near  London"  in  1798,  Robert  Seymour  indicated 
at  a  very  early  age  a  decided  taste  for  drawing,  whereupon  his  father, 
Henry  Seymour,  a  Somerset  gentleman,  apprenticed  him  to  a  skilful 
/pattern-draughtsman  named  Vaughan,  of  Duke  Street,  Smithfieldj 
Although  this  occupation  was  most  uncongenial  to  young  Seymour, 
it  caused  him  to  adopt  a  neat  style  of  drawing  which  ultimately 
proved  of  much  utility.     He  aspired  to  a  higher  branch  of  Art  than 

'  In  another  account  (written  by  a  contemporary  of  the  artist)  it  is  stated  that  Seymour  was 
the  natural  son  of  Vaughan  himself,  and  that  the  child  bore  the  name  of  the  mother,  under 
whose  care  he  remained  until  his  father  acknowledged  the  paternity,  when  he  took  the  boy 
into  his  workshop. 


that  involved  in  the  delineation  of  patterns  for  calico-printers ;  but 
for  a  time  he  remained  with  Vaughan,  pleasantly  varying  the  mono- 
tony of  his  daily  routine  by  producing  miniature  portraits  of  friends 
who  consented  to  sit  to  him,  receiving  in  return  a  modest  though 
welcome  remuneration.  Still  cherishing  an  inclination  towards  "  High 
Art,"  he  and  a  colleague  named  Work  (significant  patronymic !) 
deserted  Vaughan,  and,  renting  a  room  at  the  top  of  the  old  tower 
at  Canonbury,  they  purchased  a  number  of  plaster-casts,  lay-figures, 
&c.,  from  which  the  two  juvenile  enthusiasts  began  to  study  with 
great  assiduity.  In  Seymour's  case  tangible  results  were  speedily 
forthcoming,  for  he  presently  painted  a  picture  of  unusually  large 
dimensions,  quaintly  described  by  his  fellow-student  as  containing 
representations  of  "the  Giant  of  the  Brocken,  the  Skeleton  Hunt, 
the  Casting  of  Bullets,  and  a  full  meal  of  all  the  German  horrors 
eagerly  swallowed  by  the  public  of  that  day."  This  remarkable 
canvas  was,  it  seems,  a  really  creditable  work,  and  found  a  place  on 
the  walls  of  a  gallery  in  Baker  Street  Baazar.  Seymour,  like  many 
other  ambitious  young  artists  possessing  more  talent  than  pence, 
quickly  realised  the  sad  fact  that,  though  the  pursuit  was  in  itself  a 
very  agreeable  one,  it  meant  penury  to  the  painter  unless  he  owned 
a  private  fortune  or  commanded  the  purse-strings  of  rich  patrons. 
The  artist's  widow  afterwards  declared  that  he  invariably  sold  his 
pictures  direct  from  the  easel ;  but  there  is  no  doubt  that  with  him 
"High  Art"  proved  a  financial  failure,  and  he  reluctantly  turned  his 
attention  to  the  more  lucrative  (if  less  attractiveXoCCUpatioTTofdesigning 
on  wood,  for  which  he  was  peculiarly  fitted  by  his  previous  practice 
in  clean,  precise  draughtsmanship  during  that  probationary  period 
in  Vaughan's  workshop! 

Seymour  was  endowed  by  Nature  with  a  keen  sense  of  the 
ludicrous,  and  this,  aided  by  a  knowledge  of  drawing,  enabled  him 
to  execute  designs  of  so  humorous  a  character  that  his  productions 
were  immediately  welcomed  by  the  proprietors  of  such  publications 
as  Figaro  and  Belts  Life  in  London,  to  which  were  thus  given  a 


vitality  and  a  popularity  they  did  not  previously  possess.  Although 
at  first  the  recompense  was  but  scanty,  hardly  sufficient,  indeed,  to 
procure  the  necessaries  of  life,  yet  Robert  Seymour  felt  it  was  the 
beginning  of  what  might  eventually  resolve  itself  into  a  fairly  re- 
munerative vocation.  His  talent  speedily  brought  him  profitable 
commissions  for  more  serious  publications,  while  his  pencil  was 
simultaneously  employed  in  sketching  and  drawing  amusing  incidents, 
especially  such  as  related  to  'fishing  and  shooting, — forms  of  sport 
which  constituted  his  favourite  recreation.!  Living  at  this  time  in 
the  then  rural  suburb  of  Islington,  he  had  many  opportunities  of 
observing  the  methods  of  Cockney  sportsmen,  who  were  wont  to 
wander  thither  on  Sundays  and  holidays,  and  whose  inexperience 
with  rod  and  gun  gave  rise  to  many  absurdities  and  comic  fiascos, 
thus  affording  the  young  artist  abundant  material  for  humorous 

Until  1827,  Seymour  confined  his  labours  to  drawing  for  the 
wood-engravers.  [He  now  essayed  the  art  of  etching  upon  plates 
of  steel  or  copper,  simulating  the  style  and  manner  of  George  Cruik- 
shank  ;  he  even  ventured  to  affix  the  nom  cU  plume  of  "  Shortshanks  " 
to  his  early  caricatures,  until  he  received  a  remonstrance  from 
the  famous  George  himselfj  Having  attained  some  proficiency  in 
both  etching  and  lithography,  he  determined  to  make  practical 
use  of  his  experience,  and  in  1833  designed  a  /series  of  twelve 
lithographic  platesi  for  a  new  edition  of  a  work  entitled  "  Maxims 
and  Hints  for  an  Angler,"  in  which  the  humours  of  the  pisca- 
torial art  were  excellently  rendered ;  he  also  executed  a  number 
of  similar  designs  portraying,  with  laughable  effect,  the  adventures 
and  misadventures  of  the  very  "counter-jumpers"  whose  ways 
and  habits  came  under  his  keen,  observant  eye.  These  amusing 
pictures,  drawn  on  stone  with  pen-and-ink,  and  published  as  a 
collection  of  "  Sketches  by  Seymour,"  achieved  an  immense  popu- 
larity, and  were  chiefly  the  means  of  rendering  his  name  generally 


Seymour  was  very  fond  of  horticultural  pursuits,  and  took  great 
pains  in  cultivating  his  own  garden  ;  but  the  result  of  his  efforts  in 
this  direction  proved  disappointing,  and  when  dilating  upon  his  want  of 
success,  it  was  suggested  that  the  misfortunes  of  an  cimateur  gardener 
might  be  made  the  subject  of  some  entertaining  drawings.  After 
pondering  over  this  idea,  and  mindful  of  the  fact  that  he  still  possessed 
a  number  of  unpublished  sketches  reflecting  upon  the  abilities  of 
amateur  sportsmen,  he  resolved  upon  reproducing  some  of  a  sporting 
character.  His  original  notion  was  to  bring  out  a  work  similar  in 
plan  to  that  of  "  The  Heiress,"  a  pictorial  novel  which  he  illustrated 
in  1830,  and  he  first  proposed  the  subject  to  the  printseller  McLean 
in  1835,  and  then  to  Spooner,  the  well-known  publisher.  The  latter 
highly  approved  the  project,  and  in  discussing  it  they  concluded  it 
would  be  desirable  to  supplement  the  pictures  with  suitable  letter- 
press. The  undertaking  was  so  far  advanced  that  Seymour  etched 
four  plates,  but,  owing  to  unforeseen  delays  on  the  part  of  Spooner, 
the  matter  was  held  in  abeyance  for  about  three  months,  by  which 
time  Seymour  determined  to  issue  the  work  on  his  own  responsibility, 
and  to  endeavour  to  get  H.  Mayhew  or  Moncrieff  to  write  for  it. 

When,  in  February  1836,  Edward  Chapman  (of  Chapman  &  Hall) 
Thg  called  upon  him  with  reference  to  a  drawing  which  the 

Pickwick  firm  had  commissioned  him  to  undertake,  the  artist 
Papers,  mentioned  the  scheme  of  a  work  to  be  illustrated  by 
1836-37.  j^in,^  having,  as  a  central  idea,  a  "Club  of  Cockney 
Sportsmen."  [Chapman  thought  favourably  of  the  notion,  and  pro- 
posed that  it  should  be  brought  out  in  two  half-guinea  volumes  ; 
but  Seymour,  desiring  the  widest  circulation,  insisted  on  the  plan 
he  originally  conceived,  that  ol  shilling  monthly  numbersT]  Then 
came  the  question.  Who  should  prepare  the  requisite  text?  Leigh 
Hunt,  Theodore  Hook,  and  other  prominent  writers  of  the  day 
declined  to  undertake  it,  and  shortly  afterwards  Seymour,  having  just 
been  reading  "  Sketches  by  Boz,"  the  humour  and  originality  of  which 

Plate  XVI 


Facsimile  of  the  Original  Drawing  for  "The  Pickwick  Papers"  by 

Lent  iy  Mr,  Ayguslin  Daly. 




highly  delighted  him,  proposed  that  Dickens  should  be  asked  to 
contribute  the  letterpress. 

Mr.  Mackenzie  Bell  has  given  (in  the  Alkenaum,  June  11, 
1887)  a  slightly  different  version  of  this  part  of  the  narration,  and 
states  that  Charles  Whitehead,  an  early  friend  of  Dickens,  "used 
constantly  to  affirm  that  he  had  been  asked  to  write  to  Seymour's 
sketches,  and  that,  feeling  uncertain  of  being  able  to  supply  the 
copy  with  sufficient  regularity,  he  [not  Seymour]  recommended 
Dickens  for  the  task.  This  appears  very  likely  to  have  been  the 
case,"  adds  Mr,  Bell,  "as  at  that  time  Whitehead,  who  was  eight 
years  older  than  Dickens,  was  already  known  as  a  facile  and  fecund 
writer,  his  coarse  yet  powerful  romance  of  '  Jack  Ketch '  having  been 
very  popular  for  some  time.  It  is  even  possible  that  '  The  Pickwick 
•  Papers'  may  have  been  suggested  to  Dickens  by  a  passage  in  the 
preface  of  'Jack  Ketch,'  where  a  humorous  allusion  is  made  to  the 
possibility  of  the  author  producing  his  more  mature  experiences  under 
the  unambitious  title  of  '  The  Ketch  Papers,'  a  work  which  never 
appeared."  It  may  be  mentioned  that  Dickens  had  just  sent  in  his 
MS.  of  "The  Tuggses  at  Ramsgate"  for  "The  Library  of  Fiction," 
edited  by  Whitehead,  who  was  already  familiar  with  the  budding 
novelist's  ability  as  an  author.  This  carries  us  to  the  point  whence 
Dickens  takes  up  the  thread  of  the  story,  as  printed  in  the  preface  to 
the  first  cheap  edition  of  "  Pickwick  "  (1847),  where  he  writes  : — 

"  I  was  a  young  man  of  three-and-twenty  when  the  present 
publishers  [Chapman  &  Hall],  attracted  by  some  pieces  I  was  at 
that  time  writing  in  the  Morning  Chronicle  newspaper  (of  which  one 
series  had  lately  been  collected  and  published  in  two  volumes,  illus- 
trated by  my  esteemed  friend  George  Cruikshank),  waited  upon 
me  to  propose  a  something  that  should  be  published  in  shilling 
numbers.  .  .  .  The  idea  propounded  to  me  was  that  the  monthly 
something  should  be  a  vehicle  for  certain  plates  to  be  executed  by 
Mr.  Seymour,  and  there  was  a  notion,  either  on  the  part  of  that 
admirable  humorous  artist  or  of  my  visitor  (I  forget  which),  that  a 


'Nimrod  Club,'  the  members  of  which  were  to  go  out  shooting, 
fishing,  and  so  forth,  and  getting  themselves  into  difficulties  through 
their  want  of  dexterity,  would  be  the  best  means  of  introducing  these. 
I  objected,  on  consideration,  that  although  born  and  partly  bred  in 
the  country,  I  was  no  great  sportsman,  except  in  regard  of  all  kinds 
of  locomotion ;  that  the  idea  was  not  novel,  and  had  been  already 
much  used ;  that  it  would  be  infinitely  better  for  the  plates  to  arise 
naturally  out  of  the  text ;  and  that  I  should  like  to  take  my  own  way, 
with  freer  range  of  English  scenes  and  people,  and  was  afraid  I  should 
ultimately  do  so  in  any  case,  whatever  course  I  might  prescribe  to 
myself  at  starting.  My  views  being  deferred  to,  I  thought  of  Mr. 
_Pickwick,  and  wrote  the  first  number,  from  the  proof-sheets  of  which 
\Mr^ Seymour  made  his  drawing  of  the  Club,  and  that  happy  portrait 
of  its  founder,  by  which  he  is  always  recognised,  and  which  may  be 
said  to  have  made  him  a  reality.  I  connected  Mr.  Pickwick  with  a  ' 
club  because  of  the  original  suggestion,  and  I  put  in  Mr.  Winkle  I 
expressly  for  the  use  of  Mr,  Seymour." 

The  first  monthly  part  of  "  The  Pickwick  Papers  "  appeared  early 
in  April  1 836,  consisting  of  twenty-six  pages  of  text  and  four  etchings 
by  Seymour.  Judging  from  a  letter  written  by  Dickens  at  the  time 
the  scheme  was  first  proposed,  it  seems  that  the  illustrations  were 
to  have  been  engraved  on  wood.  The  artist  was  then  excessively 
busy,  for  besides  pledging  himself  to  produce  four  plates  for  each 
monthly  issue  of  "  Pickwick,"  he  had  numerous  other  engagements 
to  fulfil,  so  great  was  the  demand  for  his  designs.  Although  a  rapid 
executant,  the  commissions  he  received  from  publishers  accumulated 
to  such  an  extent,  that  the  excessive  strain  resulting  from  overwork 
at  starvation  prices  began  seriously  to  affect  his  health.  Not  only 
did  the  monthly  supply  of  the  "  Pickwick "  plates  constitute  an 
additional  demand  upon  his  mental  resources,  but  he  was  harassed 
by  the  uncertainty  of  receiving  from  the  printer  the  proofs  from  which 
he  deduced  his  subjects,  these  sometimes  being  delayed  so  that  very 
little  time  was  allowed  for  the  preparation  of  the  plates.     Unhappily 


Plate  XVII 


Facsimile  of  the  Original  Drawing  for  "  The  Pickwick  Papers"  by 

Lent  by  Mr.  AuguiHn  Daly. 



his  brain  was  unable  to  bear  such  pressure  ;  constant  business  worries 
and  anxieties  induced  symptoms  of  insanity,  and  before  he  had  com- 
pleted the  second  quartette  of  etchings  for  "Pickwick,"  the  unfortunate 
artist  committed  suicide.  This  deplorable  act  took  place  on  April  20, 
1836,  in  a  summer-house  in  the  garden  at  the  back  of  his  residence 
in  Liverpool  Road,  Islington,  where,  by  the  aid  of  a  string  attached  to 
the  trigger  of  a  fowling-piece,  he  deliberately  sent  the  charge  through 
his  head. 

Seymour,  we  are  assured,  had  not  the  slightest  pecuniary  embar- 
rassment ;  he  was  quite  happy,  too,  in  his  domestic  affairs,  extremely 
fond  of  his  family,  and  naturally  of  a  very  cheerful  disposition.  His 
melancholy  fate  caused  a  general  feeling  of  regret  among  the  public, 
with  whom  he  was  a  great  favourite,  and  to  whom  he  was  then 
better  known  than  Dickens  himsell.  In  the  second  number  of 
"  Pickwick  "  appeared  the  following  just  tribute  to  the  merits  of  the 
artist :  "  Some  time  must  elapse  before  the  void  the  deceased  gentle- 
man has  left  in  his  profession  can  be  filled  up;  the  blank  his  death 
has  occasioned  in  the  Society,  which  his  amiable  nature  won,  and 
his  talents  adorned,  we  can  hardly  hope  to  see  supplied.  We  do 
not  allude  to  this  distressing  event,  in  the  vain  hope  of  adding,  by 
any  eulogium  of  ours,  to  the  respect  in  which  the  late  Mr.  Seymour's 
memory  is  held  by  all  who  ever  knew  him." 

In  the  original  announcement  of  "The  Pickwick  Papers"  we 
read  :  "  Seymour  has  devoted  himself,  heart  and  graver,  to  the  task 
of  illustrating  the  beauties  of  '  Pickwick.'  [It  was  reserved  to  Gibbon 
to  paint,  in  colours  that  will  never  fade,  the  Decline  and  Fall  of  the 
Roman  Empire — to  Hume  to  chronicle  the  strife  and  turmoil  of  the 
two  proud  Houses  that  divided  England  against  herself — to  Napier 
to  pen,  in  burning  words,  the  History  of  the  War  in  the  Penin- 
sula ; — the  deeds  and  actions  of  the  gifted  Pickwick  yet  remain  foi; 
'  Boz '  and  Seymour  to  hand  down  to  posterity."  This  projected 
collaboration,  alas !  was  speedily  frustrated  by  the  unexpected  tragedy, 
for  Seymour  had  produced  but  seven  plates  when  he  terminated  his 


life,  the  following  being  the   subjects  of  his  designs  in  the  order 
of  their  publication : 

First  Number. 

"  Mr.  Pickwick  Addresses  the  Club." 

"The  Pugnacious  Cabman." 

"The  Sagacious  Dog." 

"Dr.  Slammer's  Defiance  of  Jingle." 

Second  Number. 

"The  Dying  Clown." 

"Mr.  Pickwick  in  Chase  of  his  Hat." 

"Mr.  Winkle  Soothes  the  Refractory  Steed." 

The  Address  issued  with  the  Second  Part  contains  an  apology 
for  the  appearance  therein  of  only  three  plates  instead  of  four,  as 
promised.  "When  we  state,"  says  the  author,  "that  they  comprise 
Mr.  Seymour's  last  efforts,  and  that  on  one  of  them,  in  particular, 
(the  embellishment  to  the  Stroller's  Tale,)  he  was  engaged  up  to  a 
late  hour  of  the  night  preceding  his  death,  we  feel  confident  that 
the  excuse  will  be  deemed  a  sufficient  one."  Dickens  had  seen  the 
unhappy  man  only  once,  forty-eight  hours  before  his  death,  on  the 
occasion  of  his  visit  to  Furnival's  Inn  with  the  etching  just  referred 
to,  which,  altered  at  Dickens's  suggestion,  he  brought  away  again  for 
the  few  further  touches  that  occupied  him  to  a  late  hour  of  the 
night  before  he  destroyed  himself*  In  an  unpublished  letter  (dated 
April  3,  1866)  addressed  by  the  novelist  to  a  correspondent  who 
required  certain  particulars  respecting  "  Pickwick,"  he  thus  referred 
to  the  artist:  "Mr.  Seymour  shot  himself  before  the  second  number 
of  '  The  Pickwick  Papers "...  was  published.      While  he  lay  dead, 

>  The  artist's  son  asserts  that  the  last  plate  Seymour  etched  for  "  Pickwick  "  (viz., "  The  Dying 
Clown  ")  was  submitted  to  Dickens  a  fortnight  (not  forty-eight  hours,  as  recorded  by  Forster) 
before  his  death.  It  seems  that  Seymour's  final  drawing  was  for  a  woodcut,  executed  for 
John  Jackson,  the  engraver,  to  whom  the  artist  delivered  it  on  the  evening  of  the  fatal  day, 
April  20, 1836. 

Plate  XVIII 


Fatsimile  of  the  Original  Drawing  for  "  The  Pickwick  Papers  "  by 

^^^H-  /^nt  if  Mr.  Augustin  Daly. 



it  was  necessary  that  search  should  be  made  in  his  working  room 
for  the  plates  to  the  second  number,  the  day  for  the  publication  of 
which  was  then  drawing  on.  The  plates  were  found  unfinished, 
with  their  faces  turned  to  the  wall.  It  was  Mr.  Chapman  who  found 
them  and  brought  them  away." 

In  1887  Messrs.  Chapman  &  Hall  appropriately  celebrated  the 
Jubilee  of  "The  Pickwick  Papers"  by  publishing  an  Edition  de  luxe, 
with  facsimiles  of  the  original  drawings  made  for  the  work,  or,  rather, 
of  as  many  of  these  as  were  then  available.  In  the  editor's  preface  it 
is  stated  that  four  out  of  the  seven  drawings  etched  by  Seymour  for 
"Pickwick"  had  disappeared,  but  it  afterwards  transpired  that  two  of 
the  missing  designs  remained  in  the  possession  of  the  artist's  family, 
until  they  were  sold  to  a  private  purchaser,  who,  in  1889,  disposed  of 
them  by  auction.  Of  these  drawings,  therefore,  only  one,  viz.,  "  The 
Sagacious  Dog,"  is  undiscoverable.  The  album  in  which  the  missing 
designs  were  found  also  contained  other  original  drawings  for 
"  Pickwick,"  as  well  as  the  Dickens  letter  to  Seymour  and  an  ex- 
cellent portrait  of  the  artist;  this  important  collection  included  the 
three  published  designs  (viz.,  "Mr.  Pickwick  Addresses  the  Club," 
"The  Pugnacious  Cabman,"  and  "Dr.  Slammer's  Defiance  of  Jingle," 
— the  latter  differing  slightly  from  the  etching),  together  with  the 
first  sketch  for  "The  Dying  Clown,"  and  two  unpublished  draw- 
ings (evidently  alternative  subjects,  illustrating  incidents  in  the 
fifth  chapter),  respectively  representing  "  The  Runaway  Chaise " 
and  "The  Pickwickians  in  Mr.  Wardle's  Kitchen."  All  these 
drawings,  except  that  of  "The  Dying  Clown,"  are  outlined  with 
pen-and-ink,  and  the  eft'ects  washed  in  with  a  brownish  tint.  Perhaps 
the  most  astonishing  circumstance  in  connection  with  this  collection 
is  the  extravagant  sum  it  realised  in  the  auction-room,  for,  as  might 
be  anticipated,  many  were  anxious  to  secure  so  valuable  a  memento. 
The  bidding  was  brisk  until  J^.ioo  was  reached,  when  competition 
was  confined  to  the  representative  of  Mr.  Augustin  Daly  (of  New 
York)  and    another  whose    name  is  unrecorded,   the    result   being 


that  the  prize  fell  to  Mr.  Daly  for  ;^500 — probably  a  record  figure 
for  such  an  item.  No  one  experienced  greater  surprise  at  this 
enormous  price  than  the  purchaser  himself,  who  assures  me  that, 
although  he  imposed  no  limit,  it  was  never  his  intention  to  offer  so 
fabulous  an  amount ;  indeed,  the  sum  he  had  in  his  mind  was  not 
so  much  as  a  quarter  of  that  at  which  this  attractive  album  eventually 
fell  to  the  hammer.  Owing  to  the  generosity  of  Mr.  Daly,  I  am 
enabled  to  reproduce  in  facsimile  the  whole  of  these  extremely 
interesting  designs,  which  he  brought  to  England  expressly  for 
this  purpose. 

LSeymour's  method  of  work  was  to  sketch  with  pencil  or  pen  the 
outline  of  his  subject,  and  add  the  shadow  effects  by  means  of 
light  washes  of  a  greyish  tint.  A  precision  and  neatness  of  touch 
characterise  these  "Pickwick"  drawings,  the  most  interesting  of 
which  is  undoubtedly  that  representing  Mr.  Pickwick  addressing  the 
Club,  a  scene  such  as  Seymour  may  have  actually  witnessed  in 
the  parlour  of  almost  any  respectable  public-house  in  his  own  neigh- 
bourhood of  Islington.^!  Here  we  have  the  first  delineation  of  the 
immortal  founder  of  "the  famous  Club,  "that  happy  portrait,"  as 
Dickens  said  of  it,  "by  which  he  is  always  recognised,  and  which 
may  be  said  to  have  made  him  a  reality."  Seymour  originally 
sketched  this  figure  as  a  long  thin  man,  the  familiar  presentment 
of  him  as  a  rotund  personage  having  been  subsequently  inspired 
by  Edward  Chapman's  description  of  a  friend  of  his  at  Richmond 
named  John  Foster,  "a  fat  old  beau,  who  would  wear,  in  spite 
of  the  ladies'  protests,  drab  tights  and  black  gaiters."  It  is  curious, 
however,  that  in  "  The  Heiress,"  illustrated  by  Seymour  six  years 
previously,  we  find  in  the  second  plate  a  character  bearing  a  strik- 
ing resemblance  to  Mr.  Pickwick,  and  in  "Maxims  and  Hints 
for  an  Angler"  (1833),  the  artist  similarly  portrayed  an  old  gentle- 
man marvellously  like  him,  both  as  regards  physique  and  benignity 
of  expression ;  indeed,  this  seems  to  have  been  a  favourite 
type    with    Seymour,    and    thus  it    would    appear    that,    in    making 

Plate  XIX 


Faetimilt  of  the  Original  Drawing  for  "  The  Pickwick  Papers  "  by 

tint  by  Mr.  AugusHn  Dafy. 

XJX  -n /..''! 

"  /.  7/  o  .i  w»  i-j  /. ;  x.i. . 


Dickens's  hero  short  and  comfortable,  he  only  reverted  to  an  earlier 

The  drawing  which  ranks  second  in  point  of  interest  is  the  artist's 
first  idea  for  "The  Dying  Clown,"  illustrating  "The  Stroller's  Tale." 
The  original  sketch  is  a  slight  outline  study  in  pen-and-ink  of  the 
figures  only,  the  facial  expressions  being  cleverly  rendered.  In  the 
Victoria  edition  of  "  The  Pickwick  Papers  "  a  facsimile  is  given  of  a 
later  and  more  developed  version  of  the  subject ;  this  differs  from 
the  published  etching,  the  alterations  being  the  result,  doubtless,  of  the 
criticism  bestowed  upon  the  drawing  in  the  following  letter  addressed 
by  Dickens  to  the  artist, — apparently  the  only  written  communication 
from  him  to  Seymour  which  has  been  preserved  : — 

"15  Furnival's  Inn, 
"  Thursday  Evening,  April  1836. 

"  My  dear  Sir, — I  had  intended  to  write  to  you  to  say  how 
much  gratified  I  feel  by  the  pains  you  have  bestowed  upon  our 
mutual  friend  Mr.  Pickwick,  and  how  much  the  result  of  your 
labours  has  surpassed  my  expectations.  I  am  happy  to  be  able  to 
congratulate  you,  the  publishers,  and  myself  on  the  success  of  the 
undertaking,  which  appears  to  have  been  most  complete. 

"  I  have  now  another  reason  for  troubling  you.  It  is  this.  I 
am  extremely  anxious  about  'The  Stroller's  Tale,'  the  more  especially 
as  many  literary  friends,  on  whose  judgment  I  place  great  reliance, 
think  it  will  create  considerable  sensation.  I  have  seen  your  design 
for  an  etching  to  accompany  it.  I  think  it  extremely  good,  but  still 
it  is  not  quite  my  idea ;  and  as  I  feel  so  very  solicitous  to  have  it 
as  complete  as  possible,  I  shall  feel  personally  obliged  if  you  will 
make  another  drawing.  It  will  give  me  great  pleasure  to  see  you, 
as  well  as  the  drawing,  when  it  is  completed.  With  this  view  I 
have  asked  Chapman  and  Hall  to  take  a  glass  of  g^og  with  me 
on  Sunday  evening  (the  only  night  I  am  disengaged),  when  I  hope 
you  will  be  able  to  look  in. 


"The  alteration  I  want  I  will  endeavour  to  explain.  I  think 
the  woman  should  be  younger — the  dismal  man  decidedly  should, 
and  he  should  be  less  miserable  in  appearance.  To  communicate 
an  interest  to  the  plate,  his  whole  appearance  should  express  more 
sympathy  and  solicitude;  and  while  I  represented  the  sick  man  as 
emaciated  and  dying,  I  would  not  make  him  too  repulsive.  The 
furniture  of  the  room  you  have  depicted  admirably.  I  have  ventured 
to  make  these  suggestions,  feeling  assured  that  you  will  consider 
them  in  the  spirit  in  which  I  submit  them  to  your  judgment.  I  shall 
be  happy  to  hear  from  you  that  I  may  expect  to  see  you  on  Sunday 
evening. — Dear  Sir,  very  truly  yours,  Charles  Dickens." 

In  compliance  with  this  wish,  Seymour  etched  a  new  design  for 
"The  Stroller's  Tale,"  which  he  conveyed  to  the  author  at  the  ap- 
pointed time,  this  being  the  only  occasion  on  which  he  and  Dickens 
ever  met.  Whether  the  novelist  again  manifested  dissatisfaction,  or 
whether  some  other  cause  of  irritation  arose,  is  not  known,  but  it  is 
said  that  Seymour  returned  home  after  the  interview  in  a  very  dis- 
contented frame  of  mind  ;  he  did  nothing  more  for  "  Pickwick  "  from 
that  time,  and  destroyed  nearly  all  the  correspondence  relating  to 
the  subject  It  has  been  stated  that  he  received  five  pounds  for 
each  drawing,  but  it  is  positively  asserted,  on  apparently  trustworthy 
evidence,  that  the  sum  paid  on  account  was  only  thirty-five  shillings 
for  each  subject,*  and  that  the  artist  never  relinquished  the  entire 
right  which  he  had  in  the  designs. 

As  in  the  case  of  "The  Stroller's  Tale,"  there  are  noticeable 
differences  between  the  drawing  and  the  etching  of  the  last  of 
Seymour's  published  designs,  depicting  Mr.  Winkle  and  the  Re- 
fractory Steed.  In  this  plate  it  will  be  observed  that,  although  the 
general  composition  is  identical  with  that  in  the  drawing,  the 
positions  of  the  horse's  forelegs  are  reversed,  and  trees  have  been 
introduced  on  the  left  of  the  picture. 

»  R.  W.  Buss,  the  successor  of  Seymour  as  illustrator  of  "  Pickwick,"  records  that  ten 
shillings  was  the  price  accorded  to  the  artist  for  each  plate. 

Plate  XX 


Facsimitt  of  an  Unused  Design  for  "  The  Pickwick  Papers"  bjr 

This  Drawing  iliustrates  nn  incident  in  Ibe  fifkh  chapter. 

Ltnt  by  Mr.  Au^stin  Daly. 



/  An  examination  of  Seymour's  etchings  for  "  Pickwick "  shows  u. 
that,  in  the  application  of  the  dilute  nitric  acid  to  corrode  the  lines 
produced  by  the  etching-point,  the  artist  was  greatly  troubled,  and, 
in  order  to  save  his  designs  and  keep  faith  with  the  publishers  and 
the  public,  he  was  probably  compelled  to  apply  for  help  in  his  need 
to  one  of  the  artist-engravers  residing  in  his  neighbourhood.  It  has 
been  suggested  that  certain  faults  in  his  plates  caused  by  defective 
"  biting "  were  remedied  by  means  of  the  engraving  tool ;  but,  so 
far  as  I  have  been  able  to  discover,  there  is  no  evidence  of  thisJ 
His  plates  possess  the  quality  of  pure  etching;  indeed,  in  that 
respect  they  are  superior  to  those  by  "  Phiz "  in  the  same  work. 
It  should,  however,  be  noted  that  there  are  extant  very  few  copies 
of  "  Pickwick "  containing  impressions  from  Seymour's  own  plates ; 
perhaps  in  not  more  than  one  copy  out  of  a  hundred  will  they 
be  found,  and  this  scarcity  is  explained  by  the  fact  that  when  the 
plates  suffered  deterioration  through  printing,  the  artist's  death 
prevented  him  from  duplicating  them,  so  that  the  subjects  had 
to  be  copied  and  re-etched  by  "  Phiz."  Seymour  reversed  his 
designs  upon  the  steel  plates,  so  that  when  printed  they  appear 
exactly  as  originally  drawn.  There  is  reason  to  infer,  from  an 
entry  in  the  artist's  memorandum-book,  that  the  first  four  subjects 
were  etched  before  he  showed  them  to  Dickens,  and  that  they 
were  afterwards  re-etched  and  modified  in  some  degree  to  suit  the 
author's  views. 

Besides  these  illustrations,  Seymour  is  responsible  for  the  design 
appearing  on  the  green  wrapper  of  the  monthly  parts,  which  was 
engraved  on  wood  by  John  Jackson.  A  glance  at  this  at  once 
convinces  us  how  strongly  the  "sporting"  element  was  at  first' 
intended  to  predominate,  for  here  are  displayed  trophies  of  guns, 
fishing-rods,  and  other  sporting  implements ;  at  the  top  of  the  page 
is  seen  the  veritable  Winkle  aiming  at  a  sparrow,  while  below,  seated 
on  a  chair  in  a  punt,  peacefully  reposes  Mr.  Pickwick  with  his  rod, 
watching  for  a  "bite";   in  the  background  of  the  picture  may  be 


recognised  Putney  Church,  as  well  as  the  old  wooden  bridge  which 
once  spanned  the  Thames  at  this  point. 

After  the  publication  of  "  The  Pickwick  Papers  "  many  veracious 
reports  as  to  its  origin  were  circulated.  In  some  of  these  statements 
Dickens  was  entirely  deprived  of  the  credit  of  its  inception,  and  partly 
to  assert  his  claim,  but  principally  because  he  believed  his  readers 
would  be  interested  in  the  truth  of  the  matter,  he  related  the  facts 
in  the  already-quoted  Preface  to  the  first  cheap  edition.  About  two 
years  later  he  was  considerably  annoyed  by  the  appearance  of  a 
pamphlet  purporting  to  give  "An  Account  of  the  Origin  of  the 
Pickwick  Papers,"  the  author  of  which  was  the  "widow  of  the  dis- 
tinguished artist  who  originated  the  work."  Mrs.  Seymour  printed 
in  her  brochure  a  distorted  version  of  Dickens's  Preface,  and  at- 
tempted a  reply  thereto,  by  which  she  endeavoured  to  show  the 
fallacy  of  his  statements.  The  following  extract  from  this  privately- 
printed  pamphlet  sufficiently  indicates  the  tenor  of  Mrs.  Seymour's 
attempt  to  prove  that  the  honour  belonged  exclusively  to  the  artist : 
"Mr.  Dickens  edited  a  work  called  'The  Pickwick  Papers,'  which 
was  originated  solely  by  my  husband  in  the  summer  of  1835,  and 
but  for  a  cold  (which  brought  on  a  severe  illness)  which  he  caught 
on  Lord  Mayor's  Day,  on  taking  his  children  to  view  the  procession 
from  the  Star  Chamber,  would  have  been  written,  as  well  as  embel- 
lished, by  himself;  this  cause  alone  prevented  him  from  doing  so, 
as  the  numerous  periodicals  he  was  constantly  engaged  upon  had 
greatly  accumulated  during  his  illness."'  Although  such  a  claim, 
so  seriously  maintained,  necessitated  immediate  refutation,  Dickens 
allowed  a  considerable  time  to  elapse  before  making  a  formal  denial 
thereof  With  a  view  to  future  action,  however,  he  wrote  to  Edward 
Chapman  for  his  recollections  of  the  primary  events  in  the  history 
of  the  work,  and  accordingly  received  from  him  the  following  reply, 

1  In  1889  Mrs.  Seymour's  own  copy  of  this  exceedingly  scarce  pamphlet  (of  which  only 
three  copies  are  known  to  exist)  was  purchased  by  Mr.  Daly  for  ;£74  at  Sotheby's.  It  contains 
a  few  slight  corrections  by  Mrs.  Seymour. 

Plate  XXI 


Fttcsimilt  of  an  Unused  Design  for  "  The  Pickwick  Papers  "  by 

This  Drawing  illustrates  an  incident  in  the  fifth  chapter. 

Lent  by  Mr.  Auguitin  Daly. 

IZX  aTXi4 

'A  U  O  IL  '/  i:  e:    M 




dated  July  7,  1849:  "In  November  [1835]  we  published  a  little 
book  called  *  The  Squib  Annual,"  with  plates  by  Seymour,  and  it  was 
during  my  visit  to  him  to  see  after  them  that  he  said  he  should  like 
to  do  a  series  of  Cockney  sporting  plates  of  a  superior  sort  to  those 
he  had  already  published.  I  said  I  thought  it  might  do  if  accom- 
panied by  letterpress  and  published  in  monthly  parts ;  and  this  being 
agreed  to,  we  wrote  to  the  author  of  '  Three  Courses  and  a  Dessert ' 
(a  Mr.  Clarke).  I  proposed  it ;  but  receiving  no  answer,  the  scheme 
dropped  for  some  months,  till  Seymour  said  he  wished  us  to  decide, 
as  another  job  had  offered  which  would  fully  occupy  his  time.  And 
it  was  on  this  we  decided  to  ask  you  to  do  it.  ...  I  am  quite  sure 
that  from  the  beginning  to  the  end  nobody  but  yourself  had  anything 
whatsoever  to  do  with  it." 

Further  publicity  was  bestowed  upon  the  subject  in  a  letter  con- 
tributed to  the  Atkeneeum  of  March  24,  1866,  by  Seymour's  son, 
who  not  only  repeated  the  principal  arguments  adduced  by  the 
pamphlet,  but  promised  further  particulars  in  a  subsequent  communi- 
cation. Whereupon  Dickens,  rightly  considering  that  the  oppor- 
tunity had  now  arrived  for  emphatically  repudiating  the  whole  story, 
forwarded  the  following  letter  for  publication  in  the  ensuing  number 
of  the  Atherueum : — 

"As  the  author  of  'The  Pickwick  Papers'  (and  of  one  or  two 
other  books),  I  "send  you  a  few  facts,  and  no  comments,  having 
reference  to  a  letter  signed  'R.  Seymour,'  which  in  your  editorial 
discretion  you  published  last  week. 

"  Mr.  Seymour  the  artist  never  originated,  suggested,  or  in  any 
way  had  to  do  with,  save  as  illustrator  of  what  I  devised,  an  incident, 
a  character  (except  the  sporting  tastes  of  Mr.  Winkle),  a  name,  a 
phrase,  or  a  word,  to  be  found  in  '  The  Pickwick  Papers.' 

"  I  never  saw  Mr.  Seymour's  handwriting,  I  believe,  in  my  life. 

"  I  never  even  saw  Mr.  Seymour  but  once  in  my  life,  and  that 
was  within  eight-and-forty  hours  of  his  untimely  death.  Two  persons, 
both  still  living,  were  present  on  that  short  occasion. 


"  Mr.  Seymour  died  when  only  twenty-four  [twenty-six]  printed 
pages  of  '  The  Pickwick  Papers '  were  published ;  I  think  before  the 
next  three  or  four  [afterwards  corrected  to  "twenty-four"]  were  com- 
pletely written ;  I  am  sure  before  one  subsequent  line  of  the  book 
was  invented." ' 

[Here  follows  the  account  of  Mr.  Hall's  interview  with  the  novelist, 
as  given  in  the  Preface  of  the  1 847  edition,  and  the  letter  thus  con- 
tinues :] 

"  In  July  1849,  some  incoherent  assertions  made  by  the  widow 
of  Mr.  Seymour,  in  the  course  of  certain  endeavours  of  hers  to  raise 
money,  induced  me  to  address  a  letter  to  Mr.  Edward  Chapman, 
then  the  only  surviving  business-partner  in  the  original  firm  of 
Chapman  &  Hall,  who  first  published  '  The  Pickwick  Papers,' 
requesting  him  to  inform  me  in  writing  whether  the  foregoing  state- 
ment was  correct." 

A  few  days  later  Dickens  wrote  to  his  eldest  son  a  letter  in 
which  he  says  : — 

"There  has  been  going  on  for  years  an  attempt  on  the  part  of 
Seymour's  widow  to  extort  money  from  me  by  representing  that  he 
had  some  inexplicable  and  ill-used  part  in  the  invention  of  Pickwick !  !  ! 
I  have  disregarded  it  until  now,  except  that  I  took  the  precaution 
some  years  ago  to  leave  among  my  few  papers  Edward  Chapman's 
testimony  to  the  gross  falsehood  and  absurdity  of  the  idea. 

"But,  last  week,  I  wrote  a  letter  to  the  Athetueum  about  it,  in 
consequence  of  Seymour's  son  reviving  the  monstrosity.  I  stated  in 
that  letter  that  I  had  never  so  much  as  seen  Seymour  but  once  in 
my  life,  and  that  was  some  eight-and-forty  hours  before  his  death. 

"  I  stated  also  that  two  persons  still  living  were  present  at  the 
short  interview.  Those  were  your  Uncle  Frederick  and  your  mother. 
I  wish  you  would  ask  your  mother  to  write  to  you,  for  my  preserva- 

'  The  unpublished  sketch  by  Seymour  in  Mr.  Daly's  collection,  depicting  the  Pickwickians 
in  Mr.  Wardle's  kitchen,  illustrates  a  scene  described  on  page  50,  so  that  Dickens's  memory 
was  slightly  at  fault. 


tion  among  the  aforesaid  few  papers,  a  note  giving  you  her  remem- 
brance of  that  evening— of  Frederick's  afterwards  knocking  at  our 
door  before  we  were  up,  to  tell  us  that  it  was  in  the  papers  that 
Seymour  had  shot  himself,  and  of  his  perfect  knowledge  that  the 
poor  little  man  and  I  looked  upon  each  other  for  the  first  and  last 
time  that  night  in  Furnival's  Inn. 

"  It  seems  a  superfluous  precaution,  but  I  take  it  for  the  sake  of 
our  descendants  long  after  you."  * 

The  "  few  papers "  here  alluded  to  were  destroyed  before  the 
novelist's  death,  with  the  exception  of  Edward  Chapman's  confirma- 
tory letter.  Needless  to  say,  both  Mrs.  Charles  Dickens  and  Frederick 
Dickens  entirely  corroborated  the  novelist's  assertions  respecting  his 
own  share  and  that  of  Seymour  in  the  origin  of  "  Pickwick." 

In  concluding  this  account  of  a  most  unpleasant  controversy,  we 
may  reasonably  surmise  that  had  not  Seymour  communicated  his 
idea  to  Chapman,  "  Pickwick  "  would  never  have  been  written.  The 
proposal  for  a  book  similar  in  character  certainly  emanated  from 
the  artist,  and  in  this  sense  he  was,  of  course,  the  originator  of  that 
work,  while  to  him  also  belongs  the  honour  of  inventing,  pictori- 
ally,  the  portraits  of  the  Pickwickians.  But  it  was  '*  Boz,  glorious  Boz," 
who  vitalised  the  happy  conception,  by  imparting  thereto  such  prodi- 
gality of  fun  and  so  much  individuality  that  "  The  Pickwick  Papers  "  at 
once  leaped  into  fame,  and,  as  all  the  world  knows,  was  received 
with  acclamation  by  every  section  of  the  public. 

Coincident  with  the  publication  of  the  first  monthly  number  of 
Yhc  "The  Pickwick  Papers,"  there  appeared  the  initial  part 

Library  of     of  ^  "^w  serial  called  "The  Library  of  Fiction,"  which, 
Fiction,  under  the  editorship  of  Charles  Whitehead,  was  launched 

1830.  by  the  same  publishers.     Whitehead,  whose  name  has 

already  been  mentioned  in  connection  with  "  Pickwick,"  became 
acquainted    with    Dickens    at    the    time    the    latter    was    writing 

*  This  letter  was  first  published  in  the  Introduction,  by  the  late  Mr.  Charles  Dickens  the 
Younger,  to  Macmillan  &  Co.'s  edition  of  "The  Pickwick  Papers,"  1892. 


"Sketches  by  Boz,"  which  he  so  much  admired  that  he  endea- 
voured to  persuade  the  young  author  to  contribute  something 
of  a  similarly  striking  character  to  the  projected  "  Library  of 
Fiction."  Dickens  consented,  and  we  find  that  his  amusing 
little  story,  entitled  "The  Tuggses  at  Ramsgate,"  constitutes  the 
opening  paper.  Several  of  the  articles  and  tales  in  "  The  Library 
of  Fiction "  were  illustrated,  and  it  is  interesting  to  note  that 
Dickens's  contribution  to  the  first  part  was  embellished  with  two 
designs  by  Robert  Seymour,  engraved  on  wood  by  Landells.  It  is 
generally  considered  that  Seymour's  woodcut  illustrations  are  by  far 
the  best  specimens  of  his  talent,  and  the  engravers  of  that  day  were 
exceedingly  happy  in  reproducing  the  delicacy  of  touch  and  brilliancy 
of  effect  which  distinguished  the  drawings  made  by  him  direct  upon 
the  blocks. 

Seymour's  first  design  represents  the  Tuggs  family  and  their  friends, 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Captain  Waters,  on  the  sands  by  the  seaside,  and  it  is 
interesting  to  learn  that  the  fat  man  seated  on  a  chair  in  front  is  said 
to  be  a  portrait  of  the  artist,  as  he  appeared  during  the  latter  part  of 
his  life.  The  second  illustration,  depicting  the  incident  of  the  irate 
Captain  Waters  discovering  Mr.  Cymon  Tuggs  behind  the  curtain, 
also  formed  the  subject  of  Geprge  Cruikshank's  etching  for  the  little 
story  when  it  was  reprinted  in  the  first  edition  of  "  Sketches  by  Boz," 
published  about  some  three  years  later,  and,  in  comparing  the  separate 
designs,  we  find  that  they  are  almost  identical,  except  that  the  two 
prominent  figures  in  the  etching  are  in  reverse  of  those  in  the  woodcutj 

Plate  XXII 

ROBERT     W.     BUSS 
From  the  Painting  by  Himself. 

Cina  1837. 


Alteration  in  the  Plan  of  Publishing  "  Pickwick  "—The  Difficulty  Respecting  a  New  Illustrator 
— Buss  Elected  to  Succeed  Seymour — Studies  Art  under  G.  Clint,  A.R.A. — His  Painting 
of  "Christmas  in  the  Olden  Time"— His  Ignorance  of  the  Etcher's  Art— Practises 
Drawing  in  Pen-and-ink— "The  Pickwick  Papers  "—Buss's  First  Plate  Approved  by 
the  Publishers — Failure  of  Subsequent  Attempts— Expert  Assistance  Obtained— Plates 
Cancelled — Buss  Dismissed — Substituted  Designs  by  "  Phiz" — "Pickwick"  Drawings  by 
Buss — His  Unused  Designs  for  "Pickwick" — His  Illustrations  for  Marryat,  Ainsworth, 
&c— Accurate  Draughtsmanship  — "The  Library  of  Fiction"  —  Buss's  Illustrations 
for  "A  Little  Talk  about  Spring  and  the  Sweeps" — His  Paintings,  Humorous  and 
Historical— Some  Dickens  Pictures — Drawings  of  Scenes  in  "Dombey  and  Son"— An 
Unfinished  Portrait  of  Dickens — Drawings  on  Wood  for  Charles  Knight — Exclusion  of 
the  Artist  Buss's  Pictures  from  the  Royal  Academy — Endeavours  to  Obtain  Pupils — 
Lectures  on  Art — His  Wife  and  Daughter  Establish  a  School  for  Girls — A  Professor  of 
Drawing  and  a  Teacher  of  Science — Praiseworthy  Industry — Death  of  the  Artist. 

CHARLES  DICKENS'S  brother-in-law,  the  late  Mr.  Henry 
Burnett,  was  a  frequent  visitor  at  the  home  of  the  novelist 
during  the  "  Pickwick "  period,  and  years  afterwards  he 
vividly  recalled  the  consternation,  disappointment,  and  anxiety  of 
the  young  writer  on  receipt  of  the  melancholy  news  concerning  the 
distressing  fate  of  Robert  Seymour,  the  first  illustrator  of  "  The 
Pickwick  Papers."  Dickens  greatly  admired  the  productions  of  that 
unfortunate  artist,  and,  realising  how  successfully  he  had  so  far  por- 
trayed the  characters  in  the  work,  apprehended  there  would  be 
much  difficulty  in  discovering  a  draughtsman  who  could  interpret 
him  with  equal  felicity.  Indeed,  there  was  quite  a  dearth  of  suitable 
talent,  the  only  artist  then  living  capable  of  etching  his  own  designs 
being  George  Cruikshank.  Unfortunately,  there  was  not  much  time 
for  consideration,  as  the  third  number  of  "  Pickwick "  had  to  be 
provided  for  without  delay. 

The  crisis  brought  about  by  the  unexpected  death  of  Seymour 
compelled  Chapman  &  Hall  to  promptly  carry  into  effect  a  resolution 


they  had  formed  of  issuing  future  numbers  of  "  The  Pickwick  Papers  " 
on  an  improved  plan,  with  a  view  to  enhancing  the  attractiveness  and 
popularity  of  the  work.  They  determined  that  each  succeeding  number 
should  consist  of  thirty-two  pages  of  letterpress  instead  of  twenty-four, 
and  that  there  should  be  two  illustrations  in  lieu  of  four — an  arrange- 
ment which  held  good  to  the  end.  The  difficulty  respecting  an  illus- 
trator to  succeed  Seymour  had  now  to  be  grappled  with,  whereupon 
the  publishers  called  to  their  assistance  the  eminent  wood-engraver, 
John  Jackson,  who  advised  them  to  approach  Robert  William  Buss, 
as  being  the  only  artist  of  his  acquaintance  likely  to  prove  the  most 
suitable  for  the  purpose.  Chapman  &  Hall  acted  upon  this  sugges- 
tion, and  Buss,  after  much  persuasion  and  at  great  personal  incon- 
venience, agreed  to  temporarily  relinquish  very  important  engagements 
in  order  to  assist  them  in  their  dilemma. 

Robert  William  Buss  is  referred  to  in  an  address  issued  with  the 
third  part  of  "  Pickwick"  as  "a  gentleman  already  well  known  to  the 
public  as  a  very  humorous  and  talented  artist."  He  was  born  on 
August  29,  1804,  in  Bull-and- Mouth  Street,  St.  Martin's-le-Grand, 
and  in  due  coursqapprenticed  to  his  father,  an  enameller  and  engraver 
on  gold  and  silver.  \  Like  Seymour,  he  was  inoculated  with  the  pre- 
vailing mania  for  "  High  Art,"  and  this  inclination  becoming  too  strong 
to  be  thwarted,  his  indulgent  father  not  only  permitted  the  cancelling 
of  his  indentures,  but  even  defrayed  the  cost  of  gear's  study  in  Artj) 
placing  him  under  his  old  friend  George  Clint,  A.R.A.  (a  landscape 
painter,  and  subsequently  the  President  of  the  Society  of  British 
Artists),  whose  son  Alfred  married  the  younger  Buss's  only  sister. 
Having  thus,  at  the  age  of  twenty-one,  gained  some  practical  experi- 
ence in  his  adopted  profession,  Robert  Buss  thought  himself  competent 
to  start  life  on  his  own  account  by  painting  portraits  and  subject- 
pictures.  In  this  direction  he  met  with  fair  success,  but  it  was  as  a 
painter  of  humorous  incidents  that  he  first  made  his  reputation,  these 
finding  eager  purchasers  among  well-known  collectors  and  connois- 
seurs.    Among  his  earliest  achievements  was  a  painting  representing 

Plate  XXI II 




Facsimile  of  an  Unpublished  Drawing  by 
R.   W.    BUSS 




X      Mi 



^  (.  fi  I  -  >- 

'..^'  •  . 


"  Christmas  in  the  Olden  Time,"  which  he  exhibited  in  the  gallery  of 
the  Society  of  British  Artists  in  1838.  This  work,  however,  although 
warmly  praised  by  the  critics,  proved  a  most  unhappy  venture,  as  the 
price  realised  by  the  artist  for  what  represented  the  result  of  a  year's 
labour  hardly  recouped  him  for  the  expenses  incurred  by  its  production.' 

It  was  doubtless  this  painting  with  which  Buss  was  occupied  when 
The  ^^-  ^^^^  i^^  Chapman  &  Hall)  called  upon  him  respect- 

Pickwick       ing  the  illustrations  for  "  Pickwick."     "  Taken  quite  by 
Papers,  surprise,"  relates  the  artist,  when  recalling  his  association 

1836-37.  ^ijh  Dickens's  famous  work,  ^I  told  him  [Mr.  Hall]  I 
had  never  in  the  whole  course  of  my  life  had  an  etching-needle  in  my 
hand,  and  that  I  was  entirely  ignorant  of  the  process  of  etching,  as 
far  as  practice  was  concerned.  He  assured  me  it  was  very  easy  to  do, 
and  that  with  my  talent  I  was  sure  to  succeed."  After  some  hesitation, 
overcome  by  Mr.  Hall's  promise  that  consideration  would  be  shown 
towards  his  want  of  experience.  Buss  yielded  to  the  pressure  thus  put 
upon  him,  and  consented  to  put  aside  his  picture  (although  most 
anxious  to  complete  it  for  exhibition  at  the  jRoyal  Academy),  with  a 
view  to  embarking  upon  his  new  undertaking., 

^n^reparing  studies  for  his  pictures,  Buss  had  accustomed  himself 
to  the  use  of  bold  effects,  obtained  by  means  of  chalk  or  black-lead 
pencils  of  various  degrees  of  hardness,  blackness,  and  breadth  of  pomtn 
He  therefore  deemed  it  necessary  to  undergo  a  course  of  training 
which  would  enable  him  to  impart  to  his  work  that  delicacy  of  touch 
so  essential  in  the  art  of  etching  upon  copper  or  steel,  and  devoted 
himself  almost  day  and  night  (as  there  was  really  no  time  to  lose)  to 
(practice  in  drawing  with  pen-and-ink, — a  fact  (he  observes)  "of  which 
Mr.  Hall  was  utterly  and  entirely  ignorant^^^^^^^''^  ^^  still  extant 
a  few  of  these  experimental  efforts  (chiefly  figures  and  faces  copied 

'  The  picture  afterwards  changed  hands  for  six  or  seven  times  the  amount  originally 
received  by  the  painter.  It  eventually  became  the  property  of  his  daughter,  the  late  Miss 
Frances  Mary  Buss,  for  many  years  the  Head-mistress  of  the  North  London  Collegiate  School 
for  Girls,  in  the  Drawing-School  of  which  institution  this  interesting  canvas  now  hangs. 



from  line  engravings),  including  a  sheet  containing  a  dozen  sketches 
of  heads — studies  of  characters  in  "Pickwick,"  apparently  based  upon 
Seymour's  etchings — which  testify  not  only  to  his  energy,  but  also  to 
his  rapidly-acquired  skill  in  the  adoption  of  what  was  to  him  a  novel 
medium.  In  these  drawings,  by  the  way,  he  used  ordinary  ink  for 
the  general  design,  diluting  it  for  the  delicate  shades  and  distant 
objects,  thus  assimilating  the  effect  of  his  pen-and-ink  work  with  the 
variations  resulting  from  the  "biting-in"  and  "re-biting"  of  etchings. 

After  labouring  incessantly  for  a  period  of  three  weeks,  the  artist 
felt  prepared  to  make  his  first  attempt  in  etching,  taking  for  his 
subject  "  Mr.  Pickwick  at  the  Review."  Referring  to  this  plate,  he 
says :  "  Of  course  it  was  full  of  faults,  inevitable  to  any  one  in  the 
early  stage  of  practice  in  etching.  But  it  was  shown  to  Messrs. 
Chapman  &  Hall,  and  approved  by  them,  though  not  as  one  of 
the  illustrations  to  be  published.*  All  this  occupied  much  time,  which 
was  every  hour  becoming  more  and  more  valuable,  as  the  date  of 
publication  was  close  at  hand.  I  had  barely  time  to  prepare  my  two 
subjects  for  the  next  number  of  '  Pickwick  '  in  pencil  and  submit  them 
for  approval  to  the  publishers,  who  returned  them,  being  much  pleased 
with  my  efforts.  pThe  subjects  I  selected  were  the  Fat  Boy  watching 
Mr.  Tupman  and  Miss  Wardle  in  the  arbour,  and  the  Cricket-Match." 
Buss  now  essayed  to  reproduce  his  designs  upon  the  plates ;  but 
the  result  proved  disastrous,  the  too  violent  action  of  the  improperly 
diluted  acid  tearing  up  the  etching-ground,  which  also  broke  up 
under  the  needle,  creating  sad  hav6aJ^_Dreading  the  possible  conse- 
quences of  delay,  he  placed  his  original  drawings  in  the  hands  of  anj 
expert  engraver,  to  be  copied  on  the  plate  and  "  bitten-in."  "This 
work,"  remarks  the  artist,  "he  did  very  well  indeed,  but,  as  migh^ 
have  been  expected,  had  I  had  time  for  thought,  the  free  touch 
an  original  was  entirely  wanting.  The  etching  itself  failed,  but  the 
*  biting-in '  was  admirably  done.     Time  was  up.     The  plates  must  be 

'  This  design  has  been  reproduced  by  photo-lithography,  impressions  of  which  may  occa- 
sionally be  found  in  copies  of  "  Pickwick." 

Plate  XXIV 


FatsimH*  of  an  Unpublished  Dniwing  by 
R.   W.    BUSS 

lUustreting  tui  incident  in  the  ninth  chapter  of  "  The  Pickwick  Papers." 

-  ■*■ 


f  ^ 




placed  at  once  in  the  printer's  hands,  and  so  (there  being  no  help  for 
it)  the  plates  were  printed,  the  numbers  stitched  and  duly  published. 
Thus  my  name  appeared  to  designs  of  which  not  one  touch  of  mine 
was  on  the  plates."  Had  opportunities  been  given.  Buss  would  have 
cancelled  these  plates,  and  prepared  fresh  ones  of  his  own  etching. 
The  immediate  effect  of  this  fiasco  was  the  termination  of  his  con- 
nection with  "  The  Pickwick  Papers,"  the  artist  being  actually  engaged 
in  preparing  designs  for  the  succeeding  number  when  he  received  a 
note  informing  him  that  the  work  had  been  placed  in  other  hands. 
Under  the  circumstances,  it  is  not  surprising  that  Buss  felt  this  curt 
dismissal  very  keenly,  for  it  must  be  remembered  that  he  ventured 
upon  the  undertaking  mainly  to  oblige  the  publishers,  who,  it  appears, 
had  promised  him  every  consideration  on  account  of  his  inexperience 
with  the  etching-needle. 

Forster  disposes  of  the  subject  of  Buss's  association  with  "  Pick- 
wick "  in  a  very  few  words,  merely  observing  that  "  there  was  at  first 
a  little  difficulty  in  replacing  Seymour,  and  for  a  single  number 
Mr.  Buss  was  interposed,"  thus  intimating  that  the  engagement  was 
a  temporary  one.  In  commenting  upon  this,  the  artist's  son,  the 
Rev.  Alfred  J.  Buss,  expresses  a  belief  that  his  father  could  not 
certainly  have  regarded  it  in  this  light.  "Is  it  reasonable  to  suppose," 
he  asks,  in  Notes  and  Queries,  April  24,  1875,  "that  he  would  have 
consented  to  devote  three  weeks  of  his  time,  at  the  most  valuable 
season  to  an  artist,  to  the  practice  of  an  entirely  new  department 
of  art,  if  it  had  been  clearly  stated  that  his  engagement  was  of  the 
transitory  nature  Mr.  Forster  would  imply,  and  the  more  especially 
when  we  bear  in  mind  that  the  price  to  be  paid  for  the  etchings  was 
only  fifteen  shillings  each?"  It  was  Forster's  scanty  and  misleading 
reference  to  Buss's  engagement  as  illustrator  of  "  Pickwick  "  which 
induced  the  artist  to  draw  up  for  his  children  a  concise  and  clear 
account  of  everything  that  transpired. 

It  is  not  recorded  whether  Buss  and  Dickens  became  personally 
acquainted,    nor,    indeed,    that    they   ever   met     We   may   therefore 


surmise  that  all  business  transactions  were  carried  on  through  the 
publishers,  who  probably  forwarded  to  the  artist  proofs  of  the  letter- 
press in  order  that  he  might  select  therefrom  the  subjects  for  illustration. 
The  third  number  of  "Pickwick"  contains  the  only  two  published 
etchings  by  Buss  for  that  work,  viz.,  "The  Cricket- Match"  and  "The 
Fat  Boy  Awake  on  this  Occasion  only."  These  plates,  the  effect  of 
which  was  poor  and  thin,  contrasted  unfavourably  with  the  Seymour 
etchings  immediately  preceding  them,  and  were  therefore  suppressed 
as  speedily  as  possible,  others  by  "  Phiz  "  (Habldt  K.  Browne)  being 
substituted  before  many  copies  had  been  issued.^  In  one  of  the  latter 
an  entirely  different  design  is  given, — that  is  to  say,  instead  of  "  The 
Cricket-Match,"  we  have  "  Mr.  Wardle  and  his  Friends  under  the 
Influence  of  'the  Salmon,'"  depicting  an  incident  described  in  the 
succeeding  chapter. 

The  drawings  by  Buss  for  "Pickwick"  have  fortunately  been 
preserved.  Besides  the  original  designs  for  the  published  etchings, 
there  are  still  in  existence  several  tentative  sketches  prepared  by 
the  artist  in  anticipation  of  future  numbers, — those,  indeed,  upon 
which  he  was  at  work  when  he  received  his  congi.  Some  of  these 
sketches  are  vigorously  limned  with  pen-and-ink  outlines  and  the 
effects  laid  in  with  a  brush,  while  others  are  rendered  in  pencil 
supplemented  by  washes  of  indian-ink.  The  following  is  a  complete 
list  of  Buss's  original  drawings  for  "  Pickwick  "  : — 

Mr.  Pickwick  at  the  Review.* — Unused  design. — This  subject  was 
etched  by  the  artist  as  a  specimen  of  his  work  to  be  submitted 
to  Chapman  &  Hall.  Only  two  impressions  are  known  to 
exist,  while  the  plate  itself  was  irretrievably  injured  through  the 
surface  being  scratched  with  a  piece  of  coarse  emery  paper. 

The  Cricket-Match.* — Published  design. 

'  The  two  cancelled  etchings  by  Buss  have  been  copied  on  steel,  but,  being  printed  on 
India  paper,  are  not  likely  to  be  mistaken  for  the  original  plates.  Impressions  of  the  Buss 
etchings  are  exceedingly  scarce,  only  about  seven  hundred  copies  of  the  number  containing  them 
having  been  circulated. 

*  Reproduced  \r\  facsimile  in  the  Victoria  edition  of  "  Pickwick,"  1887. 

Plate  XXV 


From  an  Unfinished  Painting  by 
R.   W.    BUSS 

Si$e  of  Original  Picluri,  Lent  by  Iht  Kcv.  /•'.  Fleetwood  Buss. 

36  in.  by  ay  i». 


The  Ckickzt-Match.— First  sieicA,  varying  entirely  from  the  etching. 
The  wicket-keeper  is  seen  behind  the  fat  man,  receiving  the  ball 
full  in  his  face. 

The  Fat  Boy  Awake  on  this  Occasion  only.' — Published  design. 

The  Fat  Boy  Awake  on  this  Occasion  only. — First  sketch,  varying 
from  the  etching.  Tupman  is  represented  on  his  knees  by  the 
side  of  Miss  Wardle,  who  is  holding  a  watering-pot,  while  the 
Fat  Boy  is  seen  behind,  facing  the  spectator. 

The  Fat  Boy  Awake  on  this  Occasion  only. — Second  sketch,  varying 
from  the  etching.  Here  Tupman  is  standing,  with  his  left  arm 
around  Miss  Wardle's  waist,  and  the  Fat  Boy  is  in  front,  in 
much  the  same  attitude  as  represented  in  the  published  design ; 
indeed,  there  are  very  slight  differences  between  this  sketch  and 
the  accepted  drawing. 

Mr.  Wardle  and  his  Friends  under  the  Influence  of  "the 
Salmon."  ' — Unused  design. 

The  Break-down. — Unused  design.  Pickwick,  in  an  attitude  of 
despair,  stands  facing  the  spectator ;  behind  him  Wardle  is 
seen  in  the  act  of  shaking  his  fist  at  the  eloping  party  in  the 
retreating  chaise ;  while  a  postboy  on  the  left  holds  the  head  of 
one  of  the  horses  belonging  to  the  vehicle  which  has  come  to  grief. 

Mr.  Winkle's  First  Shot. — Unused  design.  The  central  figure  is 
Winkle,  holding  his  gun  ;  close  by  stands  Snodgrass  in  an  atti- 
tude of  fear,  while  Pickwick  and  Wardle  are  sheltering  behind 
a  tree. 

Study  for  the  Title- Page. —  Unused  design.  In  this  rough  sketch 
Pickwick  is  the  prominent  personage,  as  he  stands  facing  the 
spectator,  with  his  right  hand  in  the  pocket  of  his  smalls,  and 
his  left  arm  resting  on  what  appears  to  be  a  mound  of  earth. 
Separately  displayed  upon  the  face  of  this  mound  are  medal- 
lion portraits,  in  emblematical  frames,  of  Pickwick,  Snodgrass, 
Winkle,  and  Tupman,   while   above   all   is   suspended   a   female 

*  Reproduced  m  facsimile  in  the  Victoria  edition  of  "  Pickwick,"  1887. 


figure  typical  of  Fame,  blowing  a  miniature  trumpet  and  holding 
a  laurel  wreath  over  the  head  of  Pickwick.  The  letters  forming 
the  words  "Pickwick  Club"  are  made  up  of  various  articles 
suggestive  of  conviviality  and  sport — such  as  corkscrews,  bottles, 
wine-glasses,  pistol,  stirrup,  &c. 

These  drawings  sufficiently  indicate  that  the  artist  possessed  a 
decided  power  with  the  pencil,  which  he  turned  to  good  account 
shortly  after  the  abrupt  termination  of  his  connection  with  "  The 
Pickwick  Papers."  For  example,  in  1839  he  successfully  illustrated, 
by  means  of  etching,  Mrs.  Trollope's  diverting  story,  "  The  Widow 
Married,"  then  appearing  as  a  serial  in  the  New  Monthly  Magazine, 
and  among  the  more  remarkable  of  his  later  efforts  with  the  etching- 
needle  are  his  designs  for  novels  by  Marryat,  Ainsworth,  and  other 
well-known  writers  of  the  day,  many  of  the  plates  being  equal,  in  the 
matter  of  technique,  to  those  by  "  Phiz,"  thus  denoting  that,  had  an 
opportunity  been  afforded  him,  he  might  have  made  his  mark  with 
"  Pickwick."  It  may  be  said  of  Buss  (as  is  asserted  concerning 
Cruikshank)  that  his  works,  whether  in  colour  or  black-and-white, 
are  regarded  as  affording  authentic  information  respecting  costumes 
and  other  accessories  ;  for  he  was  exceedingly  conscientious  in  matters 
of  detail,  preferring  to  incur  infinite  trouble  to  secure  accuracy  rather 
than  rely  upon  his  imagination. 

Like  Seymour,  Buss  was  associated  with  Dickens  in  connection 

The  '^\'Ca.  that  ephemeral  work,   "  The  Library  of  Fiction." 

Library  of     Besides    "The   Tuggses  at   Ramsgate,"    the    novelist 

Fiction,  wrote  for  its  pages  a  paper  called  "  A  Little  Talk  about 

1836.  Spring    and    the    Sweeps,"    containing    an   illustration 

drawn  by  Buss  and  engraved  on  wood  by  John  Jackson,  who,  it  will 

be  remembered,   introduced  the  artist   to  Chapman  &   Hall.      This 

short  tale  was  reprinted  in  the  first  complete  edition  of  "  Sketches  by 

Boz,"  1839,  under  the  title  of  "The  First  of  May,"  with  an  etching 


Plate  XXVI 


From  an  Original  Water-colour  Drawing  by 
R.  W.   BUSS 

Lent  by  the  Rev.  A.  J.  Buss. 




by  Cruikshank  depicting  an  incident  differing  entirely  from  that  which 
forms  the  subject  of  Buss's  woodcut.  , 

As  a  painter  of  humorous  scenes  and  historical  events,  Buss  gained 
considerable  popularity.  From  1826  to  1859  he  contributed  nearly 
every  year  subject-pictures  and  portraits  to  the  Exhibitions  of  the 
Royal  Academy,  Suffolk  Street  Gallery,  and  British  Institution,  and 
among  his  numerous  canvases  (many  of  which  have  been  engraved) 
may  be  mentioned: — Humorous — "The  Biter  Bit,"  "The  March  of 
Intellect,"  "The  Monopolist,"  "An  Unexpected  Reception,"  "Solicit- 
ing a  Vote,"  "Chairing  the  Member,"  "Mob  Tyranny,"  "The  Mock 
Mayor  of  Newcastle-under-Lyme."  Historical — "The  Introduction 
of  Tobacco  by  Sir  Walter  Raleigh,"  "James  Watt's  First  Experience 
with  Steam,"  "  Hogarth  at  School,"  "  Chantrey's  First  Essay  in 
Modelling,"  "Nelson's  First  Victory  over  the  French  Fleet"  The 
artist  was  also  occasionally  inspired  by  Shakespeare  and  Dickens, 
and  it  is  specially  interesting  to  note  that  he  painted  at  least  three 
pictures  of  scenes  in  the  novelist's  works,  viz.,  "  Joe  Willet  Taking 
Leave  of  Dolly  Varden"  (from  "  Barnaby  Rudge"),  exhibited  at 
the  Royal  Academy  in  1844,  and  now  in  a  South  Australian  public 
picture-gallery;  "The  Cricket's  Chirp"  (Peerybingle,  Dot,  and  Tilly 
Slowboy,  from  "The  Cricket  on  the  Hearth,"  Chirp  the  First),  ex- 
hibited at  Suffolk  Street,  1846;  and  a  representation  of  Trotty  Veck 
peeping  into  the  basket  containing  his  dinner  of  tripe  which  his 
daughter  brings  him.  In  an  album  of  studies  and  notes  for  his 
pictures  (arranged  by  the  artist  for  preservation  as  an  heirloom)  may 
be  found  several  sketches  for  the  first-named  subject,  and  in  addition 
to  these  are  two  small  water-colour  drawings,  oval  in  form,  of  scenes 
in  "  Dombey  and  Son,"  representing  "  Mr.  Dombey  more  Magnificent 
than  Usual,"  and  "Captain  Cuttle  visited  by  Florence  Dombey,"  the 
latter  being  especially  well  rendered.  Whether  these  have  ever  been 
engraved  I  am  unable  to  say,  but  the  probability  is  they  have  not. 
Curiously  enough,  the  last  picture  on  Buss's  easel  purported  to  repre- 


sent  "A  Dream  of  Dickens."  This  unfinished  canvas  (still  in  the 
possession  of  a  member  of  the  artist's  family)  contains  a  portrait 
of  the  novelist  seated  in  his  study,  with  visions  of  scenes  from  his 
various  works  around  him.  The  portrait  is  adapted  from  the  well- 
known  photograph  by  Watkins,  while  the  incidents  depicted  are  taken 
from  the  original  illustrations. 

Although  Buss's  large  picture  of  "  Christmas  in  the  Olden  Time  " 
proved,  for  the  artist,  a  financial  failure,  it  benefited  him  in  being  the 
means  of  introducing  him  to  Charles  Knight  (perhaps  the  most  enter- 
prising publisher  of  that  day),  who,  recognising  in  the  young  painter 
a  diligent  student  of  manners  and  customs,  engaged  his  services  on 
the  Pictorial  Edition  of  Shakespeare's  Works,  "Old  England,"  the 
Penny  Magazine,  and  Chaucer's  "Canterbury  Tales,"  all  of  which 
were  issued  under  Knight's  auspices.  The  Rev.  A.  J.  Buss  well 
remembers  his  father  making  these  drawings  on  wood  blocks, 
which  were  engraved  by  Jackson,  Sly,  and  others,  and  recalls  that, 
some  years  after,  he  obtained  a  commission  from  Mr.  Hogarth,  a 
printseller,  to  execute  some  Christmas  subjects  for  reproduction  by 

After  1854  Buss's  pictures  were  for  some  reason  excluded  from 
the  Royal  Academy  Exhibitions,  and  this  so  seriously  affected  the 
sale  of  his  work  that  he  was  ^compelled  to  have  recourse  to  teaching 
drawing  as  a  means  of  supplementing  a  precarious  income.  As  early 
as  1843  he  had  issued  circulars  announcing  a  course  of  lessons  in 
drawing  on  Dupin's  method,  having  previously  purchased  many  expen- 
sive models,  and  rented  a  room  in  Duke  Street,  Grosvenor  Square ; 
but  all  in  vain,  for  not  a  single  pupil  was  forthcoming !  He  then 
prepared  a  series  of  lectures  on  English  Comic  and  Satiric  Art,  which 
he  delivered  in  London  and  the  chief  provincial  towns  in  England, 
these  being  illustrated  by  large  diagrams. 

During  the  period  of  struggle  for  a  livelihood,  the  artist's  wife  and 
daughter  came  nobly  to  his  assistance  by  establishing,  in  1850,  the 
North  London  Collegiate  School  for  Ladies  (as  it  was  then  desig- 

Plate  XXVI 1 


From  an  Original  Water-colour  Drawing  by 
R.   W.    BUSS 

Lent  hy  the  Rev.  A.  J.  Buss. 



nated),  which  developed  into  the  leading  school  in  the  cause  of  Female 
Education.  In  order  to  g^ve  it  a  higher  grade  than  other  similar 
seminaries  had  then  attained,  Buss  not  only  became  its  professor 
of  drawing,  but  teacher  of  science  too,  first  devoting  himself  to 
the  study  of  Chemistry,  Botany,  Human  Physiology,  Mechanics, 
Hydraulics,  &c.,  and  he  soon  became  qualified  for  his  self-imposed 
responsibilities.  His  artistic  capabilities  here  stood  him  in  good 
stead,  for  they  enabled  him  to  prepare  large  diagrams  with  which  to 
illustrate  his  lectures ;  in  addition  to  this,  he  made  his  own  models  for 
demonstrating  the  science  of  Mechanics — thus  proving  the  power  he 
possessed  of  adapting  himself  to  circumstances,  in  the  earnest  desire 
to  obtain  a  living  and  in  his  love  for  wife  and  children.  "  I  do  not 
think,"  observes  the  Rev.  A.  J.  Buss,  when  corresponding  with  me  on 
this  subject,  '*  I  ever  knew  a  man  so  industrious  as  my  father.  I  have 
a  clear  remembrance  almost  from  my  childhood  of  his  industry, — 
early  morning  in  his  painting-room — up  to  late  hours  drawing  on  wood 
and  etching.  He  deserved  better  fortune  than  he  secured  ;  and  I  have 
only  learnt  to  admire  him  the  more,  the  more  I  think  of  his  career." 

At  the  death  of  his  wife,  the  artist  led  a  very  retired  life,  in  a 
studio  most  picturesquely  fitted  up  with  ancient  furniture,  and  here 
it  was  that  he  devoted  the  latter  years  of  his  life  in  preparing  for 
publication  his  lectures  on  Art,  being  aided  and  encouraged  in  his 
congenial  task  by  his  affectionate  daughter,  the  late  Frances  Mary 
Buss,  who  subsequently  gained  high  distinction  in  connection  with 
Education.  This  profusely-illustrated  volume,  printed  for  private 
circulation,  was  issued  in  1874,  and  bore  the  following  title:  "English 
Graphic  Satire,  and  its  relation  to  Different  Styles  of  Painting, 
Sculpture,  and  Engraving.  A  Contribution  to  the  History  of  the 
English  School  of  Art" 

Robert  William  Buss  died  at  his  residence  in  Camden  Street, 
Camden  Town,  on  February  26,  1875,  •"  his  seventy-first  year. 
The  end  came  very  quietly  and  painlessly  to  him  who  had  fought  the 
battle  of  life  so  honestly  and  so  fearlessly. 

HABLOT    K.    BROWNE    ("Phiz") 


An  Illustrator  required  for  "  Pickwick  " — Leech  and  Thackeray  offer  their  Services — Thackeray's 
First  Meeting  with  Dickens — "Mr.  Pickwick's  Lucky  Escape" — Leech's  Specimen  Draw- 
ing—Hablot  K.  Browne  ("Phii")  Elected  to  Succeed  Buss— His  Etching  of  "John 
Gilpin's  Ride"  Awarded  a  Silver  Medal— His  Designs  for  "Sunday  under  Three 
Heads"  and  "The  Library  of  Fiction"— Mr.  J.  G.  Fennell's  Reminiscences  of  the 
Artist — Thackeray's  Congratulations  to  "Phiz" — A  Modest  Banquet — "Phiz"  as  an 
Etcher— Assisted  by  Robert  Young— Their  First  Plate  for  "  Pickwick  "—An  AU-Night 
Sitting — Particulars  Concerning  a  "First  Edition"  of  "Pickwick"  — The  Success  of  the 
Work  Assured— The  Sobriquet  of  "Phiz"— The  Artist's  Signatures— Method  of  Pre- 
paring the  "  Pickwick "  Illustrations — Variations  in  Duplicated  Plates — George  Augustus 
Sala's  Opinion  of  the  "Pickwick"  Plates— The  Etchings  Criticised— " Phiz's "  Original 
Drawings  for  "Pickwick" — His  Tentative  Designs — Differences  between  the  Drawings 
and  the  Etchings— Dickens's  Hints  to  the  Artist— "  Phiz's "  Sketch  of  Mr.  Pickwick— A 
Series  of  New  Designs — Vignettes  for  the  Library  Edition — Woodcuts  for  the  Household 
Edition— Frontispiece  for  "The  Strange  Gentleman"— Illustrations  for  "Sketches 
OF  Young  Gentlemen"  and  "Sketches  of  Young  Couples"— Sale  of  the  Original 
Drawings— "Nicholas  Nickleby"— Dickens  and  "Phiz"  in  Yorkshire— The  Prototype 
of  Squeers — A  Significant  Memorandum — Mr.  Lloyd's  Recollections  of  William  Shaw, 
a  Yorkshire  Pedagogue — The  "  Nickleby  "  Etchings  Criticised— Particulars  Concerning 
the  Plates — The  Original  Drawings — A  Missing  Design — Dickens's  Instructions  to 
"Phiz"- Variations  in  the  Illustrations— Pictorial  Wrapper — Vignettes  for  the  Library 

IT  is  certainly  extraordinary  that  within  the  space  of  a  few  weeks 
two  vacancies  for  the  post  of  illustrator  of  "Pickwick"  should 
have  occurred.  It  was  about  the  beginning  of  June  1836  (the 
date  of  the  publication  of  the  third  part,  containing  his  two  etchings) 
when  Buss  unexpectedly  received  the  intimation  that  his  services 
would  be  no  longer  required,  and  no  sooner  had  this  fact  become 
known  than  there  was  quite  a  rush  of  aspiring  artists  eager  to  offer 
their  professionsil  aid,  among  them  being  several  who  had  already 
made  a   reputation   as   draughtsmen — such   as    "  Crowquill "  (Alfred 


Platk  XXVI II 

HABL6t  K.   BROWNE  crHIZ") 

From  an  Unpublished  Photograph 

Lent  by  Mr.  Gordon  Browiu,  R.I. 


From  a  Photograph  by 

Lent  by  Mr.  R.  Young. 

yt^.  $w**^  - 

HABL6t    K.    BROWNE  59 

Forrester),  Lee,  and  others.  It  is  of  special  interest  to  learn  that 
John  Leech  and  William  Makepeace  Thackeray  were  also  desirous 
of  obtaining  the  appointment,  but  the  honour  was  destined  for  another. 
Thackeray  had  practised  etching  for  some  years,  having,  while  an 
undergraduate  at  Cambridge,  taken  lessons  of  an  engraver  and  print- 
seller  named  Roe,  who  carried  on  his  profession  in  the  University 
town,  and  under  that  gentleman's  superintendence  he  etched  a  series 
of  plates  illustrative  of  college  life,  which  were  first  published  in 
1878.  Possessing  a  natural  gift  for  drawing,  the  famous  satirist  (in 
his  early  days)  earnestly  desired  to  follow  Art  as  a  profession,  and 
so  far  encouraged  his  bent  by  copying  pictures  in  the  Louvre ;  but 
his  studies  seem  to  have  been  of  a  desultory  character,  and  of  little 
value  in  making  him  a  sound  draughtsman.  When,  on  returning 
to  London,  he  heard  that  a  designer  was  required  for  the  "  Pickwick  " 
illustrations,  he  immediately  sought  an  interview  with  Dickens  at 
his  rooms  in  Furnival's  Inn,  taking  with  him  some  specimens  of 
his  work,  and  more  than  twenty  years  afterwards,  in  responding  to 
the  toast  of  "  Literature  "  at  the  Royal  Academy  banquet,  he  thus 
referred  to  the  memorable  incident :  "I  can  remember  when  Mr, 
Dickens  was  a  very  young  man,  and  had  commenced  delighting 
the  world  with  some  charming  humorous  works,  of  which  I  cannot 
mention  the  name,  but  which  were  coloured  light  green  and  came 
out  once  a  month,  that  this  young  man  wanted  an  artist  to  illustrate 
his  writings,  and  I  recollect  walking  up  to  his  chambers  with  two 
or  three  drawings  in  my  hand,  which,  strange  to  say,  he  did  not 
find  suitable.  But  for  that  unfortunate  blight  which  came  over  my 
artistical  existence,  it  would  have  been  my  pride  and  my  pleasure 
to  have  endeavoured  one  day  to  find  a  place  on  these  walls  for  one 
of  my  performances."  Although  at  the  time  he  was  doubtless  sur- 
prised at,  and  sorely  disappointed  by,  "Boz's"  want  of  appreciation, 
he  afterwards  acknowledged  there  was  some  justification  for  it,  and 
good-humouredly  alluded  to  the  rejection  of  his  services  as  "  Mr. 
Pickwick's  lucky  escape."      Who  can  say  whether   "  Vanity  Fair " 


and  "Esmond"  would  ever  have  been  written  had  this  mighty  pen- 
man been  elected  to  succeed  Buss  ?  * 

Thackeray's  schoolfellow  and  life-long  friend,  John  Leech,  also  sub- 
mitted a  design  to  Chapman  &  Hall,  in  the  hope  of  being  successful 
where  others  had  failed,  but  the  little  drawing,  slightly  tinted  in  colours, 
depicting  the  amusing  scene  in  the  Bagman's  story  of  Tom  Smart  and 
the  high-backed  chair,  did  not  indicate  the  possession  by  the  artist  of 
the  necessary  qualifications.  He  was  accordingly  dismissed ;  but  it 
was  reserved  for  this  amiable  man  and  accomplished  draughtsman  not 
only  to  adorn  with  his  pencil  the  pages  of  the  "Carol"  and  other 
Christmas  books  of  Charles  Dickens,  but  to  be  afterwards  honoured 
by  the  friendship  and  esteem  of  England's  great  novelist. 

As  all  the  world  knows,  the  privilege  of  illustrating  Dickens's  most 
popular  work  was  secured  by  Habldt  Knight  Browne  ("Phiz"),  this 
clever  designer  being  rightly  regarded  cis  artistic  exponent-in-chief  of 
Dickens's  creations.  At  this  time  he  had  barely  attained  his  majority, 
and,  unlike  Cruikshank,  who  came  to  the  pictorial  embellishment  of 
"Sketches  by  Boz  "  and  "Oliver  Twist"  with  a  distinct  reputation, 
was  an  almost  untried  artist.  About  his  eighteenth  year,  while 
serving  his'  apprenticeship  with  the  Findens,  the  well-known  line- 
engravers,  Browne  was  awarded  a  silver  medal  offered  for  com- 
petition by  the  Society  of  Arts  for  "  the  best  representation  of  an 
historical  subject " — a  large  etching^^portraying  John  Gilpin's  famous 
ride  through  Edmonton,  Apropos  of  this  etching  Mr.  Mason 
Jackson  writes  in  the  Atlutueum,  June  ii,  1887:  "Mr.  Chapman 
(of  Chapman  &  Hall)  was  delighted  with  'John  Gilpin's  Ride,'  and 
forthwith  applied  to  Browne,  who  thus  succeeded  Seymour  and  Buss 
as   the  illustrator  of  '  Pickwick.' "      After  a   careful   comparison   ot 

>  According  to  the  following  anecdote,  Thackeray  did  not  over-estimate  his  own  powers 
as  a  draughtsman.  Mr.  M.  H.  Spielmann  tells  us  that  after  Edmund  Yates  had  started  an 
illustrated  magazine,  which  had  but  a  brief  existence,  Thackeray  wrote  to  him  :  "  You  have 
a  new  artist  on  The  Train,  I  see,  my  dear  Yates.  I  have  been  looking  at  his  work,  and  I 
have  solved  a  problem.     I  find  there  is  a  man  alive  who  draws  worse  than  myself  I " 


HABL6t    K.    BROWNE  6i 

dates,  I  venture  to  point  out  the  probability  that  it  was  not  with 
a  view  to  the  illustration  of  "  Pickwick "  that  Edward  Chapman 
paid  his  first  visit  to  Browne,  as  generally  supposed,  but  for  the 
purpose  of  engaging  his  services  as  designer  of  some  woodcuts  for 
a  pamphlet  which  the  firm  was  about  to  publish,  entitled  "  Sunday 
under  Three  Heads — As  it  is ;  As  Sabbath  Bells  would  make  it ; 
As  it  might  be  made"     This  brochure,  written  by  Dickens  under 

the  pseudonym  of  "Timothy  Sparks,"  is  prefaced  by 

Sunday  under    ^   Dedication  dated   June  1836,  and  was  therefore 

Q^  in  progress  prior   to    the  publication  of  the  fourth 

number  of  "  Pickwick,"  containing  "  Phiz's "  first 
designs,  which  appeared  during  the  following  month.  When,  in 
after  years,  Mr.  Morton  Brune  enquired  of  the  artist  concerning  his 
share  in  this  little  production,  he  replied :  "  The  work  of  Dickens 
mentioned  by  you  was  illustrated  by  me  when  quite  a  youngster,  and 
I  am  sorry  to  say  I  can  give  no  information  about  it^recollecting 
nothing  whatever."  *  Besides  a  trio  of  heads  (printed  on  both  wrapper 
and  title-page),  there  are  three  full-page  illustrations,  engraved  by 
C.  Gray  and  Orrin  Smith.  This  excessively  scarce  pamphlet  was 
issued  as  a  protest  against  the  extreme  views  of  Sir  Andrew  Agnew 
and  the  Sabbatarian  party,  and  had  immediate  reference  to  a  Bill 
"for  the  better  observance  of  the  Sabbath,"  then  recently  rejected 
in  the  House  of  Commons  by  a  small  majority.  "  Sunday  under 
Three  Heads "  was  originally  published  at  two  shillings,  and  now 
realises  as  much  as  ;^io  in  the  auction-room.  There  are  two  or 
three  facsimile  reprints  in  existence,  but  the  reproductions  of  the 
woodcuts  are  comparatively  poor. 

It  should  be  mentioned  that  "Phiz"  (together  with  Seymour  and 
Buss)  assisted  in  the  illustration  of  "The  Library  of  Fiction,"  pub- 
lished by  Chapman  &   Hall  in    1836-37,  so  that  his  artistic  efforts 

*  As  early  as  1837  Browne  designed  (as  an  advertisement  for  Bentley)  a  little  woodcut 
(now  very  rare)  in  which  he  depicted  Charles  Dickens  leading  by  the  lappel  of  his  waistcoat 
a  burly  and  perspiring  porter,  who  is  seen  carrying  a  huge  bale  of  copies  of  BttUleys 
Miscellany,  of  which  magazine  the  novelist  was  then  the  editor. 


were  by  no  means  unfamiliar  to  the  firm  at  this  time.  In  his  design 
facing  page  293  of  the  first  volume  of  that  work  there  may  be  dis- 
covered the  figure  of  an  obese  individual  who  is  the  very  counterpart 
of  Tony  Weller, 

An  intimate  friend  of  Habl6t  K.    Browne,    Mr.   John   Greville 
Yhc  Fennell   (formerly  of  the  Field  journal),   confirms  my 

Pickwick       opinion  that  the   artist's   earliest  association  with   the 
Papers,  writings  of  Dickens  was  his  connection  with  "  Sunday 

l°30~37«  under  Three  Heads";  but,  as  the  engravings  in  that 
pamphlet  only  bore  the  designer's  initials,  it  is  more  than  probable 
that  Browne  himself  was  then  an  absolute  stranger  to  the  future 
novelist.  Within  a  very  brief  period,  however,  certain  events 
conspired  to  bring  about  the  beginning  of  an  acquaintance  which 
ripened  into  a  friendship  that  never  ceased  during  Dickens's  life- 
time. Mr.  Fennell  writes :  "  It  was  I  who,  while  superintending 
E.  &  W.  Finden's  establishment,  sold  his  first  drawing  to  Adolphus 
Ackermann,  and  induced  him  (H.  K.  B.)  to  reproduce  Buss's  two 
illustrations  (viz..  The  Cricket-Match'  and  The  Fat  Boy  Awake  on 
this  Occasion  only),  which  I  sent  down  to  Chapman  &  Hall."  It 
was  apparently  through  Mr.  Fennell's  intervention  that  the  publishers 
were  enabled  to  recognise  Browne's  ability  as  an  etcher,  and  to  dis- 
cover in  the  specimens  submitted  to  them  that  he  was  the  very  man 
to  occupy  the  position  then  recently  vacated  by  Buss.  He  first  heard 
of  his  appointment  from  his  generous  rival,  Thackeray,  who  at  once 
made  his  way  to  the  artist's  abode  in  Newman  Street  for  the  purpose 
of  congratulating  him,  and  it  is  said  that  they  immediately  repaired 
to  a  neighbouring  public-house,  where  a  banquet  consisting  of 
sausages  and  bottled  stout  was  held  in  honour  of  the  occasion. 

At  this  juncture,  Browne  (who  considered  line-engraving  too 
tedious  a  process)  suspended  operations  at  Finden's  establishment, 
and,  through  the  friendly  auspices  of  Mr.  Fennell,  his  indentures  were 

>  So  far  as  I  am  aware,  no  illustration  by  "  Phiz"  of  this  subject  is  extant 

HABL6t    K.    BROWNE  63 

cancelled  two  years  before  they  had  expired.  In  conjunction  with 
a  kindred  spirit,  he  hired  a  modest  room  as  a  studio,  and  employed 
his  time  in  the  more  congenial  pursuit  of  water-colour  drawing. 
As  the  result  of  a  solemn  compact  between  them  to  produce  three 
drawings  daily,  Browne,  who  worked  very  rapidly,  was  enabled  to 
pay  his  share  of  the  rent  by  the  proceeds  of  his  labours.  In  order 
to  familiarise  himself  with  the  human  form,  he  attended  the  evening 
class  at  the  "  Life "  School  in  St.  Martin's  Lane,  having  as  a  fellow- 
pupil  that  famous  painter  of  the  "  nude,"  William  Etty,  who  after- 
wards joined  the  ranks  of  the  Royal  Academicians. 

In  1836  (when  in  his  twenty-first  year)  Browne  had  acquired 
considerable  facility  with  his  pencil,  and  soon  proved  that  his  selection 
as  the  illustrator  of  "  Pickwick  "  was  thoroughly  justified.  By  means 
of  the  training  he  had  undergone  at  the  Findens,  he  had  obtained 
a  mastery  over  the  difficulties  and  mysteries  of  etching,  which  now 
proved  eminently  serviceable.  Buss  declared  that  "  Phiz "  was  by 
no  means  an  expert  when  he  commenced  working  for  "  Pickwick," 
being  tcomp^lled  to  obtain  help  from  an  experienced  engraver 
named  Sands,  who  "touched  up  the  drawings  with  his  own  needle, 
adding  shade  where  required,  and  then  applied  the  acid  and  did 
all  the  necessary  'biting-in'  and  'stopping-out.'".  The  facts,  how- 
ever, are  rather  over-stated,  as  witness  that  early  effort  (perhaps 
unknown  to  Buss),  viz.,  the  etching  of  John  Gilpin,  which  was 
undoubtedly  unaided  work,  testifying  that  the  artist  was  then  quite 
capable  of  running  alone.  It  is  acknowledged,  however,  that,  so  far 
as  the  "  biting-in  "  was  concerned,  he  invariably  secured  co-operation, 
not  on  account  of  his  own  incapacity,  but  merely  to  save  time,  and 
for  this  purpose  he  generally  sought  and  obtained  the  requisite  help 
of  his  quondam  fellow-apprentice,  Robert  Young. 

Browne  speedily  communicated  to  Mr.  Young  the  welcome  intelli- 
gence respecting  the  "  Pickwick "  appointment ;  indeed,  we  are  told 
that  he  went  at  once  to  his  friend's  chambers,  and  on  entering  said, 
"  Look  here,  old  fellow :  will  you  come  to  my   rooms  to  assist  me 


with  a  plate  I  have  to  etch  ?  "  Mr.  Young,  who  was  still  in  the  employ 
of  Finden,  had  acquired  such  a  thorough  knowledge  of  the  art 
of  biting-in  designs  upon  steel  plates,  that  Browne  realised  the  im- 
portance of  securing  his  co-operation  without  delay,  and,  happily  for 
him,  his  friend  readily  acceded  to  his  wish ;  whereupon  "  Phiz " 
suggested  that  he  should  take  his  key  with  him,  as  they  might  be 
late.  The  design  having  already  been  drawn  upon  the  plate,  the 
two  conspirators  devoted  the  entire  night  to  the  operation  of 
biting-in,  the  outcome  of  which  was  the  production  of  the  plate  depict- 
ing the  eventful  meeting  of  Mr.  Pickwick  and  Sam  Weller  at  the  old 
"^ White  Hart  Inn,  perhaps  the  most  notable  illustration  in  the  book. 
Mf.  Young's  share  of  the  undertaking  consisted  in  the  application 
and  manipulation  of  acid,  which  corroded  the  plate  where  exposed 
by  the  needle — a  troublesome  and  delicate  operation,  requiring  con- 
siderable experience,  as,  by  too  lengthy  or  too  brief  a  subjection  of 
the  metal  to  the  action  of  the  acid,  the  plate  would  be  ruined,  and 
the  labour  of  the  artist  rendered  of  no  avail. 

Mr.  Young  writes  in  reply  to  my  enquiry  respecting  this  and  subse- 
quent collaboration  :  "  I  did  not  bite-in  the  whole  of  'Phiz's  '  etchings. 
I  was  some  years  abroad,  during  which  he  had  assistance  from  two  en- 
gravers. Sands  and  Weatherhead.  '  Phiz '  was  quite  capable  of  doing 
this  part  of  the  work  himself,  for  he  had  two  or  three  years'  practice 
during  his  apprenticeship  at  Finden's ;  but  he  had  no  time  for  such 
work,  being  always  fully  occupied  in  etching  or  drawing  on  wood." 

The  title-page  of  "  Pickwick  "  intimates  that  the  volume  contains 
"Forty-three  illustrations  by  R.  Seymour  and  Phiz,"  thus  ignoring 
Buss's  contributions.  The  fact  is  (as  stated  in  the  preceding  chapter) 
that  only  a  few  copies  of  Part  III.,  containing  the  two  plates  by  Buss, 
were  issued,  these  being  quickly  superseded  by  a  couple  of  new  designs 
by  Browne  ;  therefore,  a  copy  of  an  absolutely  first  edition  of  the  book 
should  include  seven  etchings  by  Seymour,  two  by  Buss,  and  thirty- 
four  by  "Phiz."  Two  plates,  viz.,  "The  Fat  Boy  Awake  on  this 
Occasion  only  "  and  "  Mr.  Wardle  and  his  Friends  under  the  Influence 


Plate  XXIX 


Faesimik  of  the  Original  Drawing  for  "  Nicholas  Nickleby  "  by 
H.  K.  BROWNE  ("Phiz") 

Above  the  Sketch  is  written  the  following,  in  the  autograph  of  Dickens : — 
"  I  don't  think  that  Smike  is  frightened  enough  [or  that  Squeers  is]  earnest 
enough,  for  my  purpose." 

Lent  by  Mr.  M.  H.  Spielmann. 





HABL6T    K.    BROWNE  65 

of 'the  Salmon'"  were  etched  for  Part  III.  (after  those  in  Part  LV.), 
to  take  the  place  of  Buss's  cancelled  designs.  In  early  copies  of  the 
first  edition  all  the  plates  were  printed  without  titles,  and  throughout 
the  first  twelve  numbers  each  plate  bore  only  a  reference  in  figures 
to  the  page  which  it  was  intended  to  illustrate.  In  the  remaining 
numbers  (Parts  XIII.  to  XX.)  the  reference  figures  were  withheld,  the 
plates  showing  in  the  first  published  copies  neither  figures,  titles,  nor 
publishers'  imprint. 

\JFor  the  first  three  parts  of  "  The  Pickwick  Papers  "  there  was  so 
limited  a  demand  that  the  publishers  seriously  contemplated  a  discon- 
tinuance of  the  work,  a  fate  which,  from  the  same  cause,  threatened 
Thackeray's  famous  novel,  "  Vanity  Fair,"  in  the  early  stages  of  its 
career.  Happily,  such  a  disaster  was  averted  by  the  appearance  in 
the  fourth  part  of  Sam  Weller,  who  at  once  achieved  such  enormous 
popularity  that  the  sale  went  up  by  leaps  and  bounds,  the  number  of 
copies  disposed  of  increasing  from  a  few  hundreds  to  several  thousands.  1 
This  was  an  extremely  happy  augury,  not  only  for  author  and  pub- 
lishers, but  for  the  young  artist  whose  connection  with  the  book  began 
at  this  critical  time,  and  the  extraordinary  circulation  so  suddenly  im- 
parted to  the  work  was  doubtless  principally  instrumental  in  obtaining 
for  him  other  commissions,  with  which  he  was  soon  overflowing. 
Browne's  earliest  printed  plates  are  signed  "  Nemo,"  and  referring 
to  this  he  says :  "  I  think  I  signed  myself  as  '  Nemo '  to  my  first 
etchings  (those  of  No.  4)  before  adopting  '  Phiz '  as  my  sobriquet,  to 
harmonise — I  suppose — better  with  Dickens's  '  Boz.'  "  The  third  and 
succeeding  plates  bear  the  signature  of  "  Phiz,"  a  sign-manual  which 
presently  became  well  known  to  all  readers  of  the  novels  of  Dickens, 
Ainsworth,  and  Lever.  Although  he  seldom  appended  his  surname  to 
his  designs,  we  not  unfrequently  find  (in  his  woodcuts  especially)  the 
initials  "  H.K.B.,"  in  lieu  of  the  more  familiar  pseudonym.  It  seems 
the  public  could  never  quite  realise  that  the  different  signatures  were 
those  of  the  same  artist,  and  were  wont  to  remark  that  "  Browne's 
work  was  better  than  Phiz's." 


The  "  Pickwick  "  illustrations  were  produced  in  couples,  that  is,  two 
subjects  were  etched  on  one  plate,  this  being^  printed  at  a  single  opera- 
tion and  the  sheets  afterwards  divided.  "  Phiz  "  was  exceedingly  rapid 
in  his  work  when  time  was  limited,  and  could  design  and  etch  a  plate 
in  the  course  of  a  day,  and  have  it  bitten-in  and  ready  for  the  printer 
by  the  next  morning.  Unlike  Seymour,  he  almost  invariably  drew 
his  subjects  on  the  steel  without  reversing  them,  so  that  they  appeared 
reversed  in  the  printing;  it  is  evident,  however,  that  he  sometimes 
failed  to  remember  this  when  preparing  his  designs,  so  that  occasion- 
ally we  find  that  his  figures  are  left-handed,  and  other  similar  incon- 
gruities. Doubtless,  the  artist's  motive  in  thus  copying  his  drawings 
directly  upon  the  plate  was  to  facilitate  operations,  for  in  this  way  he 
could  dispense  with  the  aid  of  a  mirror. , 

—  A  noteworthy  consequence  of  the  increased  sale  of  the  "  Pick- 
wick "  numbers  was  the  serious  deterioration  of  the  plates  caused  by 
friction  in  printing,  as  for  every  impression  the  plate  must  be  inked 
and  the  superfluous  ink  removed  by  wiping  with  the  hand.  In  those 
days  the  process  called  "steel- facing,"  by  means  of  which  the  etched 
or  engraved  surface  is  hardened,  was  unknown,  so  that,  comparatively, 
only  a  few  impressions  could  be  struck  off  before  the  plate  indicated 
any  appreciable  sign  of  wear-and-tear.  The  designs  were  therefore 
etched  in  duplicate,  and  this  appears  to  have  commenced  at  the  date 
I  of  the  publication  of  the  tenth  part  of  "Pickwick."  The  system  of 
I  duplicating  the  plates  readily  accounts  for  the  interesting  varia- 
tions observable  in  different  copies  of  the  first  issue ;  as,  for  example, 
the  faces  in  the  illustration  delineating  Mr.  Pickwick's  first  meeting 
with  Sam  Weller  are  much  improved  in  the  replica,  while  other  details 
are  greatly  altered ;  in  the  original  plate  portraying  Mr.  Pickwick  in 
the  pound,  there  are  two  donkeys  and  four  pigs,  while  the  later  im- 
pression has  but  one  donkey  and  two  pigs  ;  in  the  etching  where 
Master  Bardell  is  seen  kicking  Mr.  Pickwick,  the  boy  was  first  drawn 
with  his  head  down,  but  was  subsequently  represented  with  it  raised, 
the  attitudes  of  Snodgrass  and  Winkle  being  also  slightly  changed ; 

HABL6T    K.    BROWNE  67 

the  second  version  of  the  plate  entitled  "  The  Break-down  "  (which,  by 
the  way,  bears  a  remarkable  resemblance  to  Buss's  unused  drawing 
of  the  same  subject)  differs  considerably  from  the  first,  and  this  remark 
applies  to  many  of  the  other  designs ;  but  it  is  chiefly  in  the  earlier 
plates  that  these  variations  are  particularly  noticeable.  1  It  is  by  no 
means  surprising  that  such  unimportant  alterations  exist,  for  an  artist 
like  "  Phiz  "  would  find  it  infinitely  tiresome  to  slavishly  copy,  line 
for  line,  the  original  designs,  especally  if  he  saw  an  opportunity  for 
improving  them.~|  . 

The  late  George  Augustus  Sala  held  the  opinion  that  Habl6t' 
Browne's  earlier  illustrations  to  "  Pickwick  "  are  "  exceedingly  humor- 
ous, but  exceedingly  ill-drawn,"  and  believed  that  it  was  the  amazing 
success  of  the  author  which  spurred  the  artist  to  sedulous  study, 
thus  conducing  in  a  remarkable  degree  towards  the  development 
of  his  faculties.  Remembering,  however,  that  "  Phiz  "  had  only  just 
attained  his  majority,  we  cannot  but  admire  the  deftness  and  skill  he 
then  displayed  in  so  difficult  an  ^  as  etching,  for,  although  some 
of  the  illustrations  are  marked  by  a  certain  grotesqueness,  these  plates 
are  marvels  of  technique,  j 

In  the  preface  tcTTlTe  first  edition  of  "The  Pickwick  Papers"  we 
read  :  "It  is  due  to  the  gentleman,  whose  designs  accompany  the 
letterpress,  to  state  that  the  interval  has  been  so  short  between  the 
production  of  each  number  in  manuscript  and  its  appearance  in  print, 
that  the  greater  portion  of  the  illustrations  have  been  executed  by  the 
artist  from  the  author's  mere  verbal  description  of  what  he  intended 
to  write."  It  was  customary  at  this  time  for  Dickens  to  call  upon 
Browne,  and  hastily  explain  his  intentions  respecting  the  chapters  to 
be  illustrated,  and  from  notes  then  made  by  the  artist  the  requisite 
designs  were  evolved.  [This  satisfactorily  accounts  for  certain  in- 
accuracies in  the  plates,  for  which,  however,  "  Phiz  "  cannot  justly  be 
censured ;  for  example,  in  the  etching  representing  Mr.  Pickwick 
hiding  behind  the  door  of  the  young  ladies'  seminary,  the  cook 
should  have  been  the  only  person  shown  beyond  the  threshold  ;  and 




in  the  plate  depicting  the  discovery  of  Jingle  in  the  Fleet,  we  see 
Job  Trotter  standing  behind  Mr.  Pickwick,  whereas,  according  to  the 
text,  he  had  not  entered  the  room  at  that  precise  moment.  On  the 
other  hand,  we  may  detect  some  defects  for  which  "  Phiz  "  must  be 
held  responsible ;  as,  for  instance,  fthe^  inaccurate  perspective  of  the 
mantelshelf  in  the  plate  entided  "  The  Red-nosed  Man  Discourseth," 
and  the  absence  of  proportion  in  the  size  of  the  figures  of  Mr.  Pick- 
wick and  the  old  lady  in  the  etching  portraying  Christmas  Eve  at 
Mr.  Wardle's,  a  similar  anomaly  appearing  in  |he  etching  of  Mr. 
Pickwick's  encounter  with  Mrs.  Bardell  in  the  Fleet!  Again,  there 
surely  never  existed  so  enormous  a  sedan-chair  as 'That  from  the  roof 
of  which  Mr.  Pickwick  expostulates  with  Sam  Weller  when  he 
attacks  the  executive  of  Ipswich,  or  that  into  which  Mr.  Winkle 
bolts  in  his  robe  de  nuit.  /in  the  skating  scene,  curiously  enough, 
there  is  no  indication  of  skates  being  worn  by  any  member  of 
the  company.  "  Phiz "  sometimes  posed  his  figures  in  attitudes 
I  which,  if  not  physically  impossible,  are  unnatural  and  unpicturesquejj 
it  must  be  admitted,  however,  that  he  usually  succeeded  where  George 
Cruikshank  invariably  failed,  that  is,  in  delineating  pretty  women,  of 
y,^  whom  his  skilled  pencil  has  given  us  quite  an  extensive  gallery. 

A  set  of  proofs  of  "  Phiz's "  plates  sold  for  twenty  guineas  at 
Sotheby's  in  1889.  A  reprint  of  "  Pickwick,"  published  at  Launces- 
ton,  Van  Diemen's  Land,  in  1838-39,  was  illustrated  by  means  of 
lithographic  copies  (signed  "  Tiz  ")  of  some  of  the  original  etchings. 
At  the  same  time  there  appeared  an  American  edition,  issued  in  parts 
by  Turney,  New  York,  With  facsimiles  of  the  plates  engraved  on  steel. 

It  fortunately  happens  that,  with  two  exceptions,  the  original 
drawings  by  "Phiz"  for  "The  Pickwick  Papers"  have  been  pre- 
served; the  missing  designs  are  "Mr.  Wardle  and  his  Friends 
under  the  Influence  of  'the  Salmon'"  and  the  vignette  for  the 
title-page,  where  Tony  Weller  is  seen  ducking  Stiggins  in  the  horse- 
trough.  Photogravure  reproductions  of  all  the  existing  designs 
(some  having  Dickens's  autograph)   were  published  in  the  Victoria 


Plate   XXX 


FacsimiU  of  Original   Drawings  by 
H.  K.  BROWNE  ("Phiz") 

L€Ht  iy  Mr.  J.  F.  DexUr. 

1  ^ 

HABLOt    K.    BROWNE  69 

edition  by  Chapman  &  Hall  in  1887.  The  majority  of  the  drawings 
were  executed  in  pencil  or  pen-and-ink,  the  effects  washed  in  with  a 
brush,  the  remainder  being  entirely  brushwork.  The  following  is  a 
list  of  "  Pickwick  "  designs  by  "  Phiz  "  such  as  were  merely  tentative, 
and  therefore  never  etched  : — 

Mr.  Winkle's  First  Shot. —  Trial  sketch,  illustrating  an  incident  in  the 
seventh  chapter.    A  sketch  of  the  same  subject  was  made  by  Buss. 

Christmas  Eve  at  Mr.  Wardle's. — Trial  sketch,  varying  but  slightly 
from  the  approved  design. 

The  Goblin  and  the  Sexton.  —  First  sketch,  in  pencil,  varying 
considerably  from  the  etching.  An  attenuated  sprite,  with 
sugar-loaf  hat  and  arms  akimbo,  is  seated  on  the  top  of  a  flat 
gravestone  beside  Gabriel  Grub,  who,  pausing  in  the  act  of 
raising  a  bottle  to  his  lips,  gazes  with  astonishment  at  his  un- 
canny visitor.     Behind  is  seen  a  church  porch. 

The  Goblin  and  the  Sexton.  —  Second  sketch,  similar  in  char- 
acter, but  more  complete.  Positions  of  figures  reversed, 
and  the  goblin  more  robust.  In  the  published  etching  the 
artist  has  introduced  as  a  background  a  view  of  an  ecclesi- 
astical building,  which  bears  some  resemblance  to  St.  Alban's 

The  Warden's  Room. — Trial  sketch,  varying  considerably  from 
the  approved  design.  The  attitudes  of  dancer  and  seated 
figure  are  different,  the  man  in  the  bed  adjoining  Mr.  Pick- 
wick's throws  up  both  arms  and  one  leg,  while  in  either  hand 
he  holds  a  nightcap  and  beer-jug.  Other  figures  are  introduced 
on  the  right. 

In  comparing  the  drawings  with  the  plates,  important  variations 
are  sometimes  apparent.  In  the  remarkable  etching,  "  The  Election 
at  Eatanswill,"  the  artist  has  introduced  fresh  figures,  while  others 
are  altered ;  in  "  Mr.  Pickwick  in  the  Pound,"  we  see  in  the 
first  state  of  the  etching  two  donkeys  and  four  pigs,  instead  of  one 


donkey  and  three  pigs,  as  in  the  drawing ;  in  "  Job  Trotter  encoun- 
tering Sam  in  Mr.  Muzzle's  Kitchen,"  the  pretty  housemaid  was 
originally  represented  sitting  on  Sam  Weller's  knee  ;  in  "  The  Valen- 
tine," the  artist's  first  intention  was  to  portray  Tony  Weller  without 
hat  and  cape;  and  in  "Conviviality  at  Bob  Sawyer's,"  a  human 
skeleton  is  visible  behind  Mr.  Ben  Allen,  which  was  omitted  in 
the  etching. 

The  interest  of  a  few  of  these  drawings  is  considerably  enhanced 
by  the  fact  that  they  contain  instructions  and  suggestions  in  the 
autograph  of  Dickens.  The  first  so  treated  is  "Mrs.  Leo  Hunter's 
Fancy-dress  Ddijeund,"  the  drawing  differing  in  many  respects  from 
the  etching,  chiefly  in  the  attitudes  and  arrangement  of  the  figures ; 
under  it  the  author  has  written :  "I  think  it  would  be  better  if 
Pickwick  had  hold  of  the  Bandit's  arm.  If  Minerva  tried  to  look 
a  little  younger  (more  like  Mrs.  Pott,  who  is  perfect),  I  think  it 
would  be  an  additional  improvement."  The  design  was  altered  in 
accordance  with  the  spirit  of  the  criticism,  and  we  find  Minerva, 
instead  of  a  plump  and  matronly  personage,  the  very  opposite  in  the 
matter  of  physique.  It  is  worthy  of  note  that  in  the  first  state  of  the 
etching  the  face  of  the  Russian  officer  in  the  rear  bore  too  close  a 
caricature  resemblance  to  that  of  Lord  Brougham,  the  subsequent 
change  in  his  appearance  being  due  to  some  remonstrance  against 
the  artist's  freedom.  The  drawing  depicting  Mr.  Pickwick's  first 
interview  with  Serjeant  Snubbin  contains  the  following  hint  from 
the  author :  "  I  think  the  Serjeant  should  look  younger,  and  a  great 
deal  more  sly  and  knowing;  he  should  be  looking  at  Pickwick  too, 
smiling  compassionately  at  his  innocence.  The  other  fellows  are 
noble. — C.  D."  As  a  matter  of  fact,  the  drawing  is  more  successful 
than  the  etching,  the  Serjeant's  face  in  the  former  indicating  that 
it  had  been  obliterated  and  altered  to  suit  Dickens's  idea.  In  the 
original  design  for  the  etching  representing  "Mr.  Winkle's  Situa- 
tion when  the  Door  'Blew  to,'"  the  artist  portrayed  Mr.  Winkle 
holding  the  candlestick  in  front  of  him  ;  but  Dickens  objected  to  this, 

HABL6t    K.    BROWNE  71 

and  wrote  at  the  top  of  the  drawing :  "  Winkle  should  be  holding 
the  candlestick  above  his  head,  I  think.  It  looks  more  comical,  the 
light  having  gone  out."  The  change  was  made,  but  the  curious  thing 
is,  neither  author  nor  artist  remembered  the  fact  that  at  the  moment 
depicted  Mr.  Winkle  had  actually  discarded  the  useless  candlestick. 
Under  the  same  drawing  Dickens  penned  the  following  comment :  "  A 
fat  Chairman  so  short  as  our  friend  here,  never  drew  breath  in  Bath  ; " 
"  Phiz"  has  also  written  in  the  margin  :  "  Shall  I  leave  Pickwick  where 
he  is  or  put  him  under  the  bed-clothes  ?  I  can't  carry  him  so  high  as 
the  second  floor. — H.  K.  B."  (Mr.  Pickwick's  rooms  are  described 
as  being  in  the  "  upper  portion "  of  the  house,  but  it  would  seem 
that  Dickens  had  originally  placed  him  on  the  "second  floor,"  which 
suggests  that  the  text  was  altered  to  suit  the  illustration.)  In  repljr^ 
to  this  query  the  author  wrote :  "I  would  leave  him  Where  he  is 
decidedly.  Is  the  lady  full  dressed  ?  She  ought  to  be. — C.  D."  Mr. 
Pickwick  was  left  accordingly ;  likewise  the  fat  chairman,  whose 
abnormal  obesity  was  reproduced  in  the  etching  as  it  appears  in  the 
drawing.  In  the  sketch  of  "  Mr.  Winkle  Returns  under  Extra- 
ordinary Circumstances,"  the  artist  had  not  made  Sam  Weller  and  the 
housemaid  quite  as  Dickens  desired,  whereupon  the  novelist  appended 
the  following  queries :  "  Are  Sam  and  the  housemaid  clearly  made 
out ;  and  [would  it  not  be  be]tter  if  he  was  looking  on  with  his  arm 
roun[d  Mary  ?]  I  rayther  question  the  accuracy  of  the  housemaid."  * 
As  the  sketch,  in  its  present  state,  realises  Dickens's  idejis,  we  may 
assume  that  it  was  altered  by  the  artist  before  he  transferred  his 
design  to  the  plate ;  indeed,  there  seems  to  be  evidence  of  this  in 
the  blurred  appearance  of  the  young  couple  in  the  drawing,  in  the 
margin  of  which  "Phiz"  has  written  the  following  instructions  about 
the  biting-in :  "  The  outlines  of  the  figfures  I  have  etched  with  a 
broad  point  unintentionally ;  bite  them  slightly,  that  they  may  not 
be  too  hard,  especially  Pickwick."  The  last  of  the  drawings  con- 
taining the  novelist's  handwriting  is  that  illustrating  "The  Ghostly 

'  The  words  in  brackets  are  unfortunately  cut  off  the  sketch. 


passengers  in  the  Ghost  of  a  Mail,"  this  bearing  the  unusual  signa- 


ture,  "  Charles  +   Dickens,"  by  which  the  novelist  evidently  meant 


to  express  his  satisfaction  with  the  artist's  treatment  of  the  subject. 
In  the  "  English  Humorists  "  Exhibition  held  in  London  a  few  years 
since,  there  was  a  capital  study  by  "  Phiz  "  of  Mr.  Pickwick,  apparently 
an  enlarged  replica  of  the  familiar  figure  and  pose  as  seen  in  Sey- 
mour's illustration  of  him  as  he  appeared  when  addressing  the  Club ; 
it  is  a  water-colour  drawing  on  buff  paper,  supplemented  by  marginal 
sketches  of  the  head  and  bust  of  Pickwick  with  his  hat  on,  to- 
gether with  two  studies  of  hats  ;  upon  the  side  of  the  drawing 
is  inscribed  the  following  memorandum :  "  Nankeen  tights,  black 
cloth  gaiters,  white  waistcoat,  blue  coat,  brass  buttons,  square  cut  in 
the  tails." 

In  1847  "Phiz"  prepared  six  new  designs  for  "The  Pickwick 
Papers,"  which  were  delicately  engraved  on  wood  ;  the  series  was  issued 
independently,  and  simultaneously  with  the  first  cheap  edition  of  the 
book.  These  drawings  are  undoubtedly  superior  to  the  etchings,  being 
the  more  matured  work  of  the  artist.  The  following  were  the  subjects 
chosen:  "Mr.  Winkle's  First  Shot,"  "The  Effects  of  Cold  Punch," 
"Mr.  Pickwick  at  Dodson  and  Fogg's,"  "The  Kiss  under  the 
Misdetoe,"  "Old  Weller  at  the  Temperance  Meeting,"  "The  Leg 
of  Mutton  '  Swarry.' "  "  Phiz  "  also  contributed  to  each  of  the  two 
volumes  of  the  Library  Edition  (1858-59)*  a  vignette  illustration  for 
the  title-page,  the  subjects  being  Mr.  Pickwick  and  the  Wellers,  and 
Sam  Weller  with  the  Pretty  Housemaid ;  they  were  engraved  on 
steel  from  the  original  drawings  in  water-colours.  In  1867  the  artist 
was  seized  with  a  form  of  paralysis,  the  use  of  the  right  hand  being 
so  greatly  impaired  that  he  was  unable  to  make  the  forefinger  and 
thumb  meet;  this  compelled  him  to  hold  the  pencil  or  brush  in  a 

'  The  early  voliames  in  the  Library  Edition,  issued  during  1858-59,  have  only  vignettes  on 
the  title-pages.  The  later  issues  of  this  edition  (1862-68)  contain  several  illustrations,  some  of 
these  being  reprints  of  the  plates  in  the  first  edition,  while  others  were  specially  designed. 

Plate  XXXI 


Facsimilt  of  Ihe  Original  Drawing  for  "  Master  Humphrey's  Clock  "  by 
H.  K.  BROWNE  ("Phiz") 

Beneath  the  Sketch  is  written  the  following,  in  the  autograph  of  Dickens  :— 
"Master  Humphrey  Admirable.  Could  his  stick  (with  a  crooked  top)  be 
near  his  chair?  I  misdoubt  the  deaf  gentleman's  pipe,  and  wish  he  couk) 
have  a  belter  one." 

LtHt  by  Mr.  /.  F.  Dexter. 




.   r 

Ki^  O      A/ 


HABL6t    K.    BROWNE  73 

clumsy  fashion,  and  to  draw  with  a  sort  of  sweeping  movement  of 
the  whole  arm.  It  was  under  such  distressing  conditions  than  in 
1873-74  he  executed  a  commission  to  illustrate  Chapman  &  Hall's 
Household  Edition  of  "The  Pickwick  Papers."  These  fifty-seven 
designs  are  necessarily  extremely  poor  in  treatment,  and  painfully 
indicate  the  effect  of  the  injury  his  hand  had  sustained  ;  indeed,  the 
wonder  is  that  he  could  draw  at  all.  It  must  be  admitted,  however, 
that  much  of  the  feebleness  of  the  woodcuts  is  due  to  the  engraver, 
as  the  original  outline  sketches  (which  were  transferred  to  the  box- 
wood blocks  and  there  developed)  exhibit  in  a  wonderful  degree  both 
freedom  and  precision  of  touch.  A  small  collection  of  these  drawings 
was  sold  at  Sotheby's  in  December  1887,  each  drawing  realising  the 
average  price  of  seven  pounds.  Sets  of  the  "  Pickwick  "  designs  in 
the  Household  Edition,  coloured  by  F.  W.  Pailthorpe,  have  been 
issued  as  "extra"  illustrations. 

In  1836,  as  soon  as  Dickens  terminated  his  connection  with  the 
The  Reporters'  Gallery  in  the  House  of  Commons,  he  was 

Strange  induced  to  take  a  considerable  interest   in   the  then 

Gentleman,    newly-erected  St  James's  Theatre,  and  even  essayed 
l837«  to  write  for  his  friend  J.  P.   Harley  ("as  a  practical 

joke,"  he  afterwards  explained)  a  comic  burletta  called  "  The  Strange 
Gentleman,"  which  was  adapted  from  "The  Great  Winglebury  Duel" 
in  "Sketches  by  Boz."  The  little  farce  was  published  by  Chap- 
man &  Hall  during  the  following  year  with  a  frontispiece  by  "  Phiz," 
the  subject  of  the  plate  being  suggested  by  the  concluding  scene, 
where  the  Strange  Gentleman  proposes  marriage  to  Julia  Dobbs ; 
the  two  seated  figures  are  vigorously  drawn,  and  on  a  larger  scale 
than  those  in  the  "  Pickwick  "  designs.  "  The  Strange  Gentleman  " 
is  perhaps  the  rarest  of  Dickens's  writings,  and  the  extraordinary 
sum  of  ;^45  was  realised  at  Sotheby's  in  August  1892  for  an 
exceptionally  fine  copy.  It  has  since  been  beautifully  reprinted  in 
facsimile,  with  a  new  frontispiece  etched  by  F.  W.  Pailthorpe. 


In  the  same  year  Chapman  &  Hall  published  a  booklet  (anony- 
Sketchcs  mously  written  by  E.  Caswell)  entitled  "  Sketches  of 
of  Young  Young  Ladies,"  by  "  Quiz,"  with  six  etchings  by 
Gentk'  "  Phiz,"    the    author    of    which   was    erroneously    be- 

men,  1838.  Heved  to  be  Charles  Dickens,  whose  literary  style 
it  somewhat  resembled.  The  "  Young  Ladies "  being  referred  to 
here  in  a  rather  ungallant  fashion,  Dickens  essayed  (as  a  kind  of 
protest)  a  similar  work,  in  which  he  pokes  fun  at  the  idiosyncrasies 
of  youths  of  the  sterner  sex.  Like  its  predecessor,  the  "Sketches 
of  Young  Gentlemen  "  were  written  anonymously,  and  similarly  con- 
tained six  etched  illustrations  by  "  Phiz." 

In  1840  there  appeared  a  third  booklet,  entitled  "Sketches  of 
Sketches  Young  Couples ; "  of  this  Dickens  was  also  the  un- 
of  Young  avowed  author,  while  "  Phiz  "  contributed  the  usual  six 
Couples,  etchings.  In  the  third  of  these  designs  (only  two 
1840.  of  which   are   signed)   we   are   reminded    of   his    pre- 

sentment of  the  Kenwigses  in  "  Nicholas  Nickleby,"  the  illustrations 
for  which  story  were  then  occupying  the  artist's  attention.  These 
little  productions  were  issued  in  green  paper  covers,  decorated  with 
designs  by  "  Phiz." 

The  sets  of  six  original  drawings  for  "  Sketches  of  Young  Ladies  " 
and  "  Sketches  of  Young  Gentlemen "  realised  _;^40  and  /^^g  re- 
spectively at  Sotheby's  in  1897. 

In  the  advertisement  announcing   the   publication   of   "  Nicholas 
Nicholas        Nickleby,"  it  was  stated  that  each  monthly  part  would 
Nickleby,       be    "  embellished  with    two    illustrations    by    '  Phiz '." 
i838-39»        This  is  not  strictly  accurate,  for  to  the  twenty  parts 
the   artist   contributed   but   thirty-nine   plates,    the   full   complement, 
however,  being  made  up  with  a  portrait  of  the  author  (as  the  frontis- 
piece), engraved  by  Finden  from  the  painting  by  D.  Maclise,  A.R.A. 
The  most  interesting  of  the  "Nickleby"  plates  are  undoubtedly 

HABL6t    K.    BROWNE  75 

those  depicting  scenes  at  Dotheboys  Hall,  that  representing  Squeers 
at  the  Saracen's  Head  containing  the  most  familiar  presentment 
of  its  amiable  proprietor.  Thus,  as  he  stood  mending  his  f)en,  the 
novelist  and  artist  saw  the  living  prototype,  and  had  taken  mental 
notes  of  the  odd  figure,  who,  as  will  presently  be  related,  was  among 
the  several  schoolmasters  they  interviewed.* 

It  was  the  novelist's  intention  to  expose  in  this  story  the  terrible 
abuses  practised  in  the  cheap  boarding-schools  of  Yorkshire,  and,  in 
order  that  he  might  realise  their  true  character,  he  determined 
to  investigfate  for  himself  the  real  facts  as  to  the  condition  of  those 
notorious  seminaries.  Accordingly,  at  the  end  of  January  1838,  he 
and  "Phil"  started  on  this  memorable  journey,  in  bitterly  cold 
weather,  and,  visiting  several  schools  in  the  locality,  they  came  into 
direct  contact  with  the  proprietors.  One  of  these  was  William  Shaw, 
the  identical  schoolmaster  who,  some  years  previously,  had  been 
heavily  fined  for  what  was  represented  at  the  trial  as  gross  maltreat- 
ment of  his  pupils.  According  to  the  following  entry  in  the  novelist's 
private  diary  (under  date  February  2,  1838),  there  can  be  no  doubt 
that  he  had  this  individual  principally  in  his  mind  when  delineating  the 
infamous  Squeers : — "  Mem. — Shaw,  the  schoolmaster  we  saw  to-day, 
is  the  man  in  whose  school  several  boys  went  blind  some  time  since 
from  gross  neglect.  The  case  was  tried,  and  the  verdict  went  against 
him.  •  It  must  have  been  between  1823  and  1826.  Look  this  out  in 
the  newspapers."  Mr.  Lloyd,  a  well-known  Glasgow  comedian,  who 
spent  twelve  months  in  Shaw's  school  at  Bowes,  Yorkshire,  afterwards 
testified  to  the  truth  of  the  outiuard  appearance  of  the  man  as 
described  by  Dickens  and  portrayed  by  the  artist  in  the  pages  of  the 
novel,  "allowing,  of  course,  for  both  being  greatly  exaggerated.  A 
sharp,  thin,  upright  little  man,  with  a  slight  scale  covering  the  pupil  of 
one  of  his  eyes.     Yes,  there  he  stands,  with  his  Wellington  boots  and 

'  Among  the  few  drawings  executed  by  "  Phiz "  for  Punch,  there  is  a  representation  of  an 
orthodox  pettifogging  attorney  perched  upon  a  stool,  whose  portrait  is  that  of  the  very 
Squeers.  It  constitutes  one  of  a  series  of  "  i'uncks  Valentines,"  and  was  published  in  the 
second  volume,  1842. 


short  black  trousers,  not  originally  cut  too  short,  but  from  a  habit 
he  had  of  sitting  with  one  knee  over  the  other,  and  the  trousers 
being  tight,  they  would  get  '  rucked '  half-way  up  the  boots.  Then, 
the  clean  white  vest,  swallow-tailed  black  coat,  white  necktie,  silver- 
mounted  spectacles,  close-cut  iron-grey  hair,  high-crowned  hat  worn 
slightly  at  the  back  of  his  head— and  there  you  have  the  man."  It 
certainly  seems  remarkable  that  Mr.  Lloyd  and  others  who  knew  Shaw 
recollect  him  as  a  most  worthy  and  kind-hearted  gentleman,  but  this 
perhaps  is  explained  by  certain  facts  concerning  him  and  his  school 
that  were  published  in  the  Athenceum,  February  1894,  together  with  a 
commentary  upon  a  reprint  of  the  trial  in  which  he  was  the  defendant. 

It  is  a  curious  fact  that  several  Yorkshire  schoolmasters  actually 
claimed  to  be  the  prototype  of  Squeers ;  indeed,  a  member  of  the 
fraternity  (probably  Shaw  himself)  declared  that  he  remembered  being 
waited  on  by  two  gentlemen,  one  of  whom  held  him  in  conversation 
while  the  other  took  his  likeness  ;  "  and  although  "  (says  the  author  in 
his  preface  to  the  story)  "Mr.  Squeers  has  but  one  eye,  and  he  has 
two,  and  the  published  sketch  does  not  resemble  him  (whoever  he  may 
be)  in  any  other  respect,  still  he  and  all  his  friends  know  at  once  for 
whom  it  is  meant,  because  the  character  is  so  like  him."  I  think 
there  can  be  no  doubt  that  both  Dickens  and  "  Phiz,"  when  delineating 
Squeers,  reproduced  too  closely  the  idiosyncrasies  of  one  individual, 
and  that  the  author's  description,  as  well  as  the  artist's  presentment, 
bore  so  obvious  a  likeness  to  Shaw,  that  he  became  the  scapegoat  for 
others  worse  than  himself,  and  suffered  accordingly. 

In  some  of  the  etchings  may  be  discovered  slight  incongruities  (as, 
for  example,  in  the  first  plate,  where  Ralph  Nickleby's  hat  is  too  small 
for  his  head),  while  in  others  there  is  a  palpable  touch  of  exaggeration. 
In  the  illustration,  "  The  Country  Manager  Rehearses  a  Combat,"  the 
artist  has  omitted  to  introduce  the  figure  of  the  landlord  who  ushered 
into  the  managerial  presence  Nicholas  and  Smike,  and  the  broad- 
swords should  have  been  basket-hilted  weapons.  In  the  etching, 
where  Nicholas  instructs  Smike  in  the  art  of  acting,  Nicholas  wears 


Plate  XXXI 1 


FatsimiU  of  the  First  Study  for  the  Etching  by 
H.  K.  BROWNE  ("Phiz") 

The  "Query"  written  l^nrath  the  Drawing  is  in  the  autograph  of  the 
Artist.  It  was  addressed  to  Dickens,  and  reads  as  follows : — "  Qy.  Whether 
'twere  belter  to  hn\'e  him  standing  thus,  stiff  as  a  poker,  with  a  kind  of  side 
glance  at  his  daughter,— or  sitting,  as  in  the  other?  "  The  Etching  differs 
considerably  from  the  Drawing. 

I^enl  ty  Mr.  J.  F.  Dexler. 


'^  in»^i^f*»^^fyrS^U..f^i/u  ^'**'-^tf' 






HABL6t    K.    BROWNE  77 

the  rapier  on  the  wrong  side,  this  oversight  doubtless  resulting  from 
the  non-reversal  of  the  design  upon  the  plate.  The  "Nickieby" 
illustrations  are,  as  a  whole,  very  successful ;  in  many  instances  the 
expressions  are  capitally  rendered,  although  it  is  to  be  regretted  that 
the  artist  did  but  scant  justice  to  the  physical  attractions  of  Kate 
Nickieby  and  Madeline  Bray. 

There  were  sixty-three  quarto  plates  etched  for  the  thirty-nine 
illustrations  in  the  story,  each  plate  carrying  two  designs ;  some  of 
these  were  etched  three  times,  while  in  seven  instances  the  quarto 
plate  was  reproduced  no  less  than  four  times.  In  none  of  these 
duplicated  plates  will  be  found  such  marked  variations  in  detail  as 
may  be  noted  in  the  replicas  of  the  "Pickwick"  designs,  so  that 
the  collector  need  only  seek  for  well-printed  impressions.* 

All  the  original  drawings  for  "  Nickieby,"  with  one  exception, 
are  still  in  existence;  they  were  disposed  of  on  July  16,  1880,  in 
Robinson  &  Fisher's  auction-rooms,  when  they  realised  in  the 
aggregate  rather  more  than  a  hundred  pounds.  The  missing  design 
is  that  depicting  Nicholas  in  his  capacity  as  tutor  in  the  Ken  wigs 
family.  These  drawings  are  executed  in  pencil  and  wash,  some 
being  especially  valuable  by  reason  of  marginal  notes  in  the  auto- 
graph of  the  novelist.  At  the  top  of  the  original  sketch  for  "A 
Sudden  Recognition,  Unexpected  on  Both  Sides"  (kindly  lent  by 
Mr.  M.  H.  Spielmann  for  reproduction),  Dickens  has  pencilled  a 
note  to  the  artist,  a  portion  of  which  (that  within  the  brackets)  has 
been  cut  away :  "  I  don't  think  that  Smike  is  frightened  enough  [or 
that  Squeers  is]  earnest  enough,  for  my  purpose," — a  criticism  which 
was  apparently  not  productive  of  much  alteration  in  the  direction 
indicated,  unless  effected  in  the  sketch  before  the  subject  was  etched. 

The  late  Mr.  F.  W.  Cosens,  who  possessed  several  preliminary 
studies  of  the  Kenwigs  children,  had  in  his  collection  a  note  from 
Dickens  giving  minute  instructions  to  "  Phiz  "  respecting  the  design 

I  The  "  Nickieby "  plates  were  copied  by  J.  Yeager  for  the  first  American  edition  of  the 


for  the  plate  entitled  "Great  Excitement  of  Miss  Kenwigs  at  the 
Hairdresser's  Shop."  The  novelist  desired  his  illustrator  to  depict 
"a  hairdresser's  shop  at  night — not  a  dashing  one,  but  a  barber's. 
Morleena  Kenwigs  on  a  tall  chair,  having  her  hair  dressed  by  an  under- 
bred attendant,  with  her  hair  parted  down  the  middle  and  frizzed  up 
into  curls  at  the  sides.  Another  customer,  who  is  being  shaved, 
has  just  turned  his  head  in  the  direction  of  Miss  Kenwigs,  and  she 
and  Newman  Noggs  (who  has  brought  her  there,  and  has  been 
whiling  away  the  time  with  an  old  newspaper)  recognise,  with 
manifestations  of  surprise,  and  Morleena  with  emotion,  Mr.  Lillivick, 
the  collector.  Mr.  Lillivick's  bristly  beard  expresses  great  neglect  of 
his  person,  and  he  looks  very  grim  and  in  the  utmost  despondency." 

The  original  drawing  for  "  Nicholas  Starts  for  Yorkshire"  presents 
several  important  variations  from  the  published  plate,  the  positions 
of  the  figures  being  considerably  altered,  the  most  remarkable  differ- 
ences being  that  Ralph  Nickleby  and  Squeers  in  the  sketch  are 
placed  on  the  side  opposite  the  coach  and  more  in  the  background, 
the  coachman  reading  the  way-bill  is  transferred  to  the  spot  where 
Squeers  now  stands,  while  there  is  another  coachman  looking  over 
his  shoulder,  who  is  omitted  in  the  etching ;  the  coachman  with  the 
whip  (as  seen  in  the  plate)  was  not  introduced  in  the  sketch.  For 
the  monthly  parts  "  Phiz "  designed  a  pictorial  wrapper ;  on  either 
side  of  this  wood-engraving  is  a  corpulent  figure  mounted  on  tall 
stilts,  surmounted  by  an  allegorical  scene  typifying  Justice,  with 
cornucopia,  &c.,  and  below  is  seen  the  culprit  Squeers  wading 
through  a  river,  guided  by  imps  carrying  lanterns. 

For  the  two  volumes  of  the  Library  Edition  of  "Nicholas  Nickleby" 
(1858-59)  "Phiz"  prepared  small  designs,  delicately  tinted  in  water- 
colours,  which  were  engraved  on  steel  as  vignettes  for  the  title-pages ; 
the  subjects  represented  are  "The  Nickleby  Family"  and  "The  Mad 
Gentleman  and  Mrs.  Nickleby,"  the  original  drawings  realising  /14 
each  at  Sotheby's  in  1889. 

HABLOT    K.    BROWNE    ("Phiz") 


"Mastkr  Humphrey's  Clcx:k"— A  Quaint  Advertisement— Woodcuts  instead  of  Etchings— 
"Phil's"  Contributions— Instances  of  his  Exaggerated  Grotesqueness — Mr.  Frederic 
Harrison's  Comment — A  Powerful  Design — Illustrations  in  "The  Old  Curiosity  Shop" 
Criticised— Ruskin's  Attack  upon  the  Designs  in  "Bamaby  Rudge"— His  Admiration  of  the 
Woodcut  of  "Bamaby  and  Grip"— "  Phil's"  Frontispieces— His  Letter  to  Dickens— An 
Amusing  Epistle  from  Dickens  to  his  Publisher — A  "Clock  Dinner" — Original  Drawing 
of  Master  Humphrey  and  the  Deaf  Gentleman— Frontispiece  for  the  First  Cheap  Edition 
of  "  Bamaby  Rudge " — Vignettes  for  the  Library  Edition — New  Designs  for  "  Master 
Humphrey's  Clock  " — Portraits  of  Dolly  Varden,  Little  Nell,  and  Barbara— Sale  of  Water- 
Colour  Drawings— "  Martin  Chuzzlewit"— The  Illustrations  Characterised— How  they 
were  Prepared — Slight  Errors  by  "Phiz" — The  Original  Drawings — Minute  Instractions 
from  Dickens  to  the  Artist — A  Humorous  Rejoinder — Sale  of  the  "  Chuzzlewit "  Designs — 
Vignettes  for  the  Library  Edition—"  Dombey  and  Son  "—The  Plates  Etched  in  Duplicate 
— Introduction  of  the  Oblong  Form  of  Illustration — Method  of  Obtaining  Chiaroscuro — 
Some  Anomalies  in  the  Etchings — Working  under  Difficulties — Dickens's  Anxiety  Respect- 
ing the  Designs— Studies  for  Mr.  Dombey— A  Letter  of  Instructions— Hints  to  the  Artist 
—Dickens  Disappointed— The  Etching  of  "  Mrs.  Pipchin  and  Paul "—"  Doctor  Blimber's 
Young  Gentlemen" — A  Remarkable  Oversight — Explicit  Directions  from  Dickens  to 
"  Phiz"— Original  Drawings  for  "  Dombey  and  Son  "—Slight  Variations  from  the  Etchings 
— "  Dombey "  Sketches  Presented  to  Dickens — A  Portrait  of  Little  Paul — Pictorial 
Wrapper— Extra  Plates — Criticism  by  Dickens — Portraits  of  Alice  and  Florence  Dombey— 
Frontispiece  for  the  First  Cheap  Edition — Vignettes  for  the  Library  Edition. 

Master  y^~>HARLES  DICKENS'S  next  work,  entitled 

Hum-  i              "  Master  Humphrey's  Clock,"  which  comprises 

phre/s  V_^    "The   Old   Curiosity   Shop"  and    "  Barnaby 

Clock,  Rudge,"  was  first  issued  in  weekly  instalments,  as  well 

^    ^  *  as  the  customary  monthly  parts,  the  new  venture  being 

thus  announced  :  "Now  wound  up  and  going,  preparatory  to  its  striking 

on  Saturday,  the  28th  March,  Master  Humphrey's  Clock,  Maker's 

name — '  Boz.'  The  Figures  and  Hands  by  George  Cattermole,  Esq. 

and  'Phiz.'"  A  novel  feature  of  this  undertaking  was  the  illustra- 


tions,  which  were  not  etched  as  hitherto,  but  engraved  on  wood  and 
dropped  into  the  text,  the  total  number  of  designs  being  one  hundred 
and  ninety-four,  including  three  frontispieces  and  twenty-four  initials. 
Of  these  "  Phiz "  produced  by  far  the  greater  proportion,  he  being 
responsible  for  no  less  than  a  hundred  and  fifty-three,  including  two 
frontispieces  and  all  the  initials ;  the  subjects  of  many  of  the  latter, 
by  the  way,  have  no  connection  with  the  letterpress.  Some  of  the 
drawings  are  unsigned,  while  others  have  appended  to  them  the  artist's 
initials  or  monogram,  occasionally  reversed.  At  this  time  "Phiz" 
was  almost  as  anonymous  as  "  Boz,"  but  when  "  Master  Humphrey's 
Clock"  ultimately  appeared  in  volume  form,  his  identity  was  fully 
established  on  the  title-page  as  "  Habl6t  Browne."  The  result  of  a 
careful  analysis  of  the  illustrations  discloses  the  fact  that  "Phiz" 
produced  sixty-one  for  "The  Old  Curiosity  Shop"  and  "  Barnaby 
Rudge  "  respectively,  and  seven  for  the  miscellaneous  papers  relating 
to  "The  Clock,"  exclusive  of  the  initials.  The  greater  number  of 
figure-pieces  fell  to  his  pencil,  while  the  architectural  subjects  were 
entrusted  to  his  coadjutor,  George  Cattermole. 

In  many  of  the  drawings  (admirably  engraved  by  S.  Williams, 
Landells,  Gray,  and  Vasey)  Browne  hardly  did  himself  justice,  their 
exaggerated  grotesqueness  tending  to  deprive  these  little  pictorial  com- 
positions of  much  of  their  artistic  value.  Observe,  for  example,  the 
repulsive  features  of  Kit,  his  mother,  and  the  child  in  the  tenth  chapter 
of  "The  Old  Curiosity  Shop,"  and  note  how  positively  diabolical  are  his 
representations  of  Sampson  Brass  and  his  sister,  and  of  Dick  Swiveller. 
It  is  difficult  to  believe  that  the  terrible-looking  creature  intended  for  the 
Marchioness,  in  the  fifty-seventh  and  sixty-fifth  chapters,  would  ever 
have  developed  into  a  "good-looking  "  girl,  as  she  really  did,  according 
to  the  text.  It  is  probably  such  unpleasing  illustrations  as  these  which 
induced  Mr.  Frederic  Harrison  in  The  Forum  to  condemn,  with  ex- 
ceeding severity,  the  artist's  propensity  for  caricature  ;  "  the  grins,  the 
grimaces,  the  contortions,  the  dwarfs,  the  idiots,  the  monstrosities  of 
these  wonderful  sketches  could  not  be  found  in  human  beings  con- 

Plate  XXXIII 


FacsimiU  ot  the  Original  Sketch  for  "  Dombey  and  Son  "  by 
H.  K.  BROWNE  ("Phiz") 

A  subsequent  and  more  complete  Drawing  of  this  subject  is  included  in 
the  Duchess  of  St  Albans'  Collection. 

Lnl  h  Mr.  J.  F.  Dtxttr. 



HABL6t    K.    BROWNE  8i 

structed  on  any  known  anatomy."  Other  woodcuts  are  of  course 
excellent,  especially  those  in  which  Mr.  Pickwick  and  the  Wellers  are 
resuscitated.  One  of  the  most  striking,  however,  is  the  weird  water- 
scape showing  the  corpse  of  Quilp  washed  ashore — a  vista  of  riparian 
scenery  which,  for  the  sense  of  desolate  breadth  and  loneliness  it 
suggests,  it  would  be  difficult  to  excel.  An  illustration  deserving 
special  examination  is  the  tailpiece  for  the  chapter  immediately  fol- 
lowing the  end  of  "The  Old  Curiosity  Shop,"  where  the  artist  has 
depicted  Master  Humphrey  in  his  arm-chair,  surrounded  by  Lilliputian 
figures,  among  which  may  be  recognised  some  of  the  principal  actors 
in  the  story. 

A  careful  comparison  of  the  illustrations  with  the  text  of  "  The  Old 
Curiosity  Shop  "  reveals  certain  slight  inaccuracies  on  the  part  of  the 
artist  For  example,  in  the  twenty-seventh  chapter  we  read  that  Quilp 
leant  upon  his  stick  as  he  beckoned  to  the  boy  carrying  his  trunk, 
whereas  "  Phiz  "  depicts  him  raising  the  stick.  In  the  woodcut  por- 
traying Kit  and  his  party  at  Astley's  Theatre,  the  umbrella  should  be 
held  by  Barbara's  mother,  and  not  Kit's.  Again,  in  a  subsequent  chapter, 
we  are  told  that  Sampson  Brass's  hat  was  "  grievously  crushed,"  but 
"  Phiz "  has  represented  it  with  the  crown  suspended  by  a  single 
thread, — a  striking  instance  of  his  tendency  to  exaggeration.  The 
careful  reader  will  also  note  (in  the  seventeenth  chapter)  that  the  stilt 
on  the  right  leg  of  the  "young  gentleman"  in  "Grinder's  lot"  is  at 
least  twelve  inches  shorter  than  its  fellow,  and  that  Mrs.  Jarley's 
horse  (in  the  twenty-sixth  chapter)  is  considerably  out  of  proportion 
with  its  surroundings ;  the  caravan,  too,  is  incorrectly  drawn,  and 
Mrs.  Jarley  with  the  drum  should  have  been  placed  upon  the 
platform  of  the  van.  The  inherent  humour  of  "  Phiz  "  was  often 
apropos,  an  amusing  instance  being  discoverable  in  the  illustration 
of  Miss  Monflathers  and  her  young  ladies  (in  the  thirty-first 
chapter),  where  the  inscription  on  the  board  above  the  wall  reads, 
"Take  notice — Man  traps." 

Although    the    designs    in    "  Bamaby    Rudge "    are   not   entirely 


exempt  from  the  charge  of  exaggeration,  they  are,  on  the  whole, 
more  pleasing.  The  artist  seems  to  have  fairly  revelled  in  the  scenes 
depicting  the  rioters,  and,  while  failing  in  his  conception  of  Sir  John 
Chester,  he  successfully  realised  the  more  picturesque  figures  of 
Barnaby  and  Maypole  Hugh,  the  latter  being  admirably  limned. 
Professor  Ruskin,  however,  in  his  "  Ariadne  Florentina,"  denounces 
these  woodcuts  in  language  more  caustic  even  than  that  of  Mr. 
Frederic  Harrison :  "  Take  up,"  he  says,  "  for  an  average  specimen 
of  modern  illustrated  works,  the  volume  of  Dickens's  '  Master 
Humphrey's  Clock '  containing  '  Barnaby  Rudge.'  .  .  .  The  cheap 
popular  Art  cannot  draw  for  you  beauty,  sense,  or  honesty ;  and  for 
Dolly  Varden,  or  the  locksmith,  you  will  look  through  the  vignettes 
in  vain.  But  every  species  of  distorted  folly  or  vice  .  .  .  are  pictured 
for  your  honourable  pleasure  on  every  page,  with  clumsy  caricature, 
struggling  to  render  its  dulness  tolerable  by  insisting  on  defect." 
The  drawing  of  Barnaby  and  the  Raven  (the  final  illustration  in  the 
second  volume)  is  one  of  the  few  the  author  of  this  pungent  criticism 
can  bring  himself  to  admire.  "The  raven,"  he  observes,  "like  all 
Dickens's  animals,  is  perfect;  and  I  am  the  more  angry  with  the 
rest  because  I  have  every  now  and  then  to  open  the  book  to  look 
for  him."  Respecting  these  woodcuts,  it  may  be  pointed  out  that 
Dickens  omitted  to  mention  which  arm  Joe  Willet  was  deprived  of 
"  in  the  defence  of  the  Salwanners."  Curiously  enough,  "  Phiz " 
similarly  fails  to  assist  us  in  deciding  the  point,  as,  in  the  illustra- 
tions depicting  him  after  the  war,  he  is  seen  minus  the  right  arm 
in  four  instances,  while  in  another  woodcut  it  is  the  left  which 
has  disappeared. 

The  frontispieces  designed  by  Browne  for  the  second  and  third 
volumes  are  both  elaborate  and  fanciful.  In  the  first  is  seen  an 
enormous  hour-glass  containing  a  crowd  composed  of  some  of  the 
minor  characters  in  the  story,  while  surrounding  it  are  representa- 
tions of  the  more  prominent  persons.  It  was  originally  intended  that 
George  Cattermole  should  execute  this  drawing,  but,  being  prevented 

HABL6t    K.    BROWNE  ^3 

by  illness,  it  fell  into  the  hands  of  "  Phiz,"  who  thereupon  wrote  to 
the  novelist : — 

"  Sunday  Morning. 

"  My  Dear  Dickens, — Will  you  give  me  some  notion  of  what 
sort  of  design  you  wish  for  the  Frontispiece  for  second  volume  of 
ClocA  f  Cattermole  being  put  hors  de  combat  —  Chapman  with  a 
careworn  face  (if  you  can  picture  that)  brings  me  the  block  at  the 
eleventh  hour  and  requires  it  finished  by  Wednesday.  Now,  as  I 
have  two  others  to  complete  in  the  meantime,  something  nice  and 
tight  would  be  best  adapted  to  my  palette,  and  prevent  an  excess  of 
perspiration  in  the  relays  of  wood-cutters.  You  shall  have  the  others 
to  criticise  on  Tuesday. — Yours  very  truly, 

Habl6t  K.  Browne." 

In  the  frontispiece  to  the  third  volume  is  portrayed  an  ornamental 
clock,  at  the  summit  of  which  is  seated  Master  Humphrey,  while  on 
either  side  and  at  the  base  are  introduced  the  presentments  of 
Barnaby  with  his  raven  and  other  individuals  in  the  tale.  "  Phiz  " 
was  also  responsible  for  the  elaborate  design  on  the  wrapper  of  the 
weekly  numbers. 

The  following  amusing  epistle,  having  reference  to  the  initial 
letter  drawn  by  "  Phiz "  for  the  sixty-fifth  chapter,  was  addressed  by 
Dickens  to  a  member  of  his  publishing  firm,  Edward  Chapman,  the 
"precipice"  here  mentioned  being  a  humorous  allusion  to  the  latter's 
approaching  marriage : — 

"  Broadstairs,  Thursday,  \tlh  SepUmber  1841. 

"  Mv  Dear  Sir, — Know  for  your  utter  confusion,  and  to  your 
lasting  shame  and  ignominy,  that  the  initial  letter  has  been  provided, 
that  it  was  furnished  to  the  artist  at  the  same  time  as  the  subject — and 
that  it  is  a 


—  which  stands  for  Double  —  Demnible  —  Doubtful  —  Dangerous  — 


Doleful  —  Disastrous  —  Dreadful  —  Deuced  —  Dark  —  Divorce— and 
Drop— all  applicable  to  the  Precipice  on  which  you  stand 

"  Farewell !  If  you  did  but  know— and  would  pause,  even  at  this 
late  period -better  an  action  for  breach  than— but  we  buy  experience. 
Excuse  my  agitation.  I  scarcely  know  what  I  write.  To  see  a 
fellow-creature— and  one  who  has  so  long  withstood — still  if — will 
nothing  warn  you? 

"In  extreme  excitement 

C.  D. 

"  My  hand  fails  me. 


P. P. P.S. — AND  LEAVE  ME 



On  the  conclusion  of  the  second  volume  of  "  Master  Humphrey's 
Clock,"  a  dinner  was  given  by  Dickens  to  celebrate  the  event. 
Serjeant  Talfourd  presided,  and  the  guests  included  those  engaged 
in  the  production  of  the  work.  "  Phiz,"  in  accepting  the  invitation 
to  be  present,  wrote  as  follows : — 

33  HowLAND  Street  [1841]. 

"My  Dear  Dickens, — I  shall  be  most  happy  to  remember  not 
to  forget  the  loth  April,  and  let  me  express  a  </winterested  wish  that, 
having  completed  and  established  one  '  Shop '  in  an  '  extensive  line 
of  business,'  you  will  go  on  increasing  and  multiplying  suchlike 
establishments  in  number  and  prosperity  till  you  become  a  Dick 
Whittington  of  a  merchant,  with  pockets  distended  to  most  Brobdig- 
nag  dimensions. — Believe  me,  yours  very  truly, 

"Habl6t  K.  Browne." 

Plate  XXXIV 


Facsimile  of  the  Original   Drawing  for   "David   Copperfield"   by 
H.  K.  BROWNE  ("Phiz") 

In  the  published  version  the  figure  of  Rosa  Dartle  (on  the  left)  is  omitted, 
and  David's  hat  is  placed  upon  the  table. 

Lent  iy  Her  Grace  tht  Duchess  of  St.  Alians. 


^(1  "iiiia»^ 







HABL6t    K.    BROWNE  85 

Through  the  courtesy  of  Mr.  J.  F.  Dexter,  I  am  enabled  to 
reproduce  in  facsimile  one  of  the  original  designs  for  "  Master  Hum- 
phrey's Clock,"  depicting  Master  Humphrey  and  the  Deaf  Gentle- 
man. This  drawing,  executed  in  pencil,  differs  slightly  from  the  en- 
graving ;  underneath  it  Dickens  has  written,  "  Master  Humphrey 
ADMIRABLE.  Could  his  Stick  (with  a  crooked  top)  be  near  his  chair  ? 
I  misdoubt  the  deaf  gentleman's  pipe,  and  wish  he  could  have  a 
better  one." 

To  the  first  cheap  edition  of  "  Barnaby  Rudge,"  1849,  "Phiz" 
contributed  the  frontispiece,  —  a  drawing  on  wood  (engraved  by 
W.  T.  Green)  representing  Dolly  Varden,  with  Hugh  hiding  in  the 
bushes.  In  the  Library  Edition  (1858-59)  the  stories  were  published 
independently,  each  in  two  volumes,  with  pretty  vignettes  on  the 
title-pages,  specially  designed  by  the  same  artist  and  engraved  on 
steel.  The  original  drawings  were  delicately  tinted  in  water-colours, 
the  subjects  being  Little  Nell  and  her  Grandfather,  Dick  Swiveller 
and  the  Marchioness,  Dolly  Varden  and  Joe  Willet,  Barnaby  and 
Hugh.  In  these  engravings  the  female  characters  are  much  more 
charmingly  conceived  than  are  those  in  the  woodcuts. 

In  1848,  when  the  first  cheap  edition  of  the  story  appeared,  Habl6t 
Browne  made  four  new  designs  as  "Extra  Illustrations"  for  "The 
Old  Curiosity  Shop,"  viz..  Little  Nell  and  her  Grandfather,  the 
Marchioness,  Barbara,  and  the  Death  of  Little  Nell.  They  were 
beautifully  engraved  in  stipple,  and  issued  as  an  independent  publica- 
tion by  the  artist  and  his  coadjutor,  Robert  Young,  whose  joint  venture 
it  was.  In  the  following  year  they  produced  a  similar  set  of  four 
plates  illustrating  "Barnaby  Rudge,"  viz.,  Emma  Haredale,  Dolly 
Varden,  Mrs.  Varden  and  Miggs,  and  Hugh  and  Barnaby.  The 
portraits  of  the  various  characters  were  engraved  by  Edwards  and 
Knight,  under  the  superintendence  of  Browne  and  Young.  The 
original  drawing  of  Dolly  Varden,  one  of  "  Phiz's "  happiest  concep- 
tions, is  in  the  possession  of  Her  Grace  the  Duchess  of  St.  Albans, 
together  with  an  unengraved  study  for  Emma  Haredale.     There  are 


extant,  in  Mr.  J.  F.  Dexter's  collection,  two  other  studies  for  the 
Dolly  Varden  plate,  neither  of  which  has  been  reproduced ;  the  same 
gentleman  also  owns  the  drawings  of  Nell  and  Barbara,  the  latter 
being  slightly  different  from,  and  superior  to,  the  engraving. 

A  complete  series  of  original  water-colour  drawings  by  "  Phiz " 
for  "  The  Old  Curiosity  Shop  "  and  "  Barnaby  Rudge,"  including  an 
unused  design  for  a  tailpiece,  were  sold  at  Sotheby's  in  1897,  and 
realised  ;^6io.  These  drawings  were  executed  as  a  commission 
for  Mr.  F.  W.  Cosens. 

Browne's  versatile  pencil  was  again  actively  employed  in  embellish- 
ing the  story  begun  by  Dickens  soon  after  his  return 
Martm  ^^^^  America  in    1842,   and  to  this  he  contributed 

P  *     forty    etchings.       Here    the   figures  are   drawn   on  a 

larger  scale  than  usual,  thus  affording  more  scope  for 
the  delineation  of  character. 

The  frontispiece  is  a  most  elaborate  design,  representing  the 
principal  characters  and  incidents  in  the  story,  with  Tom  Pinch  at 
the  organ  as  a  central  idea.  In  the  illustration  where  Mark  Tapley 
is  seen  starting  from  his  native  village  for  London,  "  Phiz "  exhibits 
his  sense  of  the  picturesque  in  the  old  gables  and  dormers  of  the  ancient 
tenements  in  the  background,  while  that  depicting  "  Mr.  Pecksniff 
on  his  Mission"  is  an  excellent  verisimilitude  of  such  a  locality  as 
Kingsgate  Street  of  fifty  years  since.  But  the  etching  in  "Chuzzle- 
wit "  which  may  be  described  as  the  artist's  happiest  effort  as  a  comic 
creation  is  that  where  Mrs.  Gamp  "  propoges  "  a  toast.  Here  he  has 
admirably  illustrated  the  text, — the  two  midwives  in  friendly  chat, 
surrounded  by  bandboxes  and  other  accessories,  while  behind  are  seen 
the  immortal  Sarah's  rusty  gowns,  which,  depending  from  the  bed- 
posts, "  had  so  adapted  themselves  by  long  usage  to  her  figure,  that 
more  than  one  impatient  husband,  coming  in  precipitately  at  about 
the  time  of  twilight,  had  been  for  an  instant  stricken  dumb  by  the 
supposed  discovery  that  Mrs.  Gamp  had  hanged  herself." 

HABL6t    K.    BROWNE  87 

All  the  designs  for  "Martin  Chuzzlewit"  were  etched  on  quarto 
plates,  two  on  each  plate.  Five  of  these  plates  were  etched  three 
times,  these  including,  besides  the  frontispiece  and  vignette  title, 
the  first  six  illustrations  in  the  book,  and  two  which  appeared  in  the 
fourteenth  number,  viz.,  "  Mr.  Pinch  Departs  to  Seek  his  Fortune,"  and 
"  Mr.  Nadgett  Breathes,  as  Usual,  an  Atmosphere  of  Mystery."  A 
careful  examination  of  different  copies  of  the  first  edition  will  disclose 
minute  variations  in  these  particular  illustrations,  worthy  of  special 
mention  being  the  vignette  title,  where,  in  the  earliest  impressions,  the 
J[^  mark  is  incorrectly  placed  after  the  figures  in  the  amount  of  reward 
on  the  bill. 

In  the  majority  of  the  "Chuzzlewit"  etchings  there  is  a  vigour 
and  precision  of  touch  indicating  the  artist's  riper  experience.  It  must, 
however,  be  admitted  that  a  few  of  the  plates  are  so  feeble  in  execu- 
tion in  comparison  with  the  rest  as  to  suggest  that  "  Phiz's  "  drawings 
were  copied  on  the  plate  by  a  less  expert  etcher.  An  instance  of  this 
poverty  of  execution  will  be  found  in  the  first  design,  depicting 
"  The  Meekness  of  Mr.  Pecksniff  and  his  Charming  Daughters," 
and  the  fact  that  this  plate  is  unsigned  seems  significant ;  in 
reply  to  my  enquiry  respecting  it,  Mr.  Robert  Young  assured  me 
that  "  no  one  ever  copied  or  etched  plates  for  Browne ;  he  traced  the 
subject  on  the  steel  himself,  and  etched  every  line  before  it  was  bitten 
in.  I  know  no  reason  for  the  omission  of  his  signature  to  any  of  his 

In  a  few  instances  the  artist  has  not  strictly  followed  the  text  For 
example,  in  the  plate  where  Mr.  Pecksniff  calls  upon  Mrs.  Gamp,  the 
pie-shop  is  placed  next  door,  whereas  it  is  clearly  described  as  being 
next  door  but  one.  In  the  etching  of  Mark  Tapley  "finding  a  jolly 
subject  for  contemplation,"  instead  of  Mark's  name  being  inscribed  in 
full  upon  the  "  Rowdy  Journal "  door,  his  initials  only  should  appear, 
"  in  letters  nearly  half  a  foot  long,  together  with  the  day  of  the  month 
in  smaller  type ; "  the  four  horses  harnessed  to  the  coach  in  which 
Tom  Pinch  departs  to  seek  his  fortune  ("Phiz's"  horses,  by  the  way, 


are  always  well  drawn)  are  described  as  "greys,"  while  in  the  plate 
only  one  is  thus  represented.  Such  discrepancies,  however,  although 
interesting  to  note,  are  unimportant.  As  usual,  we  find  in  the  acces- 
sories (such  as  the  titles  of  books  and  pictures)  sly  touches  of  humour 
peculiarly  apropos  of  the  principal  theme.  "  Phiz's "  design  for  the 
wrapper  of  the  monthly  parts  is  emblematical  of  the  story;  here 
"silver  spoons"  and  "wooden  ladles,"  as  embodied  in  the  original 
title,  play  a  conspicuous  part. 

The  "  Chuzzlewit "  drawings,  all  of  which  have  been  preserved, 
are  executed  in  pencil,  some  having  washes  of  neutral  tint.  They  vary 
but  slightly  from  the  etchings,  the  greatest  differences  being  noted 
in  the  first  two  designs,  this  doubtless  arising  from  the  difficulty 
experienced  by  the  artist  in  immediately  seizing  the  author's  meaning. 
In  one  special  instance  Dickens  favoured  his  illustrator  with  very 
precise  instructions.  Respecting  the  American  scenes,  the  £irtist 
desired  more  details  than  usual,  so  he  received  from  the  novelist  the 
following  letter  (now  in  Mr.  J.  F.  Dexter's  collection),  giving  parti- 
culars for  the  plate  representing  "  The  Thriving  City  of  Eden,  as  it 
appeared  in  Fact." 

"  Martin  and  Mark  are  displayed  as  the  tenants  of  a  wretched  log 
hut  (for  a  pattern  whereof  see  a  vignette  brought  by  Chapman  & 
Hall)  in  a  perfectly  flat,  swampy,  wretched  forest  of  stunted  timber  in 
every  stage  of  decay,  with  a  filthy  river  running  before  the  door,  and 
some  other  miserable  log  houses  distributed  among  the  trees,  whereof 
the  most  ruinous  and  tumble-down  of  all  is  labelled  '  Bank  and  National 
Credit  Office.'  Outside  their  door,  as  the  custom  is,  is  a  rough  sort 
of  form  or  dresser,  on  which  are  set  forth  their  pot  and  kettle  and  so 
forth,  all  of  the  commonest  kind.  On  the  outside  of  the  house,  at  one 
side  of  the  door,  is  a  written  placard,  '  Chuzzlewit  and  Co.,  Architects 
and  Surveyors,'  and  upon  a  stump  of  tree,  like  a  butcher's  block,  before 
the  cabin,  are  Martin's  instruments — a  pair  of  rusty  compasses,  &c. 
On  a  three-legged  stool  beside  this  block  sits  Martin  in  his  shirt 
sleeves,  with  long  dishevelled  hair,  resting  his  head  upon  his  hands — 

HABL6T    K.    BROWNE  89 

the  picture  of  hopeless  misery — watching  the  river  and  sadly  remember- 
ing that  it  flows  towards  home.  But  Mr.  Tapley,  up  to  his  knees  in 
filth  and  brushwood,  and  in  the  act  of  endeavouring  to  perform  some 
impossibilities  with  a  hatchet,  looks  towards  him  with  a  face  of  un- 
impaired good  humour,  and  declares  himself  perfectly  jolly.  Mark, 
the  only  redeeming  feature.  Everything  else  dull,  miserable,  squalid, 
unhealthy,  and  utterly  devoid  of  hope — diseased,  starved,  and  abject. 
The  weather  is  intensely  hot,  and  they  are  but  partially  clothed." 

The  artist,  naturally  bewildered  by  such  elaborate  directions,  has 
written  underneath  this  note  :  "  I  can't  get  all  this  perspective  in, 
unless  you  will  allow  of  a  long  subject — something  less  than  a  mile ! " 

For  the  plate,  "  Martin  Chuzzlewit  Suspects  the  Landlady,"  two 
drawings  were  prepared,  but  the  second  was  probably  only  to  guide 
the  biter-in  of  the  steel  as  to  the  effect  of  light  and  shade  required  ;  for 
it  occasionally  happened  that  "  Phiz  "  had  not  time  to  give  verbal  in- 
structions to  his  assistant,  when  he  would  send  a  rough  indication  of 
what  was  needed  in  the  matter  oi chiaroscuro.  In  the  original  drawing 
representing  "The  Meekness  of  Mr.  Pecksniff  and  his  Charming 
Daughters,"  the  figure  of  Tom  Pinch  differs  from  the  plate,  and  shows 
signs  of  having  been  quickly  sketched  in,  as  though  the  first  idea  was 
not  to  introduce  him  at  all ;  in  a  second  delineation  of  the  same  subject 
this  figjure  is  limned  with  greater  care. 

The  original  designs  for  "  Chuzzlewit "  were  disposed  of  at  Sotheby's 
in  1889  for  ;^433,  13s.,  the  beautifully-finished  drawing  of  the  frontis- 
piece realising  £zS>  while  that  of  "  Mrs.  Gamp  'Propoges'  a  Toast," 
rightly  considered  as  one  of  the  artist's  c/ief-d'aeuvres,  was  purchased 
for  ;^35,  los. 

To  the  Library  Edition  (1858-59)  "  Phiz"  contributed  a  vignette 
for  the  title-page  of  each  of  the  two  volumes  of  "  Martin  Chuzzlewit," 
which  were  engraved  on  steel  from  the  original  water-colour  drawings. 
The  subject  of  the  first  design  is  almost  a  repetition  of  the  etching  in 
the  original  issue,  and  depicts  the  "  Meekness  of  Mr.  Pecksniff  and  his 
Charming  Daughters,"  the  ladies  being  certainly  more  attractive  in  the 


later  conception.  In  the  second  vignette  we  see  Mrs.  Gamp  and 
Betsy  Prig,  at  the  moment  when  the  latter,  in  her  wrath,  denied  the 
existence  of  the  memorable  Mrs.  Harris. 

Among  the  forty  illustrations  prepared  by  "  Phiz  "  for  "  Dombey 
and  Son"  will  be  found  some  of  the  artist's  happiest 
Uombcy        efforts.     By  this  time  his  experience  with  the  etching- 
*ft  (    °R '        needle  enabled  him  to  execute  his  designs  upon  the  steel 
plates  with  wonderful  facility  and  dexterity,  and  con- 
tinual practice  had  made  him  almost  perfect  in  this  particular  branch 
of  art.     All  these  plates  were  etched  in  duplicate  ;  the  greater  number 
were  drawn  on  quarto  plates,  having  two  subjects  on  each  as  usual, 
but  the  frontispiece,  the  last  four  illustrations,  and  the  duplicates  of 
three  others  were  etched  singly  on  steels  of  octavo  size.* 

The  duplicates  do  not  vary  much ;  that  in  which  an  alteration  is 
most  noticeable,  although  hardly  perceptible,  is  "Abstraction  and 
Recognition,"  the  bills  on  the  wall  near  Alice  in  one  plate  being  less 
mutilated  than  in  the  other.  There  was  such  a  large  circulation  of 
the  book  in  part  form  that  the  printing  from  the  plates  could  not  be 
executed  quickly  enough,  the  etchings  being  rarely  sent  in  until  the 
last  minute ;  so  that  it  became  necessary  to  resort  to  lithographic 
transfers  until  the  duplicate  plates  could  be  etched.  In  "  Dombey 
and  Son"  the  artist  first  introduced  the  oblong  form  of  illustration, 
this  lending  itself  more  appropriately  to  the  subjects  so  treated,  and  in 
succeeding  novels  we  find  a  fair  sprinkling  of  designs  of  this  shape. 
When  nearing  the  end  of  the  story  he  essayed,  with  considerable 
success,  a  new  method  of  obtaining  chiaroscuro,  and  he  afterwards 
adopted  it  whenever  striking  effects  were  required.  The  only  plate  in 
"  Dombey  "  so  treated  is  "On  the  Dark  Road,"  on  which,  by  means  of 
a  ruling-machine,  a  tint  had  been  placed  before  the  subject  was  drawn, 
and,  by  a  process  of  biting-in,  stopping-out,  and  burnishing,  an  effect 

■  An  American  edition  (published  in  1844)  contains  fourteen  clever  replicas  of  the  "  Dombey  " 


HABL6t    K.    BROWNE  91 

resembling  mezzotint  was  obtained.  The  machine  was  kept  in  Mr. 
Young's  studio  at  Furnival's  Inn,  and  could  be  manipulated  by  a  boy, 
the  operation  of  "  ruling "  being  a  purely  mechanical  one ;  it  was  the 
subsequent  treatment  by  acid  and  burnisher,  in  reproducing  the  tones 
of  the  original  drawing,  that  required  the  knowledge  of  an  expert. 

A  few  anomalies  may  be  discovered  in  the  "  Dombey "  plates. 
In  the  various  representations  of  Captain  Cuttle  the  artist  has  de- 
picted him,  in  two  instances,  with  the  hook  upon  the  left  arm  instead 
of  the  right.  When  comparing  the  three  plates  portraying  Sol  Gills's 
little  back-parlour,  certain  little  discrepancies  are  apparent,  such  as 
the  altered  position  of  the  model  of  a  brig,  &c.  In  the  plate  entitled 
"The  Wooden  Midshipman  on  the  Look-out,"  Florence  is  delineated 
as  a  well-developed  young  woman,  whereas,  according  to  the  text,  she 
was  then  but  a  mere  child  of  fourteen.  In  the  same  illustration  the 
artist  has  drawn  a  pair  of  horses  (or  rather  their  heads)  which  can 
have  no  possible  connection  with  the  omnibus  near  by,  although  they 
are  evidently  intended  to  be  associated  therewith.  In  the  etching 
"  Abstraction  and  Recognition,"  Alice  and  her  mother  standing  in 
the  archway  are  much  too  tall ;  it  is  interesting  to  note  here  the 
advertisement  on  the  wall  of  Cruikshank's  "Bottle,"  which  may  be 
considered  as  denoting  the  popularity  of  that  remarkable  series  of 
pictures,  then  being  issued.  Two  palpable  errors  are  discoverable  in 
the  illustration  entitled  "On  the  Dark  Road,"  for  not  only  does  the 
driver  hold  the  reins  in  the  wrong  hand,  but  it  will  be  seen  that  the 
wheels  of  the  rapidly-moving  carriage  are  really  represented  as  station- 
ary, while  the  "  off"  wheels  are  omitted  altogether.  In  the  last  plate  but 
one,  the  figure  of  Florence  is  not  sufficiently  visionary,  and  therefore 
fails  to  convey  the  author's  meaning  respecting  the  conscience-stricken 

Habldt  Browne  invariably  laboured  under  some  disadvantage 
when  designing  his  illustrations  for  Dickens ;  indeed,  he  was  some- 
times compelled  to  draw  his  inspiration  merely  from  the  author's 
verbal  explanation  or  reading  of  a  particular  passage ;  so  it  is  not 


surprising  that  we  discover  an  occasional  discrepancy.  In  the  case  of 
"  Dombey,"  he  experienced  a  difficulty  of  another  kind,  for  during 
the  writing  of  the  story  Dickens  was  living  at  Lausanne  in  Switzer- 
land, and  the  sketches  had  to  be  sent  there  for  his  criticism  and 
approval,  which  not  only  caused  delay,  but  gave  the  artist  some 
trouble  in  understanding  the  suggestions  made  by  the  author  when 
returning  the  drawings. 

Several  letters  from  Dickens  to  Forster  at  this  time  express 
solicitude  concerning  these  plates.  Writing  from  Lausanne  on  the 
1 8th  of  July  1846,  he  said:  "The  prints  for  illustration,  and  the 
enormous  care  required,  make  me  excessively  anxious."  A  nervous 
dread  of  caricature  on  the  face  of  his  merchant-hero  had  led  him 
to  indicate  by  a  living  person  the  type  of  city  gentleman  he  would 
have  had  the  artist  select.     "  The  man  for  Dombey,"  he  explained, 

"if  Browne  could  see  him,  the  class  man  to  a  T,  is   Sir   A 

E ,  of  D 's  ; "  and  this  is  all  he  meant  by  his  reiterated  urgent 

request,  "  I  do  wish  he  could  get  a  glimpse  of  A.,  for  he  is  the 
very  Dombey."  It  seems,  however,  that  the  "glimpse  of  A."  was 
impracticable,  so  it  was  resolved  to  send,  for  selection  by  himself, 
glimpses  of  other  letters  of  the  alphabet — actual  heads  as  well  as 
fanciful  ones — and  the  sheetful  of  sketches  forwarded  for  this  purpose 
contains  no  less  than  twenty-nine  typical  Dombey  portraits,  compris- 
ing full-length  and  half-length  presentments,  as  well  as  studies  of 
heads  in  various  poses,  but  with  the  same  hard  characteristic  expres- 
sion.* Against  four  of  them  "  Phiz "  has  placed  little  arrows,  to 
indicate  that  (in  his  opinion)  they  best  accorded  with  the  author's 
conception.  The  Dombey  actually  etched  was  not,  after  all,  an 
absolute  transcript  of  these  tentative  ideas,  but  seems  to  be  a  com- 
bination of  several ;  and  it  is  curious  to  note  that,  in  the  various 
representations  of  the  proud  city  merchant  as  seen  in  the  plates, 
"  Phiz "  did  not  keep  religiously  to  the  same  type.     That  Dickens 

1  In  Mr.  Andrew  Lang's  opinion,  these  sketches  for  Mr.  Dombey  look  like  "  a  collection 
of  criminal  butlers." 

Plate  XXXV 


FacHmilt  of  the  Original  Drawing  for  "  Bleak  House  "  by 
H.  K.  BROWNE  ("Phiz") 

In  the  Etching  the  figtire  of  Jo  is  placed  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  picture. 
Latt  by  Her  Grace  the  Duchess  of  St.  AOans. 




HABL6t    K.    BROWNE  93 

considered  the  artist's  presentment  as  satisfactory  is  proved  by  his 
remark  to  Forster,  "  I  think  Mr.  Dombey  admirable,"  this  doubtless 
referring  to  the  illustration  entitled  "  Mr.  Dombey  and  the  World." 
In  a  fragment  of  a  letter  preserved  by  Mr.  J.  F.  Dexter  may  be 
read  a  few  instructions  to  the  artist  with  reference  to  the  delinea- 
tion of  Mr.  Dombey  and  his  second  wife :  "  It  is  a  part  of  his 
character  that  he  should  be  just  the  same  as  of  yore.  And  in  the 
second  subject,  I  should  like  Edith  Granger  to  possess  the  reader 
with  a  more  serious  notion  of  her  having  a  serious  part  to  play  in 
the  story.  I  really  hardly  know,  however,  what  [part]  beyond  an 
expression  of  utter  indifference  towards  Mr.  Dombey.  ..." 

In  the  letter  to  Forster  already  quoted,  the  novelist  sent  (for  trans- 
mission to  the  artist)  a  few  hints  for  the  earlier  designs:  "Great 
pains  will  be  necessary  with  Miss  Tox.  The  Toodle  family  should 
not  be  too  much  caricatured,  because  of  Polly.  I  should  like  Browne 
to  think  of  Susan  Nipper,  who  will  not  be  wanted  in  the  first  number. 
After  the  second  number,  they  will  all  be  nine  or  ten  years  older, 
but  this  will  not  involve  much  change  in  the  characters,  except  in 
the  children  and  Miss  Nipper."  After  the  completion  of  the  first 
two  plates,  Dickens  seems  to  have  been  in  better  heart  about  his 
illustrator,  for,  again  writing  to  Forster  from  Lausanne,  he  said : 
"  Browne  seems  to  be  getting  on  well.  He  will  have  a  good  subject 
in  Paul's  christening.  Mr.  Chick  is  like  D.,  if  you'll  mention  that 
when  you  think  of  it."  Then,  a  little  later :  "  Browne  is  certainly 
interesting  himself  and  taking  pains."  He  seems,  however,  to  have 
been  greatly  disappointed  with  the  designs  in  the  second  number, 
viz.,  "The  Christening  Party"  (which  he  anticipated  would  be  a 
success)  and  "  Polly  Rescues  the  Charitable  Grinder,"  declaring  them 
to  be  so  "  dreadfully  bad  "  (in  the  sense  of  not  keeping  strictly  to  the 
text)  that  they  made  him  "curl  his  legs  up."  This  failure  on  the 
part  of  the  artist  caused  him  to  feel  unusually  anxious  in  regard  to 
a  special  illustration  on  which  he  had  set  much  store,  intended  for 
the   number   he  then   had   in    hand.     Communicating   with    Forster 


anent  this,  he  said  :  "  The  best  subject  for  Browne  will  be  at  Mrs. 
Pipchin's  ;  and  if  he  liked  to  do  a  quiet  odd  thing,  Paul,  Mrs.  Pipchin, 
and  the  Cat,  by  the  fire,  would  be  very  good  for  the  story.  I 
earnestly  hope  he  will  think  it  worth  a  little  extra  care."  On  first 
seeing  the  etching  of  this  subject,  he  was  sorely  displeased,  and  could 
not  refrain  from  thus  expressing  himself  to  Forster :  "  I  am  really 
distressed  by  the  illustration  of  Mrs.  Pipchin  and  Paul.  It  is  so 
frightfully  and  wildly  wide  of  the  mark.  Good  Heaven!  in  the 
commonest  and  most  literal  construction  of  the  text  it  is  all  wrong. 
She  is  described  as  an  old  lady,  and  Paul's  'miniature  arm-chair' 
is  mentioned  more  than  once.  He  ought  to  be  sitting  in  a  little 
arm-chair  down  in  the  corner  of  the  fireplace,  staring  up  at  her.  I 
can't  say  what  pain  and  vexation  it  is  to  be  so  utterly  misrepresented. 
I  would  cheerfully  have  given  a  hundred  pounds  to  have  kept  this 
illustration  out  of  the  book.  He  never  could  have  got  that  idea  of 
Mrs.  Pipchin  if  he  had  attended  to  the  text  Indeed,  I  think  he 
does  better  without  the  text ;  for  then  the  notion  is  made  easy  to 
him  in  short  description,  and  he  can't  help  taking  it  in."  It  is  cer- 
tainly strange  that  the  sketch  for  this  subject  was  not  submitted  to 
Dickens  for  approval  before  it  was  etched.  We  are  told  by  Forster 
that  the  author  felt  the  disappointment  more  keenly  because  "the 
conception  of  the  grim  old  boarding-house  keeper  had  taken  back 
his  thoughts  to  the  miseries  of  his  own  child-life,  and  made  her,  as 
her  prototype  in  verity  was,  a  part  of  the  terrible  reality."  In  justice 
to  the  artist,  it  must  be  conceded  that  the  etching  of  this  subject 
seems  to  be  an  excellent  rendering  of  the  description  of  the  scene 
as  conveyed  in  the  letterpress. 

"Phiz"  sometimes  complained  that  Dickens  did  not  send  him 
more  than  a  few  printed  lines  as  a  guide  to  the  subject  to  be  illus- 
trated, and,  being  kept  in  ignorance  as  to  the  context,  he  found  it 
difificult  to  delineate  the  characters  as  well  as  the  novelist  might 
wish.  Occasionally,  as  we  have  seen,  he  received  quite  a  lengthy  note 
when   at  work  upon    the  designs,   these   communications  sometimes 

HABL6t    K.    BROWNE  95 

being  partly  literal  extracts  from  the  text  and  partly  condensation, 
such  as  the  following  : — 

"  Paul  (a  year  older)  has  left  Mrs.  Pipchin's  and  gone  to  Doctor 
Blimber's  establishment  at  Brighton.  The  Doctor  only  takes  ten 
young  gentlemen.  Doctor  Blimber's  establishment  is  a  good  hot- 
house for  the  young  mind,  with  a  forcing  apparatus  always  at  work. 
Mental  green  peas  are  produced  there  at  Christmas,  and  intellectual 
asparagus  all  the  year  round.  Every  description  of  Greek  and 
Latin  vegetable  is  got  off  the  driest  twigs  of  boys  under  the  frostiest 
circumstances.  Mrs,  Blimber  is  fond  of  the  boys  not  being  like 
boys,  and  of  their  wearing  collars  and  neckerchiefs.  They  have  all 
blown  before  their  time.  The  eldest  boy  in  the  school — young  Toots 
by  name,  with  a  swollen  nose  and  an  exceedingly  large  head — left 
off  blowing  suddenly  one  day,  and  people  do  say  that  the  Doctor 
rather  overdid  it  with  him,  and  that  when  he  began  to  have 
whiskers  he  left  off  having  brains.  All  the  young  gentlemen  have 
great  weights  on  their  minds.  They  are  haunted  by  verbs,  noun- 
substantives,  roots,  and  syntactic  passages.  Some  abandoned  hope 
half  through  the  Latin  Grammar,  and  others  curse  Virgil  in  the 
bitterness  of  their  souls.  Classical  Literature  in  general  is  an  im- 
mense collection  of  words  to  them.  It's  all  words  and  grammar, 
and  don't  mean  anything  else. 

"  Subject  —  These  young  gentlemen  out  walking,  very  dismally 
and  formally  (observe  it's  a  very  expensive  school),  with  the  lettering. 
Doctor  Blimber  s  young  gentlemen  as  they  appeared  when  enjoying 
themselves.  I  think  Doctor  Blimber,  a  little  removed  from  the  rest, 
should  bring  up  the  rear,  or  lead  the  van,  with  Paul,  who  is  much 
the  youngest  of  the  party.  I  extract  the  description  of  the  Doctor. 
[Here  follows  a  quotation  from  the  eleventh  chapter.] 

"  Paul  cis  last  described,  but  a  twelvemonth  older.  No  collar  or 
neckerchief  for  him,  of  course.  I  would  make  the  next  youngest  boy 
about  three  or  four  years  older  than  he." 

A  remarkable  oversight  on  the  part  of  "Phiz"  with  reference  to 


this  plate  is  immediately  observable,  for  while  Dickens  explicitly 
states  the  number  of  Dr.  Blimber's  pupils  as  ten,  the  artist  has 
introduced  no  less  than  seventeen  young  gentlemen.  Concerning 
the  illustration,  "  Major  Bagstock  is  Delighted  to  have  that  Oppor- 
tunity," there  is  extant  an  interesting  letter  (dated  March  lo,  1847) 
from  Dickens  to  "Phiz"  (printed  for  the  first  time  in  Mr.  D.  C. 
Thomson's  Memoir  of  H.  K.  Browne),  in  which  the  novelist  is  very 
explicit  respecting  his  requirements  : — 

"My  Dear  Browne—  .  .  .  The  occasion  of  my  coming  home 
makes  me  very  late  with  my  number,  which  I  have  only  begun  this 
morning;  otherwise  you  should  have  been  fed  sooner.  .  .  .  The 
first  subject  I  am  now  going  to  give  is  very  important  to  the  book. 
/  should  like  to  see  your  sketch  of  it  if  possible. 

"  I  should  premise  that  I  want  to  make  the  Major,  who  is  the 
incarnation  of  selfishness  and  small  revenge,  a  kind  of  comic  Mephis- 
tophilean  power  in  the  book ;  and  the  No.  begins  with  the  departure 
of  Mr.  Dombey  and  the  Major  on  that  trip  for  change  of  air  and 
scene  which  is  prepared  for  in  the  last  Number.  They  go  to  Leam- 
ington, where  you  and  I  were  once.  In  the  Library  the  Major 
introduces  Mr.  Dombey  to  a  certain  lady,  whom,  as  I  wish  to  fore- 
shadow dimly,  said  Dombey  may  come  to  marry  in  due  season.  She 
is  about  thirty,  not  a  day  more — handsome,  though  haughty-looking 
— good  figure,  well  dressed,  showy,  and  desirable.  Quite  a  lady  in 
appearance,  with  something  of  a  proud  indifference  about  her,  sugges- 
tive of  a  spark  of  the  Devil  within.  Was  married  young.  Husband 
dead.  Goes  about  with  an  old  mother,  who  rouges,  and  who  lives 
upon  the  reputation  of  a  diamond  necklace  and  her  family.  Wants  a 
husband.  Flies  at  none  but  high  game,  and  couldn't  marry  anybody 
not  rich.  Mother  affects  cordiality  and  heart,  and  is  the  essence  of 
sordid  calculation.  Mother  usually  shoved  about  in  a  Bath  chair 
by  a  page  who  has  rather  outgrown  and  outshoved  his  strength, 
and  who  butts  at  it  behind  like  a  ram,  while  his  mistress  steers 
herself  languidly  by  a  handle   in   front.     Nothing  the   matter  with 



HABL6t    K.    BROWNE  97 

her  to  prevent  her  walking,  only  was  once  when  a  Beauty  sketched 
reclining  in  a  Barouche,  and  having  outlived  the  Beauty  and  the 
Barouche  too,  still  holds  to  the  attitude  as  becoming  her  uncommonly. 
Mother  is  in  this  machine  in  the  sketch.     Daughter  has  a  parasol. 

"The  Major  presents  them  to  Mr.  Dombey,  gloating  within 
himself  over  what  may  come  of  it,  and  over  the  discomfiture  of 
Miss  Tox.  Mr.  Dombey  (in  deep  mourning)  bows  solemnly. 
Daughter  bends.  The  native  in  attendance  bearing  a  camp-stool 
and  the  Major's  greatcoat.  Native  evidently  afraid  of  the  Major 
and  his  thick  cane.  If  you  like  it  better,  the  scene  may  be  in  the 
street  or  in  a  green  lane.  But  a  great  deal  will  come  of  it ;  and  I 
want  the  Major  to  express  that  as  much  as  possible  in  his  apoplectic 
Mephistophilean  observation  of  the  scene,  and  in  his  share  of  it." 

The  design  was  promptly  executed  and  submitted  to  Dickens, 
who,  in  a  letter  to  the  artist  dated  five  days  later,  expressed  his 
approval  thereof:  "The  sketch  is  admirable,"  he  wrote,  —  "the 
women  quite  perfect.  I  cannot  tell  you  how  much  I  like  the  younger 
one.  There  are  one  or  two  points,  however,  which  I  must  ask  you  to 
alter.    They  are  capital  in  themselves,  and  I  speak  solely  for  the  story. 

"  First — I  grieve  to  write  it — that  native — who  is  so  prodigiously 
good  as  he  is — must  be  in  European  costume.  He  may  wear  earrings 
and  look  outlandish  and  be  dark  brown.  In  this  fashion  must  be 
of  Moses,  Mosesy.  I  don't  mean  Old  Testament  Moses,  but  him 
of  the  Minories, 

"  Secondly,  if  you  can  make  the  Major  older,  and  with  a  larger 
face — do. 

"  That's  all.  Never  mind  the  pump-room  now,  unless  you  have 
found  the  sketch,  as  we  may  have  that  another  time.  I  shall  '  propoge ' 
to  you  a  trip  to  Leamington  together.  We  might  go  one  day  and 
return  the  next.  .  .  .  Don't  mind  sending  me  the  second  sketch.  It 
is  so  late."  * 

■  This  letter  was  by  chance  preserved  from  a  bonfire  made  by  Browne  of  his  old  letters  and 
unfinished  drawings  previous  to  a  change  of  residence. 



In  Mr.  J.  F,  Dexter's  collection  there  is  a  pencil-sketch  by  "  Phiz  " 
for  this  subject  (evidently  an  earlier  conception  than  that  submitted 
to  Dickens),  in  which  the  incident  is  depicted  as  occurring  at  the  sea- 
side (probably  Brighton),  while,  curiously  enough,  the  figure  of  Mr. 
Dombey  is  omitted.  Another  interesting  drawing,  also  owned  by 
Mr.  Dexter,  is  a  tentative  sketch  (in  blue  ink)  for  "The  Dombey 
Family,"  under  which  the  artist  has  written  the  following  query  : 
"Whether  'twere  better  to  have  him  [Mr.  Dombey]  standing  thus, 
stiff  as  a  poker,  with  a  kind  of  side  glance  at  his  daughter — or  sitting, 
as  in  the  other.''"  In  the  etching  we  see  that  Mr.  Dombey  is  repre- 
sented as  seated,  while  Florence  is  transferred  to  the  other  side  of 
the  picture. 

Through  the  kind  courtesy  of  Her  Grace  the  Duchess  of  St. 
Albans,  I  have  been  enabled  to  examine  the  original  "working" 
drawings  for  "Dombey  and  Son,"  all  of  these,  with  one  exception 
(viz.  "Polly  Rescues  the  Charitable  Grinder,"  which  has  mysteriously 
disappeared),  being  in  the  possession  of  her  Grace.  The  majority  of 
the  designs  were  not  reversed  when  copied  upon  the  steels,  and 
this  accounts  for  some  of  the  incongruities  already  referred  to.  In 
certain  cases  the  drawings  are  sketched  with  blue  ink  and  the 
effects  lightly  washed  in ;  others  are  in  pencil,  or  pencil  and  brush- 
work  combined. 

In  comparing  the  drawings  with  the  plates,  certain  unimpor- 
tant variations  are  discoverable ;  for  example,  in  the  drawing  of 
"Paul's  Exercises,"  the  candlestick  is  placed  on  the  table,  and  more 
to  the  right,  instead  of  being  raised  on  a  pile  of  books ;  in  "  Major 
Bagstock  is  Delighted  to  have  that  Opportunity,"  the  figure  of  the 
"Native"  is  differently  posed,  besides  being  almost  erased,  in  con- 
sequence, perhaps,  of  Dickens's  criticism ;  in  "  Coming  Home  from 
Church,"  the  ringers  hold  two  bells  in  either  hand.  On  one  of  the 
drawings  Dickens  has  placed  his  initials,  while  in  the  corner  of 
another,  "Secret  Intelligence,"  the  artist  has  written  the  words, 
"  Better,  eh  ?  "  whence  we  may  infer  that  a  previous  sketch  had  been 

Plate  XXXVI 


Facsimile  of  an  Original  Drawing  by 
H.  K.  BROWNE  ("Phiz") 

This  Drawing,  which  was  designed  for  the  series  of  extra  plates  for 
"  Barnaby  Rudge,"  has  never  been  engraved.  The  published  portrait  of 
Dolly  is  a  reproduction  of  a  subsequent  Drawing. 

Lent  by  Mr.  J.  P.  Dexter. 


A  on 






HABL6t    K.    BROWNE  99 

submitted.  It  seems  likely  that  "  Phiz "  made  two  or  three  trial 
sketches  for  every  etching  in  the  book,  as  there  are  still  in  existence 
other  tentative  designs  for  some  of  the  subjects  above  referred  to. 

Writing  to  the  editor  of  the  Daily  News  (December  30,  1882), 
Dr.  Edgar  A.  Browne,  the  artist's  son,  says :  "  Dickens's  delight  in 
the  ['  Dombey ']  illustrations  as  a  whole  was,  as  a  matter  of  fact,  very 
great,  and  was  expressed  (doubtless  with  some  characteristic  exaggera- 
tion) so  forcibly,  that  my  father  gave  him  the  original  designs,  which 
were  acknowledged  in  the  following  letter : — 

"'Devonshire  Terrace,  Thirteenth  June,  1848. 

" '  Mv  Dear  Browne, — A  thousand  thanks  for  the  Dombey 
sketches,  which  I  shall  preserve  and  transmit  as  heirlooms. 

" '  This  afternoon,  on  Thursday,  I  shall  be  near  the  whereabout  of 
the  boy  in  the  flannel  gown,  and  will  pay  him  an  affectionate  visit. 
But  I  warn  you  now  and  beforehand  (and  this  is  final,  you'll  observe) 
that  you  are  not  agoing  to  back  out  of  the  pigmental  finishing  said 
boy  ;  for  if  ever  I  had  a  boy  of  my  own  that  boy  is 


and,  as  the  demon  says  at  the  Surrey, 

'i  claim  mv  victim,' 
ha!  ha!  ha!! 

at  which  you  will  imagine  me  going  down  a  sulphurous  trap,  with  the 
boy  in  my  grasp — and  you  will  please  not  to  imagine  him  merely  in 
my  grasp,  but  to  hand  him  over. 

"  '  For  which  this  is  your  warrant  and  requirement 

(Signed)  Charles  Dickens. 

" '  Witness — William  +  Topping, 
His  groom.'" 

The  allusion  to  "  the  boy  in  the  flannel  gown "  has  reference  to 
a  portrait  of  Little  Paul,  painted  by  "  Phiz  "  as  a  present  to  Dickens. 


Miss  Hogarth  informs  me,  however,  that  she  has  no  recollection  of 
this  picture,  nor  of  the  "  Dombey  "  sketches. 

"  Phiz,"  as  usual,  designed  the  pictorial  wrapper  for  the  monthly 
parts,  concerning  which  Dickens  wrote :  "  I  think  the  cover  very 
good ;  perhaps  with  a  little  too  much  in  it,  but  that  is  an  ungrateful 
objection."  The  criticism  was  justified,  however,  for  the  design, 
though  ingeniously  conceived,  certainly  errs  on  the  side  of  over- 

The  success  attending  the  sale  of  the  extra  plates  for  "  Master 
Humphrey's  Clock "  encouraged  a  repetition  of  this  form  of  inde- 
pendent publication,  and  a  similar  series  of  portraits  were  produced 
ot  the  principal  characters  in  "  Dombey  and  Son."  Four  capital 
plates,  consisting  of  portraits  of  Little  Paul,  Florence,  Edith,  and 
Alice,  were  designed  by  Browne,  and  engraved  on  steel  {in  stipple 
and  line)  by  Edwards  and  Knight,  under  the  superintendence  of 
the  artist  and  Robert  Young,  whose  joint  venture  it  was.  The 
engravings  were  published  with  Dickens's  sanction  concurrently  with 
the  story ;  the  original  impressions  are  now  very  scarce,  but  the 
plates  still  exist  in  good  condition,  and  have  recently  been  reprinted. 
Dickens  was  much  pleased  with  these  delightful  portraits,  and  in  a 
hitherto  unpublished  letter  to  the  artist  (dated  January  5,  1847)  he 
thus  referred  to  the  drawings  :  "I  think  Paul  very  good  indeed — a 
beautiful  little  composition  altogether.  The  face  of  Florence  strikes 
me  as  being  too  old,  particularly  about  the  mouth.  Edith,  not  so 
handsome  as  in  the  little  drawings,  and  something  too  long  and 
flat  in  the  face.  The  better  Alice  of  the  two,  decidedly  that  which 
is  opposite  Edith."  There  are  extant  as  many  as  six  pencil- 
sketches  for  the  portrait  of  Alice,  presenting  slight  variations  in 
pose  and  expression,  and  Mr.  Dexter  owns  an  interesting  study  (in 
pencil  and  red  chalk)  of  Florence  Dombey,  which  has  never  been 

Almost  simultaneously  with  the  production  of  the  above  portraits, 
"Phiz"  designed  and  etched  eight  additional  plates  containing  full- 



HABL6t    K.    BROWNE  loi 

length  presentments  of  Mr.  Dombey  and  Carker,  Mrs.  Skewton, 
Old  Sol  and  Captain  Cuttle,  Miss  Tox,  Mrs.  Pipchin,  Major  Bagstock, 
Miss  Nipper,  and  Polly  Toodle.  This  undertaking  was  entirely  a 
speculation  of  the  artist,  the  plates  being  also  issued  in  sets 
by  Chapman  &  Hall.  Dr.  Browne  informs  me  that  the  original 
drawings  were  unexpectedly  discovered  by  him,  rolled  up  and  dirty, 
and  were  afterwards  included  in  the  Memorial  Exhibition  of  his 
father's  works  at  the  Liverpool  Art  Club  in   1883. 

The  first  cheap  edition  of  "Dombey  and  Son,"  1858,  includes  a 
frontispiece  by  "  Phiz,"  representing  the  flight  of  Carker.  The  artist 
also  contributed  to  each  of  the  two  volumes  of  the  Library  Edition 
(1858-59)  specially-designed  vignettes,  engraved  on  steel,  the  sub- 
jects being  Mr.  Dombey  and  the  second  Mrs.  Dombey,  and  Paul 
with  Florence  at  the  seaside. 



"DavidCopperfield"— The  DesignspreparedinDuplicate—"  Phiz's"  Port  rait  of  Mr.  Micawber 
— Peggotty's  Hut— Trifling  Errors  in  the  Plates— Original  Drawings— Designs  for  "  I  Make 
myself  Known  to  my  Aunt"— Variations  in  the  Etchings— Frontispiece  for  the  First  Cheap 
Edition— Vignettes  for  the  Library  Edition— "Bleak  House"— Plates  partly  Duplicated 
— Some  Curious  Inaccuracies— Skimpole  successfully  Portrayed— "  Phiz "  takes  Mental 
Notes— Original  Drawings— Alterations  in  the  Plates— The  "  Bleak  House  "  Illustrations 
Criticised— Frontispiece  for  the  First  Cheap  Edition — Vignettes  for  the  Library  Edition— 
"Little  Dorrit"— Illustrations  Unsigned— "  Machine-ruled  Designs— A  Letter  from 
Dickens  respecting  one  of  the  Plates— Original  Drawings— Pictorial  Wrapper—"  A  Talk 
OF  Two  Cities  "—A  Letter  from  "  Phiz  "  to  his  Son— Dickens  Forestalled— An  Unpublished 
Design— Last  of  Dickens's  Stories  Illustrated  by  "  Phiz  "—The  Artist's  Conjectures  as  to 
the  Cause  of  the  Severance — His  Tender  Regard  for  the  Novelist — His  Antecedents- 
Apprenticeship  at  Finden's— Exhibits  at  the  Royal  Academy— Inability  to  Draw  from 
"the  Life"— Some  Letters  to  Dickens— "  The  Pic  Nic  Papers"— An  Early  Reminiscence 
of  Dickens— "Phiz's"  Remuneration — From  Prosperity  to  Adversity— Serious  Illness — 
A  Broken-down  Old  Man— Paralysis— A  Pathetic  Grievance— Applies  for  a  Government 
Pension — Recognition  by  the  Royal  Academy — Decline  of  Imagination  and  Power  of 
Invention— Death  of  the  Artist— Mr.  J.  G.  Fennell's  Tribute—"  Phiz's "  Shyness— An 
Extraordinary  Commission — Water-colour  Replicas  of  the  Dickens  Illustrations — Vignettes 
for  the  Library  Edition  of  "Sketches  by  Boz"  and  "Oliver  Twist"— "  Phiz's"  Fellow- 
Apprentice,  Coadjutor,  and  Friend— Etching  the  Plates— Mezzotint  Eflfects— Fumival's  Inn 
—A  Note  from  "  Phiz  "  to  his  Colleague — Mr.  Robert  Young's  Autobiographical  Sketch. 

David  "T  N  "  David  Copperfield,"  the   most    fascinating  of 

Gspperficld,     I    Dickens's  novels,  it  cannot  be  said  that  "Phiz" 
1049-50.  X   quite  rose  to  the  occasion.    Ahhough  some  of  these 

plates  he  never  excelled,  the  majority  are  marked  by  a  certain  hard- 
ness and  stiffness  of  treatment,  and  are  conspicuously  deficient  in 
that  vigour  and  deftness  of  touch  which  characterise  his  previous 

As  in  the  case  of  "  Dombey  and  Son,"  the  whole  of  the  designs 
were  etched  in  duplicate,  the  replicas  differing  but  slightly  from  the 

HABL6t    K.    BROWNE  103 

originals.  About  half  of  the  series  were  executed  singly  on  octavo 
steels,  instead  of  in  couples  on  the  usual  quarto  plates.  In  one  of 
the  designs,  viz.,  "The  River,"  the  artist  has  again  resorted  to  the 
ruling-machine  for  attaining  the  desired  effect,  but  the  result  is  poor 
and  meagre.  He  has  succeeded  admirably  in  his  presentment  of 
Micawber,  respecting  which  Dickens  wrote  to  Forster  :  "  Browne  has 
sketched  an  uncommonly  characteristic  and  capital  Mr.  Micawber  for 
the  next  number."  The  most  pleasing  of  all  these  etchings,  however, 
are  those  in  which  the  boy-hero  figures,  such  as  those  depicting  him 
with  the  "  friendly  waiter  "  at  the  bar  of  the  public-house,  and  as,  with 
battered  hat  and  ragged  raiment,  he  "makes  himself  known  to  his 

It  has  been  asserted  that  "  Phiz "  at  this  period  sometimes  grew 
careless,  and  that  Dickens  did  not  exercise  that  particular  surveillance 
over  the  cutist's  work  which  he  customarily  bestowed  upon  it  in  the 
early  days.  For  example,  the  novelist  thus  describes  Peggotty's  odd 
residence,  an  old  boat  drawn  up  on  land  and  fashioned  into  a  house : 
"  There  was  a  delightful  door  cut  in  the  side,  and  it  was  roofed 
in,  emd  there  were  little  windows  in  it."  He  never  refers  to  it  as 
an  inverted  boat,  although  it  is  so  delineated  by  "  Phiz," — indeed, 
the  inference  is  that  the  vessel  stood  upon  its  keel,  for  elsewhere  it 
is  mentioned  as  being  left  "  high  and  dry,"  as  though  it  were  a  boat 
that  had  been  washed  ashore.  If  such  was  the  novelist's  conception, 
it  seems  strange  and  unaccountable  that  he  should  have  accepted 
without  a  protest  the  artist's  misrepresentation  of  Peggotty's  home. 
Curiously  enough,  there  might  have  been  seen  within  recent  years, 
on  the  open  Denes  at  Yarmouth,  an  inverted  boat  similarly  converted 
into  a  cosy  residence,  the  existence  of  which  apparently  gives  actuality 
to  "  Phiz's  "  drawing. 

In  some  of  the  etchings  may  be  discovered  a  few  trivial  errors ; 
for  instance,  in  the  plate  entitled  "  Somebody  Turns  Up,"  Mrs. 
Heep  is  left-handed,  an  oversight  which  (as  in  previous  cases)  is 
doubtless  the  result  of  the  etching  being  in  reverse  of  the  original 


design,  although  "Phiz"  was  generally  careful  to  remember  this 
when  preparing  his  sketches.  Strange  to  relate,  in  the  scene  de- 
picting divine  service  at  Blunderstone  Church,  he  has  omitted  the 
officiating  clergy  !  In  "  My  First  Fall  in  Life,"  the  horses  (especially 
the  leaders)  are  undoubtedly  disproportionate,  and  the  same  criticism 
applies  to  the  figures  in  the  illustration  depicting  the  unexpected 
arrival  of  David  and  his  friend  at  Peggotty's  fireside.  In  the  etching 
of  "The  River,"  the  scene  should  have  been  reversed,  and  from  this 
point  of  view  (the  river-side  at  Millbank)  the  dome  of  St.  Paul's  is 
not  visible,  although  it  is  shown  in  the  picture  Another  curious 
mistake  is  apparent  in  the  interesting  plate  entitled  "  Our  Housekeep- 
ing ; "  here  David  is  seen  struggling  with  a  loin  of  mutton,  whereas 
in  the  text  the  joint  is  distinctly  described  as  a  boiled  leg  of  mutton. 
It  is  amusing  to  note  the  appropriate  character  of  the  pictures  adorn- 
ing the  walls  of  some  of  "Phiz's"  interiors.  In  the  etching  of  "The 
Friendly  Waiter  and  I "  he  has  thus  introduced  the  scene  illustrating 
the  familiar  fable  of  the  Fox  and  the  Stork ;  in  "Changes  at  Home" 
we  have  the  Return  of  the  Prodigal  Son  and  the  Finding  of  Moses 
in  the  bulrushes ;  and  in  the  plate  delineating  Steerforth  and  Miss 
Mowcher  will  be  noticed  over  the  fireplace  a  scene  from  Gulliver's 
adventures  in  Brobdingnag,  an  allusion  to  the  diminutive  proportions 
of  the  remarkable  dwarf  who  was  "  so  volatile." 

Her  Grace  the  Duchess  of  St.  Albans  possesses  the  complete 
series  of  "  working "  drawings  for  "  David  Copperfield."  Like  the 
"  Dombey "  designs,  these  highly-finished  drawings  are  executed 
chiefly  in  pencil  and  the  effects  washed  in  with  indian-ink,  while  a 
few  are  in  pencil  only.  Of  that  well-known  design,  "  I  Make  myself 
Known  to  my  Aunt,"  there  exist  no  less  than  three  tentative  sketches  ; 
the  first  (on  which  the  artist  has  written  "Or — so — so?  ")  represents 
Miss  Trotwood  sitting  "  flat  down  on  the  garden-path," — a  pose 
which,  although  accurate  enough  according  to  the  text,  was  rightly 
deemed  inartistic,  whereupon  the  artist  prepared  another  design,  and 
submitted  it  to  Dickens.     In  the  second  picture  (where  "Phiz"  has 

HABL6t    K.    BROWNE  105 

queried,  "  Or — so  ?  "),  the  lady  stands  erect,  but  the  pathetic  appearance 
of  David  is  lost,  and  the  composition  of  the  background  proves  less 
fortunate.  In  the  etching  "  Phiz  "  combined  the  two  designs, — that  is, 
he  used  the  first  drawing,  but  substituted  the  standing  figure  of  Miss 
Trotwood  for  the  seated  one.  On  the  margin  of  the  second  design 
the  artist  (in  a  humorous  mood)  has  limned  an  unmerciful  caricature 
of  the  whole  incident.  The  third  tentative  drawing  for  this  subject, 
believed  to  be  the  first  sketch,  was  sold  at  Sotheby's  in  1887  for 
£6,  15s. ;  it  is  now  in  the  collection  of  Mr.  Thomas  Wright,  of  Paris. 

With  the  sketch  for  "  The  Friendly  Waiter  and  I  "  the  novelist 
was  delighted.  "  Phiz "  originally  represented  David  as  wearing  a 
long  jacket,  but  this  not  being  quite  in  accordance  with  Dickens's  idea, 
he  wrote  asking  the  artist  to  "  put  Davy  in  a  little  jacket  instead 
of  this  coat,  without  altering  him  in  any  other  respect,"  which  was 
accordingly  done. 

In  the  drawing  for  the  plate  entitled  "  My  Magnificent  Order  at 
the  Public-house,"  the  form  of  the  two  large  spirit-vessels  behind  David 
are  more  jug-shaped  than  in  the  etching.  The  "  little  white  hat," 
by-the-way,  as  here  worn  by  David,  is  just  such  head-gear  as  Dickens 
himself  disported  when  a  boy.  In  the  drawing  of  David  on  the  box- 
seat  of  the  coach,  "  My  First  Fall  in  Life,"  the  western  towers  of 
Canterbury  Cathedral  are  indicated  in  the  distance,  but  these  are 
omitted  in  the  etching.  In  the  scene,  "  Mr,  Micawber  Delivers  some 
Valedictory  Remarks,"  certain  faint  lines  are  observable  near  the 
principal  figure,  indicating  that  he  was  originally  delineated  in  a 
different  attitude.  The  effective  sketch  of  "  The  Wanderer  "  portrays 
more  of  the  woman's  figure  than  is  visible  in  the  plate.  In  the  design 
entitled  "  Our  Housekeeping,"  the  frame  of  a  mirror  or  picture  is 
introduced  on  the  wall  behind  David,  but  this  was  afterwards  con- 
sidered superfluous ;  and  in  the  drawing  of  "  The  Emigrants,"  Mr. 
Micawber  grasps  a  telescope,  which  does  not  appear  in  the  plate. 
The  drawing  of  "Mr.  Peggotty's  Dream  Comes  True"  varies  con- 
siderably from  the  etching,  for  not  only  is  David  seen  wearing  a  hat 


(which  in  the  etching  is  placed  upon  the  table),  but  the  artist  has 
included  a  fourth  figure,  that  of  Rosa  Dartle,  who,  seated  in  the 
chair,  leans  her  head  upon  her  arms  above  the  table.  The  introduc- 
tion of  Miss  Dartle  is,  of  course,  incorrect,  as  she  had  left  the  room 
before  Mr.  Peggotty  entered  ;  but  the  error  was  detected,  and  the 
necessary  alteration  effected  in  the  published  design. 

"Phiz's"  pictorial  wrapper  for  the  monthly  parts  is  replete  with 
detail,  around  the  title  in  the  centre  being  displayed  various  figures 
apparently  exemplifying  the  Seven  Ages  of  Man,  with  Dame  Fortune 
crowning  the  whole. 

The  first  cheap  edition  of  "David  Copperfield,"  1858,  contained 
a  frontispiece  by  "Phiz,"  engraved  on  wood  by  Swain,  representing 
Little  Em'ly  and  David  as  children  on  Yarmouth  Sands ;  to  the 
Library  Edition  (1858-59)  the  artist  contributed  two  vignettes  (en- 
graved on  steel),  the  subject  in  the  first  volume  being  Little  Em'ly 
and  David  by  the  sea,  and  for  the  second,  another  version  of  the 
etching  entitled  "  Mr.  Peggotty's  Dream  Comes  True." 




In  the  forty  illustrations  for  " Bleak  House"  the  artist  introduced  a 
greater  variety  of  subjects,  and  resorted  more  frequently 
to  the  use  of  the  ruling-machine,  no  less  than  ten  being 
so  treated  with  considerable  success.  "Phiz"  etched 
one  complete  set  of  the  plates  and  duplicates  of  the 
machine-ruled  designs,  which  were  repeated  probably  because  they 
could  not  so  readily  withstand  the  wear-and-tear  of  the  printing. 

A  very  few  of  the  "Bleak  House"  illustrations  are  signed.  In 
some  of  them  the  details  do  not  entirely  accord  with  the  letterpress, 
a  noteworthy  instance  of  this  inaccuracy  being  found  in  the  etching 
entitled  "  Miss  Jellaby,"  who  is  represented  as  dipping  her  forefinger 
in  the  egg-cup,  whereas  we  are  told  that  it  was  her  "  inky  middle 
finger."  A  more  important  oversight  in  the  same  picture  is  the  intro- 
duction of  the  infant  Jellaby  in  the  bed,  who  was  not  in  the  room 
at  all,  as  a  careful  reading  of  the  text  readily  discloses.     In  two 

HABL6t    K.    BROWNE  107 

instances,  Turveydrop  pire  is  depicted  without  the  false  whiskers 
he  customarily  wore,  and  in  the  illustration  of  "The  Smallweed 
Family,"  the  son  is  incorrectly  omitted.  It  is  perhaps  worth  noting 
an  odd  mistake  on  the  part  of  the  artist — in  the  etching  entitled 
"  Consecrated  Ground  "  he  has  represented  the  iron  gates  in  a  manner 
to  lead  one  to  suppose  they  could  not  be  opened ;  it  is  unfortunate, 
too,  that,  in  this  pathetic  scene  (in  which,  by  the  way,  the  chiar- 
oscuro is  curiously  forced)  he  partly  destroys  its  sentiment  by  in- 
appropriately introducing  on  the  left  the  comical  shadow  of  a  man 
in  the  act  of  drinking  from  a  tankard.  With  reference  to  one  of  the 
characters  in  "Bleak  House"  Dickens  wrote  to  Forster:  "Browne 
has  done  Skimpole,  and  helped  to  make  him  singularly  unlike  the 
great  original."  The  "great  original"  was,  of  course,  Leigh  Hunt, 
a  fact  which  the  novelist  himself  did  not  so  successfully  disguise, 
and  subsequently  paid  the  penalty  for  his  indiscretion. 

"  Phiz  "  invariably  depended  upon  his  imagination  or  memory  for 
his  scenes  and  characters  ;  as  the  artist  himself  expressed  it,  he  would 
merely  go  "  to  have  a  look  at  a  thing,"  and  then  be  able  to  prepare  his 
picture  without  further  aid.  For  instance,  before  designing  the  weird 
illustration  of  "The  Lonely  Figure"  in  "Bleak  House,"  he  visited  a 
lime-pit,  in  order  to  see  what  the  big  crushing-wheels  were  like  that 
he  desired  to  introduce,  and  made  a  mental  note  of  them  without 
leaving  the  seat  of  his  trap. 

Besides  the  original  "working"  drawings  for  "  Dombey  and  Son" 
and  "  David  Copperfield,"  Her  Grace  the  Duchess  of  St.  Albans  also 
possesses  those  for  "  Bleak  House."  They  vary  considerably  in  treat- 
ment, some  being  carefully  rendered,  while  those  reproduced  with  the 
mezzotint  shading  are  very  broadly  and  vigorously  executed  by  means 
of  a  soft  lead-pencil,  the  lights  heightened  with  chinese-white.  In 
comparing  the  drawings  with  the  etchings,  slight  variations  may  here 
and  there  be  noted ;  for  example,  in  the  design  for  "  Mr.  Guppy's  En- 
tertainment," Mr.  Jobling  was  first  seen  wearing  his  hat,  but  this  was 
partly  obliterated  and  the  contour  of  the  head  afterweirds  drawn  in ;  in 



"  Visitors  at  the  Shooting  Gallery,"  the  figure  of  Mr.  George  is  slightly 
different  in  pose,  while  the  sword  rests  on  his  shoulder  ;  in  "  Mr.  Small- 
weed  Breaks  the  Pipe  of  Peace,"  Miss  Smallweed  stands  a  short  distance 
from  her  father's  chair,  holding  his  "long  clay  ;  "  in  the  charming  design 
representing  "  Lady  Dedlock  in  the  Wood,"  we  see  Ada  coming  up 
behindher  ladyship,  the  figure  of  Charley  (differently  posed)  being  trans- 
ferred to  the  other  side  of  the  picture.  A  more  remarkable  alteration, 
however,  occurs  in  the  design  "Mr.  Chadband  '  Improving'  a  Tough 
Subject."  Chadband's  attitude  is  entirely  changed  from  that  in  the 
etching,  and  Jo  is  placed  on  the  other  side  of  the  drawing,  with  his 
back  to  Guster,  while  a  cat  reposes  upon  an  ottoman  near  Mrs. 
Snagsby.  In  the  drawing  of  "  Attorney  and  Client,"  the  face  of 
Mr.  Vholes  is  of  a  type  differing  from  the  published  version,  and  his 
arms  rest  upon  the  desk ;  also,  there  is  no  waste-paper  basket,  and  the 
deed-box  is  nearer  the  table.  Mr.  J.  F.  Dexter  has  another  sketch  for 
this  illustration  (presumably  an  earlier  one),  in  which  Richard  Carstone 
stands  with  his  back  to  the  table,  with  his  right  hand  pressed  despond- 
ingly  against  his  forehead.  The  original  drawings  for  the  sombre 
scenes,  although  more  effective  than  the  etched  reproductions,  are 
remarkably  crude  in  treatment — a  criticism  which  applies  more  especi- 
ally to  those  depicting,  "  The  Lonely  Figure"  and  "  The  Night."  The 
etchings  of  these  subjects  are  technically  superior  to  the  drawings, 
their  quality,  however,  being  principally  owing  to  the  results  obtained 
by  means  of  the  ruling-machine.  The  late  Mr.  James  Payn  once  ex- 
pressed the  belief  that  it  was  "  Phiz's "  selection  of  subjects  such  as 
these  which  made  him  so  acceptable  an  illustrator  to  Dickens. 

In  1882,  a  writer  in  The  Academy,  who  considered  the  illustrations 
in  "Bleak  House  "as  being  practically  perfect,  said  of  them:  "Not 
only  is  the  comic  side,  the  even  fussily  comic,  such  as  '  The  Young  Man 
of  the  Name  of  Guppy,'  understood  and  rendered  well,  but  the  dignified 
beauty  of  the  old  country-house  architecture,  or  the  architecture  of  the 
chambers  of  our  Inns-of-court,  is  conveyed  in  brief  touches ;  and  there 
is  apparent  everywhere  that  element  of  terrible  suggestiveness  which 

HABL6t    K.    BROWNE  109 

made  not  only  the  art  of  Habldt  Browne,  but  the  art  of  Charles 
Dickens  himself,  in  this  story  of  '  Bleak  House,'  recall  the  imaginative 
purpose  of  the  art  of  Mdryon.  What  can  be  more  impressive  in  con- 
nection with  the  story — nay,  even  independently  of  the  story — than 
the  illustration  of  Mr.  Tulkinghom's  chambers  in  gloom ;  than  the 
illustration  of  the  staircase  of  Dedlock's  own  house,  with  the  placard 
of  the  reward  for  the  discovery  of  the  murderer ;  than  that  of  Tom 
All  Alone's  ;  the  dark,  foul  darkness  of  the  burial-ground  under  scanty 
lamplight,  and  the  special  spot  where  lay  the  man  who  '  wos  wery  good 
to  me — he  wos!'?  And  then  again,  'The  Ghost's  Walk,'  and  once 
more  the  burial-ground,  with  the  woman's  body — Lady  Dedlock's — 
now  close  against  its  gate.  Of  course  it  would  be  possible  to  find  fault 
with  these  things,  but  they  have  nothing  of  the  vice  of  tameness — they 
deliver  their  message  effectually.  It  is  not  their  business  to  be  faultless; 
it  is  their  business  to  impress." 

The  design  for  the  monthly  wrapper  is  emblematical  of  the  Court 
of  Chancery,  the  artist  availing  himself  of  this  opportunity  of  indulg- 
ing in  humorous  pencillings  reflecting  upon  the  integrity  of  lawyers. 
"Phiz"  contributed  the  frontispiece  to  the  first  cheap  edition,  1858, 
representing  Mr.  Jarndyce  and  his  friends  in  Bell  Yard.  He  also 
designed  the  usual  vignettes  for  the  two  volumes  in  the  Library 
Edition  (1858-59),  which  were  engraved  on  steel;  in  the  first  is 
delineated  Lady  Dedlock  and  Jo,  and  in  the  second  we  behold  Lady 
Dedlock  and  Esther  Summerson  in  the  wood,  the  latter  cqmposition 
much  resembling  the  original  etching  of  the  same  incident. 

Among  the  illustrations  in  "  Little  Dorrit "  there  are  some  as  feeble 

in  execution  as  there  are  others  remarkable  for  exception- 

I!       ,  ally  vigorous  treatment ;  and  it  is  worthy  of  note  that, 

o    _ '  whereas  in  "  Bleak  House "  the  artist  began  partly  to 

relinquish  the  custom  of  appending  his  familiar  nom  de 

guerre  to  the  plates,  in  "  Little  Dorrit "  not  a  single  design  bears  his 



An  examination  of  the  "Dorrit"  etchings  discloses  the  fact  that  no 
less  than  eight  are  toned  by  means  of  the  ruling-machine,  the  result 
being  even  more  satisfactory  than  usual.  The  first  of  these  "  ruled  " 
plates  represents  the  interior  of  a  French  prison,  and  the  effect  of  deep 
gloom,  enhanced  by  a  few  bright  rays  of  light  darting  through  the 
barred  window,  is  remarkable  for  its  Rembrandt-like  chiaroscuro. 
Pleasantly  contrasting  with  this  sombre  subject  there  is  the  plate  de- 
picting "The  Ferry,"  a  delightfully  rural  view,  with  trees  and  wind- 
ing river,  and  that  entitled  "  Floating  Away,"  where  the  moon,  rising 
behind  the  trees,  imparts  a  romantic  aspect  to  the  scene.  The  old 
house  in  the  last  illustration  but  one,  "Damocles,"  indicates  "Phiz's" 
power  in  expressing  the  picturesqueness  of  ancient  architecture,  and 
his  appreciation  of  the  effect  of  light  as  it  falls  upon  quaintly-carved 
door  and  window.  The  plate  entitled  "  Mr.  Flintwinch  has  a  Mild 
Attack  of  Irritability"  is  probably  one  of  the  most  forcible  etchings  ever 
executed  by  "  Phiz,"  and  it  is  difficult  to  conceive  that  the  same  master- 
hand  was  responsible  for  the  apparently  inexperienced  work  to  be 
found  in  an  earlier  illustration,  "  Little  Mother,"  the  execution  of  which 
is  as  timid  and  lifeless  as  the  other  is  bold  and  expressive. 

"  Phiz  "  etched  one  complete  set  of  the  plates,  and  duplicated  the 
tinted  subjects,  the  variations  from  the  originals  being  slight  and  un- 
important. Of  the  forty  illustrations,  thirty-four  are  on  octavo  plates 
containing  single  subjects,  and  three  are  quarto  plates  having  two 
subjects  on  each. 

A  part  of  "  Little  Dorrit"  was  composed  in  France,  and  on  July  2, 
1856,  Dickens  informed  the  artist  that  he  was  returning  to  Boulogne 
the  next  day,  and  desired  him  to  make  the  illustration  of  "The  Pen- 
sioner Entertainment"  "as  characteristic  as  ever  you  please,  my  little 
dear,  but  quiet."  This  plate  proved  a  decided  success.  When,  early 
in  1857,  the  novelist  was  again  in  London,  "Phiz"  forwarded  for  his 
inspection  a  sketch  for  the  etching  entitled  "An  Unexpected  After- 
dinner  Speech,"  which,  however,  did  not  quite  realise  Dickens's  idea ; 
whereupon  the  artist  received  a  letter  (printed  for  the  first  time  in  Mr. 

Plate  XXXVII 


Facsimile  of  an  Original  Drawing  by 
H.  K.  BROWNE  ("Phiz") 

Designed   for  the   series  of  extra   plates  for  "  Barruiby    Rudge."     This 
Drawing  differs  from  the  published  Engraving. 

Lent  iy  Hir  Graet  the  Duchess  of  St.  Albans, 


HABL6t    K.    BROWNE  in 

Thomson's  Memoir)  suggesting  certain  improvements,  afterwards  duly 
carried  out.  "  In  the  dinner  scene,"  he  wrote,  "it  is  highly  important 
that  Mr.  Dorrit  should  not  be  too  comic.  He  is  too  comic  now.  He 
is  described  in  the  text  as  '  shedding  tears,'  and  what  he  imperatively 
wants  is  an  expression  doing  less  violence  in  the  reader's  mind  to  what 
is  going  to  happen  to  him,  and  much  more  in  accordance  with  that 
serious  end  which  is  so  close  before  him.  Pray  do  not  neglect  this 

Dickens  seems  to  have  been  much  pleased  with  the  artist's  original 
drawings  of  "  Flora's  Tour  of  Inspection"  and  "Mr.  Merdle  a  Borrower," 
which  he  characterised  as  "  very  good  subjects — both."  Of  the  latter 
he  said  :  "  I  can't  distinctly  make  out  the  detail,  but  I  take  Sparkles  to 
be  getting  the  tortoise-shell  knife  from  the  box.     Am  I  right  ?  " 

Only  a  few  of  the  drawings  for  "  Little  Dorrit "  have  been  available 
for  my  inspection.  Two  of  these,  viz.,  "  Mr.  Merdle  a  Borrower  "  and 
"Under  the  Microscope"  (now  in  Mr.  J.  F.  Dexter's  collection),  are 
executed  in  pencil  and  wash,  the  second  design  not  being  reversed  in 
the  etching.  As  usual,  the  pictorial  wrapper  for  the  monthly  parts  was 
designed  by  "  Phiz."  The  central  picture  represents  Little  Dorrit 
emerging  from  the  gates  of  the  Marshalsea ;  above  is  placed  the 
despondent  figure  of  Britannia  in  a  bath-chair,  attended  by  figures 
emblematical  of  the  Circumlocution  Office,  while  at  the  base  of  the 
design  is  seen  a  mixed  assemblage  of  people,  including  some  of  the 
more  prominent  characters  in  the  story. 

Although  "  A  Tale  of  Two  Cities "  was  written  specially  for  the 

pages  of  All  the  Year  Round,  it  appeared  concurrently 

£t     *i°         in   the   familiar    monthly   numbers,    with    illustrations 
Two  Cities,    ,      „„,.   „    T,,  .      .  ,.  ,,,  , 

Q  by  "  rhiz.       1  he  artist,  m  writmg  to  his  son  Walter, 

said :   "  A  rather   curious  thing  happened   with   this 

book.     Watts  Phillips,  the  dramatist,  hit  upon  the  very  same  identical 

plot:  they  had   evidently   both   of  them  been  to  the  same  source 

in  Paris  for  their  story.     Watts's  play  ['  The  Dead   Heart ']  came 


out  with  great  success,  with  stunning  climax,  at  about  the  time  of 
Dickens's  sixth  number.  The  public  saw  that  they  were  identically 
the  same  story,  so  Dickens  shut  up  at  the  ninth  number,  instead  of 
going  on  to  the  eighteenth  as  usual."  Whether  this  explanation  is 
correct  or  not,  the  fact  remains  that  "A  Tale  of  Two  Cities"  was 
brought  to  a  conclusion  in  the  eighth  number  (not  the  ninth,  as  stated 
by  "  Phiz  "),  being  therefore  less  than  half  the  usual  length  of  Dickens's 

As  in  the  case  of  "  Little  Dorrit,"  the  artist's  signature  does  not 
appear  in  any  of  the  sixteen  etchings  contributed  by  "Phiz"  to  this 
novel.  It  has  been  pointed  out  that  the  French  personages  in  the 
pictures  are  not  characteristic  of  the  period,  there  being  but  little 
attempt  at  archaeological  accuracy  in  the  costumes.  Only  one  set 
of  the  illustrations  was  prepared,  none  being  etched  in  duplicate  ;  they 
were  executed  on  eight  quarto  steels,  each  bearing  two  designs.  Of 
the  original  drawings  for  "A  Tale  of  Two  Cities  "  I  have  seen  only 
one  (now  in  Mr.  J.  F.  Dexter's  collection),  and  this  was  never  etched. 
The  sketch  in  question,  which  is  vigorously  executed  with  pencil  and 
brush,  depicts  the  incident  of  the  stoppage  at  the  Fountain,  and  con- 
stitutes an  excellent  subject  for  illustration. 

The  artist's  design  for  the  monthly  wrapper  is  composed  of  distinct 
scenes  separated  by  dividing  lines.  At  the  top  of  the  page  is  St.  Paul's 
Cathedral  as  viewed  from  the  Thames,  and  at  the  base  the  Cathedral 
of  N6tre  Dame  is  represented,  while  around  are  displayed  some  of  the 
prominent  characters  in  the  story. 

"A  Tale  of  Two  Cities"  is  the  last  of  the  novels  containing 
illustrations  by  "  Phiz,"  for,  with  the  completion  of  the  final  plate  in 
that  story,  there  came  a  severance  of  that  fortuitous  collaboration 
between  novelist  and  artist  which  had  been  maintained  during  a  period 
of  twenty-three  years.  As  there  is  no  evidence  of  any  actual  rupture 
between  them,  it  is  fair  to  surmise  that  a  legitimate  desire  on  the  part 
of  Dickens  for  a  new  illustrator  constituted  the  actual  reason  for  that 
severance.     "Phiz"  naturally  felt  aggrieved  at  "Dickens's  strangely 


HABL6t    K.    BROWNE  113 

silent  manner  of  breaking  the  connection,"  and  could  only  surmise  the 
reason ;  for,  in  an  undated  letter  to  Mr.  Robert  Young,  written  pre- 
sumably a  short  time  before  the  publication  of  the  succeeding  story, 
he  said  :  "  Marcus  [Stone]  is  no  doubt  to  do  Dickens.  /  have  been 
a  '  good  boy,'  I  believe.  The  plates  in  hand  are  all  in  good  time,  so 
that  I  do  not  know  what's  '  up,'  any  more  than  you.  Dickens  pro- 
bably thinks  a  new  hand  would  give  his  old  puppets  a  fresh  look,  or 
perhaps  he  does  not  like  my  illustrating  Trollope  neck-and-neck  with 
him — though,  by  Jingo,  he  need  fear  no  rivalry  there'.  Confound  all 
authors  and  publishers,  say  I.  There  is  no  pleasing  one  or  t'other. 
I  wish  I  had  never  had  anything  to  do  with  the  lot." 

The  amicable  relationship  that  had  subsisted  between  the  author 
and  his  principal  illustrator  was  not  strained  by  this  event.  As  a 
matter  of  fact,  the  artist  ever  entertained  a  tender  regard  and 
admiration  for  the  famous  romancer  with  whom  he  had  so  long 
been  associated,  and  we  may  readily  believe  what  a  writer  in  the 
Frankfurt  Zeitung  tells  us  when  he  says :  "Just  after  the  death 
of  Charles  Dickens,  '  Phiz '  was  considerably  affected  by  the  mere 
mention  of  the  name  of  that  illustrious  novelist,  which  seemed  to 
stir  up  in  his  breast  feelings  of  regret  at  losing  such  a  friend." 

Habl6t  Knight  Browne,  as  designer  of  the  plates  for  ten  of  the 
fourteen  principal  novels  by  "Immortal  Boz,"  is  justly  termed  "the 
illustrator  of  Dickens."  His  name  and  fame  are  similarly  identified 
with  the  works  of  Lever  and  Ainsworth,  while,  in  addition  to  this, 
his  familiar  signature  ("  Fizz,  Whizz,  or  something  of  that  sort,"  as 
Tom  Hood  used  to  say,  when  endeavouring  to  recall  the  artist's 
sign-manual)  may  be  found  appended  to  innumerable  etchings  and 
woodcuts.  He  was  born  at  Kennington,  London,  in  July  18 15, 
being  the  ninth  son  of  William  Loder  Browne,  who  is  somewhat 
indefinitely  described  as  "a  merchant."  The  artist's  forefathers 
were  of  French  descent,  the  original  name  (according  to  tradition) 
being   Le   Brun,  a  member   of  which   family  emigrated  to  England 



after  the  Massacre  of  St  Bartholomew  in  1572.  His  ancestors 
lived  in  London  in  the  early  part  of  the  last  century  and  adopted 
the  essentially  English  cognomen  of  Browne.  With  regard  to  the 
artist's  baptismal  names,  it  is  interesting  to  learn  that  the  first 
(Habl6t)  was  the  patronymic  of  a  Colonel  (or  Captain)  who  was 
engaged  to  marry  a  sister  of  "  Phiz,"  but  was  killed  in  a  charge 
of  Napoleon's  Garde  Impdriale  at  Waterloo,  while  the  second 
(Knight)  was  received  from  Admiral  Sir  John  Knight,  an  old  friend 
of  the  family ;  thus,  in  respect  of  names,  was  the  artist  associated 
with  both  Army  and  Navy. 

"Phiz"  inherited  a  strong  artistic  faculty,  and,  when  a  boy,  was 
encouraged  to  cultivate  his  wonderful  talent  for  drawing  by  his 
brother-in-law,  Mr.  Elhanan  Bicknell,  the  well-known  Art  patron, 
who  took  so  keen  an  interest  in  his  welfare  that  he  offered  to  defray 
all  expenses  of  a  thorough  art  education.  It  was  through  Mr.  Bick- 
nell's  generosity  that  the  youth  was  apprenticed  to  Finden,  the 
engraver,  who,  it  appears,  more  than  once  complained  that  his 
proUgi  persisted  in  covering  with  comic  figures  the  entire  margins 
of  the  plates  entrusted  to  him,  thus  indicating  the  humorous  bent 
of  his  mind.  In  after  years  he  took  occasional  lessons  in  painting, 
but  he  never  distinguished  himself  as  a  painter,  although  he  occa- 
sionally exhibited  at  the  Royal  Academy  and  other  public  galleries. 
The  only  regular  training  he  ever  had  was  at  Finden's ;  but  the 
work  he  was  required  to  perform  there  proved  much  too  irksome 
and  monotonous  for  one  who,  like  "  Phiz,"  possessed  ideas  so  emi- 
nently original  and  fanciful.  As  in  the  case  of  his  two  famous  con- 
temporaries, Cruikshank  and  Leech,  "  Phiz "  could  never  accustom 
himself  to  draw  from  the  living  model,  which  accounts,  of  course, 
for  his  conventional  treatment  of  the  human  figure ;  his  representa- 
tions of  moving  crowds,  as  well  as  other  scenes  of  life  and  character, 
being  drawn  either  from  recollection  or  by  the  aid  of  a  few  slightly- 
pencilled  memoranda. 

It   is   unfortunate   for   my   present    purpose   that   nearly   all   the 

HABL6t    K.    BROWNE  115 

correspondence  which  passed  between  author  and  artist  should  have 
been  destroyed.  I  am  enabled,  however,  to  print  one  or  two  brief 
notes  indicating  their  friendly  and  familiar  relationship.  In  1841, 
"  Phiz "  supplied  some  etchings  to  "  The  Pic  Nic  Papers,"  a  col- 
lection of  essays  edited  by  Dickens  and  produced  for  the  benefit 
of  Mrs.  Macrone,  the  widow  of  the  well-known  publisher,  who  had 
been  left  in  impoverished  circumstances.  In  reply  to  an  inquiry 
on  the  part  of  the  novelist  respecting  the  illustrations,  the  artist 
wrote : — 

"  Mv  Dear  Dickens, — I  have  just  got  one  boot  on,  intending 
to  come  round  to  you,  but  you  have  done  me  out  of  a  capital 
excuse  to  myself  for  idling  away  this  fine  morning.  I  quite  forgot 
to  answer  your  note,  and  Mr.  Macrone's  book  has  not  been  very 
vividly  present  to  my  memory  for  some  time  past,  for  both  of 
which  offences  I  beg  innumerable  pardons.  I  think  by  the  begin- 
ning of  next  [week]  or  the  middle  {certain)  I  shall  have  done  the 
plates,  but  on  the  scraps  of  copy  that  I  have  I  can  see  but  one  good 
subject,  so  if  you  know  of  another,  pray  send  it  me.  I  should  like 
'  Malcolm '  again,  if  you  can  spare  him. — Yours  very  truly, 

"  Very  short  of  paper.  Hablot  K.  Browne." 

The  following  terse  epistle  is  undated,  which  is  characteristic  of 
"  Phiz's  "  letters  :— 

"  My  Dear  Dickens, — I  am  sorry  I  cannot  have  a  touch  at  battle- 
dore with  you  to-day,  being  already  booked  for  this  evening,  but  I 
will  give  you  a  call  to-morrow  after  church,  and  take  my  chance  of 
finding  you  at  home. — Yours  very  sincerely, 

"  Habl6t  K.  Browne." 

On  March  15,  1847,  when  forwarding  to  the  artist  some  written 
instructions  respecting  a  "  Dombey  "  illustration,  the  novelist  made  an 
interesting  allusion  to  an  early  incident  in  his  own  life.     "  I  wish  you 


kadheen  at  poor  Hall's'  funeral,  and  I  am  sure  they  would  have  been 
glad.  .  .  .  He  lies  in  Highgate  Cemetery,  which  is  beautiful.  ...  Is 
it  not  a  curious  coincidence,  remembering  our  connection  afterwards, 
that  I  bought  the  magazine  [T/ie  Monthly  Magazine,  Dec.  1833]  in 
which  the  first  thing  I  ever  wrote  was  published  ["  A  Dinner  at 
Poplar  Walk"]  from  poor  Hall's  hands?  I  have  been  thinking  all 
day  of  that,  and  of  that  time  when  the  Queen  went  into  the  City,  and 
we  drank  claret  (it  was  in  their  [Chapman  &  Hall's]  earlier  days)  in 
the  counting-house.     You  remember  ?  " 

"  Phiz "  received  fifteen  guineas  each  for  his  early  plates,  but 
sometimes  agreed  to  accept  smaller  fees ;  he  estimated  that  it  took 
him  ten  days  to  prepare  and  etch  four  designs.  Being  a  bad  business 
man,  he  never  raised  his  prices,  the  consequence  being  that  his  income 
was  not  what  it  should  have  been  for  one  who  so  long  held  a  unique 
position  as  an  illustrator  of  popular  books.  During  the  first  ten  or 
twelve  years  of  his  professional  life  he  was  comparatively  prosperous, 
but  when  etching  as  a  means  of  illustrating  went  out  of  favour,  and 
he  became  somewhat  indifferent  concerning  this  method  of  work,  his 
income  suffered  considerably.  The  artist  did  not  actually  experience 
financial  difficulties,  however,  until  he  was  seized  with  a  serious  illness 
in  1867,  said  to  have  been  partly  caused  by  his  having  slept  in  a 
draught  at  a  seaside  house.  After  five  months  of  great  suffering  he 
again  essayed  to  use  his  pencil,  but  it  soon  became  obvious  to  his 
friends  that  his  health  was  completely  shattered,  and  that,  in  less 
than  six  months,  he  had  become  a  broken-down  old  man.  The  worst 
trouble  of  all  was  a  partial  paralysis  of  the  right  arm  and  leg,  which 
he  persisted  in  calling  "rheumatism,"  and  in  consequence  of  which 
his  hand  lost  its  cunning.  Then  it  was  that  the  demand  for  his  work 
practically  ceased.  "  I  don't  know  where  to  turn  or  what  to  do,"  he 
wrote  in  1879.  "I  have  at  last  come  to  a  full  stop,  and  don't  see 
my  way  just  yet  to  get  on  again.  My  occupation  seems  gone,  extinct ; 
I  suppose  I  am  thought  to  be  used  up,  and  I  have  been  long  enough 

'  Partner  in  the  firm  of  Chapman  &  Hall. 

HABL6t    K.    BROWNE  117 

before  the  public.  I  have  not  had  a  single  thing  to  do  this  year,  nor 
for  some  months  previous  in  the  past  year." 

In  1878,  at  the  suggestion  of  his  friend  Mr.  Luke  Fildes,  R.A., 
"Phiz"  applied  to  Government  for  a  pension.  The  petition  was  pre- 
pared by  Mr.  Robert  Young,  but  the  result  was  unfavourable. 
Happily  he  received  unexpected  assistance  from  another  quarter, 
in  the  shape  of  a  well-deserved  annuity  from  the  Royal  Academy, 
awarded  in  recognition  of  his  distinguished  services  to  Art.  Ever 
hopeful  of  being  restored  to  health,  he  began  on  his  recovery  to 
again  use  his  pencil,  but  the  crippled  condition  of  his  right  hand, 
together  with  the  rapid  decline  of  his  fanciful  imagination  and  power 
of  invention,  made  it  impossible  for  him  to  produce  anything  worthy 
of  his  past  reputation.  At  length  his  affliction  became  so  pronounced 
that  all  hope  of  recovery  was  abandoned,  and  on  the  8th  of  July 
1882  the  famous  "Phiz"  breathed  his  last,  in  his  sixty-seventh  year. 
He  spent  the  end  of  his  busy  life  in  the  quiet  seclusion  of  Hove,  and 
his  last  resting-place  is  on  the  summit  of  a  hill  on  the  northern  side 
of  the  extra-mural  cemetery  at  Brighton. 

"  Phiz's "  many  excellent  qualities  far  outweighed  any  defects  in 
his  character.  A  life-long  friend  of  the  artist,  Mr.  John  Greville 
Fennell,  writes  thus  to  me :  "  No  man  knew  more  of  Habldt  Browne 
than  I-  did,  for  though  he  was  very  reticent  to  most,  he  never,  I 
believe,  concealed  anything  from  me.  We  used  to  wander  together 
in  the  country  for  two  or  three  weeks  or  more  at  a  time,  and  a  man 
more  full  of  fun,  when  he  had  thrown  off  the  'harness,'  I  have  not 
known  in  my  large  acquaintance."  His  naturally  modest  disposition 
eventually  developed  into  a  remarkable  shyness,  and  this,  when  coupled 
with  a  dislike  of  publicity,  was  often  misconstrued  as  pride.  Even 
Dickens  had  considerable  difficulty  in  persuading  him  to  meet  a  few 
friends  and  spend  a  pleasant  evening.  When  he  did  accept  such 
invitations,  he  invariably  tried  to  seclude  himself  in  a  corner  of  the 
room  or  behind  a  curtain.  In  former  years  he  was  occasionally 
prevailed  upon  to  attend  certain  dinners  given  by  Dickens  to  celebrate 


the  completion  of  his  stories ;  and  the  novelist  sometimes  succeeded 
in  inducing  him  to  accept  invitations  to  join  him  for  a  brief  holi- 
day by  the  sea,  as  we.  learn  from  a  communication  addressed  to 
Forster,  and  dated  from  Bonchurch  during  the  "Copperfield"  days, 
in  which  Dickens  said :  "  Browne  is  coming  down  when  he  has 
done  his  month's  work."  Eventually,  all  desire  for  social  intercourse 
ceased,  "  Phiz  "  preferring  to  lead  the  life  of  a  recluse  in  his  country 

A  short  time  prior  to  his  severe  illness  in  1867,  Habl6t  Browne 
received  an  extraordinary  commission  from  Mr.  F,  W.  Cosens,  one  of 
his  most  liberal  patrons,  who  solicited  the  artist  to  make  coloured 
replicas  of  the  entire  series  of  his  published  designs  for  the  works  of 
the  great  novelist.  In  a  letter  to  me  on  this  subject  in  1882,  Mr. 
Cosens  said :  "  I  remember  to  have  had  only  two  or  three  interviews 
with  him,  and,  as  a  stranger,  found  him  shy  and  nervous.  I  desired 
to  secure  any  sketches  he  might  have  of  the  illustrations  to  Dickens, 
but  understood  him  to  say  he  had  none,  as  he  drew  them  on  the 
blocks  [plates].  He  evidently  did  not  like  the  drudgery  of  reproduction, 
and  named  such  terms  as  he  thought  would  deter  me  ;  but  finding  the 
honorarium  was  of  great  importance  to  him,  the  bargain  was  struck. 
The  work  extended  over  some  years,  and  the  later  productions  evince 
haste  and  inferiority.  The  work  can  hardly  be  called  water-colour 
drawing,  as  it  is  simply  sketching,  slightly  heightened  by  colour- 
washing." Strange  to  say,  "  Phiz  "  did  not  possess  copies  of  Dickens's 
novels,  so  he  borrowed  Mr.  Cosen's  set,  and  from  these  he  executed 
the  tinted  replicas.  At  the  sale  of  Mr.  Cosen's  library  at  Sotheby's 
in  1890,  this  interesting  collection,  numbering  405  drawings,  was 
disposed  of  for  the  aggregate  sum  of  ;^67i. 

It  should  be  mentioned  in  conclusion,  that,  besides  the  vignettes 
already  described  as  having  been  prepared  by  "  Phiz  "  for  the  Library 
Edition  (1858-59),  he  also  designed  for  that  edition  the  following 
subjects,  which  were  executed  in  water-colours  and,  like  the  rest, 
engraved  on  steel  :— Mr.  Trott  and  the  "  Boots,"  illustrating  "  The 

HABL6t    K.    BROWNE  119 

Great  Winglebury  Duel"  in  "Sketches  by  Boz  ; "  Mr.  Bumble  and 
Oliver,  for  "Oliver  Twist;"  Scrooge  and  Marley,  for  the  series  of 
Christmas  Books  ;  and  a  Vineyard  Scene,  which  appropriately  decorates 
the  title-page  of  "  Pictures  from  Italy." 

Although,  as  already  stated,  Habl6t  Browne  was  quite  capable 
of  biting-in  his  own  designs  upon  the  steel  plates,  he  had  not  sufficient 
time  to  devote  to  this  part  of  his  work.  From  the  "  Pickwick  "  days 
onward  the  artist  was  fortunate  in  securing  the  services  of  his  fellow- 
apprentice  in  Finden's  studio,  Mr.  Robert  Young,  who  was  afterwards 
his  partner  in  many  artistic  ventures,  and  always  his  most  intimate 
friend  and  admirer.  When  at  Finden's,  Mr.  Young  acquired  the  art 
of  biting-in,  a  process  which,  although  to  some  extent  a  mechanical 
one,  requires  a  considerable  amount  of  artistic  knowledge  and  manipu- 
lative skill,  for  there  is  nothing  to  guide  the  etcher  as  to  the  required 
effect,  except  in  some  cases  a  rough  indication  on  paper.  It  was 
Mr.  Young's  duty,  after  each  plate  was  bitten-in,  to  go  over  it  with 
a  graver  and  join  any  lines  which  in  the  etching  had  become  broken 
or  rotten.  For  biting-in  and  finishing  the  two  subjects  on  one  plate 
he  received  from  Chapman  &  Hall  (with  whom  he  had  a  separate 
account)  the  sum  of  three  guineas.  Browne's  ruling-machine  for 
producing  the  mezzotint  effects  was  kept  in  his  colleague's  room  at 
Furnival's  Inn,  where,  more  than  half-a-century  ago,  he  and  the 
artist  took  chambers  for  business  purposes  and  to  be  near  the  pub- 
lishers. These  quarters,  which  were  situated  in  the  south-west  comer 
of  the  Inn,  have  been  lately  demolished,  together  with  the  chambers 
at  No.  15,  rendered  famous  by  the  fact  that  the  earlier  portion  of 
"  Pickwick  "  was  there  written. 

Mr.  Young  acted  as  Browne's  assistant  in  the  manner  described 
during  the  greater  part  of  the  years  of  "Phiz's"  popularity,  and  his 
co-operation  extended  not  only  to  the  Dickens  illustrations,  but  to 
the  thousand-and-one  designs  that  embellished  the  works  of  other 
writers.       The   following   brief  note  (quoted   from   Mr.   Thomson's 


Memoir)  is  a  specimen  of  the  many  communications  which  constantly 
passed  between  the  artist  and  his  coadjutor : — 

[Circa  1845.] 

"My  Dear  'Co,' — Pray  help  me  in  an  emergency.  Put  a  bottle 
of  aquafortis  in  your  pockets,  wax  and  all  other  useful  adjuncts,  and 
come  to  me  to-morrow  about  one  or  two  o'clock,  and  bite  in  an 
etching  for  me,  ferociously  and  expeditiously.  Can  you  ?  —  will 
you  ? — oblige.  Yours  sincerely,  H.  K.  Browne." 

Mr.  Robert  Young,  who  is  now  in  his  eighty-second  year,  has 
recently  favoured  me  with  a  few  facts  concerning  himself,  which  are 
not  devoid  of  interest  in  the  present  record.  Writing  from  Norham- 
upon-Tweed,  he  says:  "I  was  born  in  Dalkeith  in  1816,  educated 
in  France,  and,  on  leaving  school,  was  apprenticed  to  Finden,  the 
engraver,  where  my  friendship  with  '  Phiz '  commenced,  which  closed 
with  his  death.  Some  years  ago  I  was  presented  with  a  clerkship 
in  the  Admiralty,  and  retired  on  a  pension  in  1878,  which  enables 
me  to  pass  my  last  days  in  this  humdrum  village.  I  am,  as  you  see, 
very  old,  have  many  infirmities,  and  cannot  always  remember  past 


3  0 

Plate  XXXVI II 


From  an  Unpublished  Photograph  by 
Lent  by  Iht  Artists  Daughter,  Mrs.  Edviard  franks. 


First  Acquaintance  with  Dickens — Declines  Offer  of  Knighthood — Favourite  Subjects  for 
Pictures— " Master  Humphrey's  Clock"— A  Letter  from  Dickens  respecting  the 
Illustrations— Cattermole's  Designs  Copied  on  Wood  by  "Phiz"  and  Samuel  Williams — 
Some  Dickens  Correspondence — Minute  Directions  to  the  Artist — Design  for  Frontis- 
piece— Useful  Hints  and  Suggestions — The  "Maypole"  Inn — "Grip,"  the  Raven — 
Subjects  for  "  Bamaby  Kudge " — An  Unpublished  Letter  from  Cattermole  to  Dickens — 
Closing  Chapters  of  the  Story — The  Novelist  Approves  of  the  Illustrations — Frontispiece 
for  the  First  Cheap  Edition  of  "The  Old  Curiosity  Shop" — Water-colour  Drawings  of 
"Little  Nell's  Home"  and  "Little  Nell's  Grave"— Dickens's  Gratitude  to  Cattermole— 
Death  of  the  Artist — His  Vivacity  and  Good-fellowship. 

BORN  at  Dickleburgh,  Norfolk,  in  the  year  1800,  George 
Cattermole  was  a  dozen  years  the  senior  of  Charles  Dickens, 
His  acquaintance  with  the  novelist  began  in  1838,  and  when, 
in  the  following  year,  he  married  Miss  Elderton,  a  distant  connection 
of  the  author  of  "  Pickwick,"  the  friendship  subsisting  between  the 
two  men  ripened  into  sincere  affection.  George  Cattermole  had  been 
elected  a  member  of  the  Society  of  Painters  in  Water-Colours  as  early 
as  1833,  which  indicates  that  his  reputation  was  already  well  estab- 
lished, and  in  1839  he  had  achieved  such  distinction  in  Art  that  he 
received  the  offer  of  knighthood, — an  honour  he  modestly  declined. 
Thv,  subjects  he  loved  to  portray  were  scenes  from  mediaeval  history, 
fiction,  or  ballad  literature,  and  he  revelled  in  depicting  incidents  of 
bygone  times,  with  their  manners  and  customs,  their  architecture  and 
costumes,  in  the  representation  of  which  he  has  been  considered  the 
chief  exponent.  It  was  this  antiquarian  feeling,  as  well  as  his  power- 
ful imagination  and  vivid  fancy,  which  excited  the  admiration  of  John 
Ruskin,  whose  favourable  criticisms  of  the  artist's  early  productions 
proved  of  infinite  service. 


George  Cattermole  had  already  enjoyed  considerable  experience 

as  an  illustrator  of  books,  and  had  made  drawings 

Master  ^""^'     of  buildings  and  scenery  described  in  Scott's  novels, 

"_,    ^  '    when,  in   1840,   Dickens  invited  him  to  collaborate 


with    D.    Maclise,   R.A.,    and    Habl6t    K.    Browne 

("Phiz")  in  designing  the  woodcuts  for  "  Master  Humphrey's  Clock." 

The  earliest  intimation  received  by  the  artist  respecting  the  projected 

publication   was   contained   in   the   following    letter,    dated    January 

13,  1840:— 

"My  Dear  Cattermole, — I  am  going  to  propound  a  mightily  grave 
matter  to  you.  My  new  periodical  work  appears — or  I  should  rather 
say  the  first  number  does — on  Saturday,  the  28th  of  March.  .  .  . 
The  title  is  '  Master  Humphrey's  Clock,'  Now,  among  other  im- 
provements, I  have  turned  my  attention  to  the  illustrations,  meaning 
to  have  woodcuts  dropped  into  the  text,  and  no  separate  plates.  I 
want  to  know  whether  you  would  object  to  make  me  a  little  sketch 
for  a  woodcut — in  indian-ink  would  be  quite  sufficient — about  the  size  of 
the  enclosed  scrap ;  the  subject,  an  old  quaint  room  with  antique 
Elizabethan  furniture,  and  in  the  chimney-corner  an  extraordinary 
old  clock— the  clock  belonging  to  Master  Humphrey,  in  fact,  and 
no  figures.  This  I  should  drop  into  the  text  at  the  head  of  my 
opening  page. 

"  I  want  to  know,  besides — as  Chapman  &  Hall  are  my  partners 
in  the  matter,  there  need  be  no  delicacy  about  my  asking  or  your 
answering  the  question — what  would  be  your  charge  for  such  a  thing, 
and  whether  (if  the  work  answers  our  expectations)  you  would 
like  to  repeat  the  joke  at  intervals,  and  if  so,  on  what  terms  .■*  I 
should  tell  you  that  I  intend  to  ask  Maclise  to  join  me  likewise, 
and  that  the  copying,  the  drawing  on  wood,  and  the  cutting  will  be 
done  in  first-rate  style.  ...  I  want  to  talk  the  matter  over  with 
you,  and  wish  you  would  fix  your  own  time  and  place.  ...  — 
Faithfully  yours  Charles  Dickens." 


We  gfather  from  this  letter  that  Cattermole  was  then  unaccustomed 
to  drawing  upon  the  wood  block,  and  therefore  executed  his  designs 
upon  paper,  to  be  afterwards  copied  upon  wood  by  a  practical  hand. 
In  the  next  communication,  dated  a  few  days  later,  it  will  be  seen 
that  the  artist  agreed  to  Dickens's  proposals  (preferring,  however,  to 
select  his  own  subjects),  and  that  "  Phiz's  "  pencil  was  made  available 
for  copying  purposes ;  the  drawing  here  referred  to  being  that  of  the 
"old  quaint  room"  which  forms  the  heading  of  the  first  chapter  of 
"  Master  Humphrey's  Clock."     The  novelist  wrote  : — 

"  I  think  the  drawing  most  famous,  and  so  do  the  publishers,  to 
whom  I  sent  it  to-day.  If  Browne  should  suggest  anything  for  the 
future  which  may  enable  him  to  do  you  justice  in  copying  (on  which 
point  he  is  very  anxious),  I  will  communicate  with  you.  It  has 
occurred  to  me  that  perhaps  you  will  like  to  see  his  copy  on  the 
block  before  it  is  cut,  and  I  have  therefore  told  Chapman  &  Hall 
to  forward  it  to  you. 

"  In  future,  I  will  take  care  that  you  have  the  number  to  choose 
your  subject  from.  I  ought  to  have  done  so,  perhaps,  in  this  case ; 
but  I  was  very  anxious  that  you  should  do  the  room.  .  .  ." 

The  artistic  skill  of  the  eminent  draughtsman  and  engraver, 
Samuel  Williams,  was  at  first  similarly  requisitioned  for  copying 
purposes,  as  proved  by  the  signature  appended  to  the  illustration  of 
Little  Nell's  room  in  the  initial  chapter  of  "  The  Old  Curiosity 
Shop,"  the  original  drawing  of  which  was  undoubtedly  supplied  by 
Cattermole,  who,  before  very  long,  was  enabled  to  dispense  with  these 
professional  services. 

Judging  from  the  amount  of  correspondence  still  extant,  Dickens 
was  constantly  in  communication  with  Cattermole  respecting  the 
illustrations  for  "Master  Humphrey's  Clock."  In  a  letter  dated 
March  9,  1840,  he  said  : — 

"I  have  been  induced,  on  looking  over  the  works  of  the  'Clock,' 
to  make  a  slight  alteration  in  their  disposal,  by  virtue  of  which  the 
story  about  '  J  ohn  Podgers '  will  stand  over  for  some  little  time,  and 


that  short  tale  will  occupy  its  place  which  you  have  already  by  you, 
and  which  treats  of  the  assassination  of  a  young  gentleman  under 
circumstances  of  peculiar  aggravation.^  I  shall  be  greatly  obliged 
to  you  if  you  will  turn  your  attention  to  this  last  morsel  as  the  feature 
of  No.  3,  and  still  more  if  you  can  stretch  a  point  with  regard  to 
time  (which  is  of  the  last  importance  just  now),  and  make  a  subject 
out  of  it,  rather  than  find  one  in  it.  I  would  neither  have  made  this 
alteration  nor  have  troubled  you  about  it,  but  for  weighty  and  cogent 
reasons  which  I  feel  very  strongly,  and  into  the  composition  of  which 
caprice  or  fastidiousness  has  no  f)art.  .  .  . 

"  I  cannot  tell  you  how  admirably  I  think  Master  Humphrey's 
room  comes  out,  or  what  glowing  accounts  I  hear  of  the  second  design 
you  have  done.*  I  had  not  the  faintest  anticipation  of  anything  so 
good,  taking  into  account  the  material  and  the  despatch." 

The  text  of  "  Master  Humphrey's  Clock"  afforded  the  artist  many 
congenial  themes  for  his  pencil.  The  story  of  Little  Nell  evidently 
fascinated  him,  and  the  various  subjects  selected  for  illustration  were 
lovingly  dealt  with.  An  interval  of  several  months  elapsed  before 
the  following  instructions  were  received  by  him  respecting  future 
designs : — 

"  I  sent  the  MS.  of  the  enclosed  proof,  marked  2,  up  to  Chapman 
&  Hall  from  Devonshire,  mentioning  a  subject  of  an  old  gateway,' 
which  I  had  put  in  expressly  with  a  view  to  your  illustrious  pencil. 
By  a  mistake,  however,  it  went  to  Browne  instead. 

"The  subject  to  which  I  wish  to  call  your  attention  is  in  an 
unwritten  number  to  follow  this  one,  but  it  is  a  mere  echo  of  what 
you  will  find  at  the  conclusion  of  this  proof  marked  2.  I  want  the 
cart,  gaily  decorated,  going  through  the  street  of  the  old  town  with 
the  wax  brigand  displayed  to  fierce  advantage,  and  the  child  seated 
in  it  also  dispersing  bills.      As   many  flags  and  inscriptions  about 

•  "  Mr.  Pickwick's  Tale,"  in  the  first  chapter. 

^  See  headpiece  to  "  First  Night  of  the  Giant  Chronicles." 

'  See  illustration  in  "  The  Old  Curiosity  Shop,"  chap,  xxvii. 

Plate  XXXIX 

^Cg^i  QUILP'S    WHARF 

Fatsimilt  of  the  Original  Sketch  for  "  The  Old  Curiosity  Shop"  by 

Lent  iy  Mrs.  Edward  Franks. 


Jarley's  Wax  Work  fluttering  from  the  cart  as  you  please.  You 
know  the  wax  brigands,  and  how  they  contemplate  small  oval 
miniatures  ?  That's  the  figure  I  want.  I  send  you  the  scrap  of 
MS.  which  contains  the  subject. 

"Will  you,  when  you  have  done  this,  send  it  with  all  speed  to 
Chapman  &  Hall,  as  we  are  mortally  pressed  for  time.  .  .  ." 

For  some  reason,  the  drawing  of  Mrs.  Jarley's  cart  was  not 
executed  by  Cattermole ;  perhaps  he  was  otherwise  occupied  at  the 
moment,  so  that  the  work  fell  to  Browne,  whose  initials  are  appended. 
Concerning  the  frontispiece  the  novelist  offered  some  valuable  sug- 
gestions, of  which  the  artist  readily  availed  himself : — 

"Will  you  turn  your  attention  to  a  frontispiece  for  our  first 
volume,  to  come  upon  the  left-hand  side  of  the  book  as  you  open  it, 
and  to  face  a  plain  printed  title  ?  My  idea  is,  some  scene  from  '  The 
Curiosity  Shop,'  in  a  pretty  border,  or  scroll-work,  or  architectural 
device ;  it  matters  not  what,  so  that  it  be  pretty.  The  scene  even 
might  be  a  fanciful  thing,  partaking  of  the  character  of  the  story, 
but  not  reproducing  any  particular  passage  in  it,  if  you  thought  that 
better  for  the  effect. 

"  I  ask  you  to  think  of  this,  because,  although  the  volume  is  not 
published  until  the  end  of  September,  there  is  no  time  to  lose.  We 
wish  to  have  it  engraved  with  great  care  and  worked  very  skilfully ; 
and  this  cannot  be  done  unless  we  get  it  on  the  stocks  soon.  They 
will  give  you  every  opportunity  of  correction,  alteration,  revision,  and 
all  other  -ations  and  -isions  connected  with  the  fine  arts." 

In  this  design  will  be  found  Cattermole's  only  representations  of 
Mr.  Pickwick  and  the  two  Wellers.  In  the  following  letter  (dated 
December  21  [1840]),  some  hints  were  gfiven  as  to  the  treatment  of 
one  of  the  most  charming  illustrations  in  the  series,  viz.,  the  pictu- 
resque parsonage-house  which  was  the  temporary  home  of  Little  Nell 
and  her  Grandfather.  The  lanthorn  here  referred  to  is  not  only  omitted 
from  the  drawing,  but  we  fail  to  find  it  mentioned  in  the  text : — 

"  Kit,  the  single  gentleman,  and   Mr.   Garland  go  down  to  the 


place  where  the  child  is,  and  arrive  there  at  night.  There  has  been 
a  fall  of  snow.  Kit,  leaving  them  behind,  runs  to  the  old  house,  and, 
with  a  lanthorn  in  one  hand  and  the  bird  in  its  cage  in  the  other, 
stops  for  a  moment  at  a  little  distance  with  a  natural  hesitation  before 
he  goes  up  to  make  his  presence  known.  In  a  window — supposed 
to  be  that  of  the  child's  little  room — a  light  is  burning,  and  in  that 
room  the  child  (unknown,  of  course,  to  her  visitors,  who  are  full  of 
hope)  lies  dead. 

"  If  you  have  any  difficulty  about  Kit,  never  mind  about  putting 
him  m.  .  .  . 

The  next  letter  contained  useful  suggestions  for  the  delineation 
of  the  most  pathetic  scenes  in  "The  Old  Curiosity  Shop." 

(i.)  "The  child  lying  dead  in  the  little  sleeping-room,  which  is 
behind  the  open  screen.  It  is  winter-time,  so  there  are  no  flowers  ; 
but  upon  her  breast  and  pillow,  and  about  her  bed,  there  may  be  strips 
of  holly  and  berries,  and  such  free  green  things.  Window  overgrown 
with  ivy.  The  little  boy  who  had  that  talk  with  her  about  angels  may 
be  by  the  bedside,  if  you  like  it  so ;  but  I  think  it  will  be  quieter  and 
more  peaceful  if  she  is  quite  alone.  I  want  it  to  express  the  most 
beautiful  repose  and  tranquillity,  and  to  have  something  of  a  happy 
look,  if  death  can. 

(2.)  The  child  has  been  buried  inside  the  church,  and  the  old  man, 
who  cannot  be  made  to  understand  that  she  is  dead,  repairs  to  the 
grave  and  sits  there  all  day  long,  waiting  for  her  arrival,  to  begin 
another  journey.  His  staff  and  knapsack,  her  little  bonnet  and 
basket,  &c.,  lie  beside  him.  '  She'll  come  to-morrow,'  he  says  when 
it  gets  dark,  and  goes  sorrowfully  home.  I  think  an  hour-glass 
running  out  would  help  the  notion ;  perhaps  her  little  things  upon 
his  knee  or  in  his  hand. 

"  I  am  breaking  my  heart  over  this  story,  and  cannot  bear  to 
finish  it." 

In  the  first  of  these  two  delightful  drawings  the  artist  rightly 
omitted  the  figure  of  the  boy,  and  in  order  to  emphasise  the  sense 


Plate  XL 


Fttcsimitt  of  the  Original  Drawings  for  "  The  Old  Curiosity  Shop  "  by 
Unt  by  Mr.  S.  J.  Davey  and  Mrs.  Edward  Franks. 

■ni  ■ 

fe"  rS^yV^' 





of  repose  in  that  humble  death-chamber,  he  introduced  a  bird,  which 
is  seen  perched  upon  the  window-ledge,  while  the  hour-glass  (sug- 
gested for  the  second  picture)  seemed  to  him  more  appropriate  here. 
Cattermole  made  two  or  three  sketches  of  No.  i  before  he  quite 
satisfied  the  author,  who  had  asked  him  to  carry  out  certain  altera- 
tions, these  resulting  in  such  a  marked  improvement  that  Dickens 
wrote :  "  I  cannot  tell  you  how  much  obliged  I  am  to  you  for  alter- 
ing the  child,  or  how  much  I  hope  that  my  wish  in  that  respect  didn't 
go  greatly  against  the  grain."*  "Will  you  do  me,"  he  asks,  in  the 
same  letter,  "a  little  tailpiece  for  the  'Curiosity'  story?  —  only  one 
figure  if  you  like — giving  some  notion  of  the  etherealised  spirit  of 
the  child ;  something  like  those  little  figures  in  the  frontispiece." 
This  litde  allegory  formed  the  closing  illustration. 

"  Barnaby  Rudge "  immediately  followed  "  The  Old  Curiosity 
Shop,"  under  the  collective  title  of  "  Master  Humphrey's  Clock." 
For  the  first  chapter  of  this  stirring  romance  Cattermole  provided 
a  charming  illustration,  depicting  the  old  "Maypole"  Inn,  which, 
however,  was  not  intended  to  portray  the  "  delicious  old  inn " 
opposite  Chigwell  churchyard,  referred  to  by  Dickens  in  a  letter  to 
Forster  at  this  time,  it  being  an  entirely  fanciful  design.  When 
the  novelist  saw  the  drawing  on  wood  of  this  subject  he  was  delighted. 
"  Words  cannot  say  how  good  it  is,"  he  wrote  to  the  artist.  "  I  can't 
bear  the  thought  of  its  being  cut,  and  should  like  to  frame  and  gla^e 
it  in  statu  quo  for  ever  and  ever."  On  January  28,  1841,  he 
queried : — 

"  I  want  to  know  whether  you  feel  ravens  in  general  and  would 
fancy  Barnaby 's  raven  in  particular?  Barnaby  being  an  idiot,  my 
notion  is  to  have  him  always  in  company  with  a  pet  raven,  who  is 
immeasurably  more  knowing  than  himself.  To  this  end  I  have  been 
studying  my  bird,  and  think   I   could  make  a  very  queer  character 

•  Macready,  upon  whom  the  death  of  Little  Nell  had  a  painful  effect,  was  much  impressed 
by  this  illustration,  as  an  entry  in  his  diary  testifies  :  "  Found  at  home  ...  an  onward  number 
of  '  Master  Humphrey's  Clock.'  I  saw  one  print  in  it  of  the  dear  dead  child  that  gave  a  dead 
chill  through  my  blood.     I  dread  to  read  it,  but  must  get  it  over." 


of  him.  Should  you  like  the  subject  when  this  raven  makes  his 
first  appearance  ?  " 

Two  days  later,  he  again  pressed  the  question  : — 

"  I  must  know  what  you  think  about  the  raven,  my  buck  ;  I  other- 
wise am  in  this  fix.  I  have  given  Browne  no  subject  for  this  number, 
and  time  is  flying.  If  you  would  like  to  have  the  raven's  first  appear- 
ance, and  don't  object  to  having  both  subjects,  so  be  it.  I  shall  be 
delighted.     If  otherwise,  I  must  feed  that  hero  forthwith." 

But  Cattermole  apparently  declined  the  privilege  of  introducing 
to  the  world  a  presentment  of  the  immortal  "  Grip," — an  honour  which 
therefore  fell  to  "  Phiz's"  pencil.  On  January  30,  1841,  Dickens  de- 
spatched to  the  artist  some  printed  slips  describing  Gabriel  Varden's 
house,  "  which  I  think  [he  said]  will  make  a  good  subject,  and  one 
you  will  like.  If  you  put  the  ''prentice'  in  it,  show  nothing  more 
than  his  paper  cap,  because  he  will  be  an  important  character  in  the 
story,  and  you  will  need  to  know  more  about  him,  as  he  is  minutely 
described.  I  may  as  well  say  that  he  is  very  short.  Should  you 
wish  to  put  the  locksmith  in,  you  will  find  him  described  in  No.  2 
of  '  Barnaby '  (which  I  told  Chapman  &  Hall  to  send  you). 
Browne  has  done  him  in  one  little  thing,  but  so  very  slightly  that 
you  will  not  require  to  see  his  sketch,  I  think." 

On  February  9th  the  artist  received  the  following  request : — 

"Will  you,  for  No.  49,  do  the  locksmith's  house,  which  was 
described  in  No.  48  ?  I  mean  the  outside.  If  you  can,  without 
hurting  the  effect,  shut  up  the  shop  as  though  it  were  night,  so  much 
the  better.  Should  you  want  a  figure,  an  ancient  watchman  in  or  on 
his  box,  very  sleepy,  will  be  just  the  thing  for  me. 

"  I  have  written  to  Chapman  and  requested  him  to  send  you  a 
block  of  a  long  shape,  so  that  the  house  may  come  upright,  as  it  were." 

From  this  note,  and  a  subsequent  one  in  which  Dickens  commands 
the  artist  to  put  "  a  penny  pistol  to  Chapman's  head  and  demand  the 
blocks  of  him,"  we  learn  that  Cattermole  had  by  this  time  accustomed 
himself  to  copying  his  designs  upon  wood,  and  could  dispense  with  that 


kind  of  assistance.  His  drawing  of  the  dilapidated  but  picturesque 
old  country  inn,  "The  Boot,"  whither  the  rioters  resorted,  is,  I 
believe,  a  direct  transcript  from  an  old  print  representing  the  place  as 
it  appeared  at  the  time  referred  to,  1 780 ;  the  woodcut  is  in  reverse 
of  the  print.*  Here  are  two  letters  (dated  July  28th  and  August  6th, 
1 84 1 ,  respectively)  that  fairly  bristle  with  details  of  scenes,  in  chapters 
liv.  and  Ivi.,  which  the  artist  was  desired  to  depict : — 

"Cui  you  do  for  me  by  Saturday  evening — I  know  the  time  is 
short,  but  I  think  the  subject  will  suit  you,  and  I  am  greatly  pressed — 
a  party  of  rioters  (with  Hugh  and  Simon  Tappertit  conspicuous  among 
them)  in  old  John  Willet's  bar,  turning  the  liquor  taps  to  their  own 
advantage,  smashing  bottles,  cutting  down  the  grove  of  lemons, 
sitting  astride  on  casks,  drinking  out  of  the  best  punch-bowls,  eating 
the  great  cheese,  smoking  sacred  pipes,  &c.,  &c.  ;  John  Willet  fallen 
backward  in  his  chair,  regarding  them  with  a  stupid  horror,  and 
quite  alone  among  them,  with  none  of  the  Maypole  customers  at 
his  back? 

"It's  in  your  way,  and  you'll  do  it  a  hundred  times  better  than 
I  can  suggest  it  to  you,  I  know." 

"  Here's  a  subject  for  the  next  number.  .  .  .  The  rioters  went, 
sir,  from  John  Willet's  bar  (where  you  saw  them  to  such  good  pur- 
pose) straight  to  the  Warren,  which  house  they  plundered,  sacked, 
burned,  pulled  down  as  much  of  it  as  they  could,  and  greatly 
damaged  and  destroyed.  They  are  supposed  to  have  left  it  about 
half-an-hour.  It  is  night,  and  the  ruins  are  here  and  there  flaming 
and  smoking.  I  want — if  you  understand — to  show  one  of  the 
turrets  laid  open — the  turret  where  the  alarm-bell  is,  mentioned  in 
No.  I  ;  and  among  the  ruins  (at  some  height  if  possible)  Mr.  Hare- 
dale  just  clutching  our  friend,  the  mysterious  file,  who  is  passing  over 

'  A  modem  public-house  still  stands  upon  the  site,  in  Cromer  Street,  Gray's  Inn  Road. 
It  retains  the  original  sign. 



them  like  a  spirit ;  Solomon  Daisy,  if  you  can  introduce  him,  looking 
on  from  the  ground  below. 

"  Please  to  observe  that  the  M.  F.  wears  a  large  cloak  and  slouched 
hat.  This  is  important,  because  Browne  will  have  him  in  the  same 
number,  and  he  has  not  changed  his  dress  meanwhile.  Mr.  Haredale 
is  supposed  to  have  come  down  here  on  horseback  pell-mell ;  to  be 
excited  to  the  last  degree.  I  think  it  will  make  a  queer  picturesque 
thing  in  your  hands.  .  .  .  P.S. — When  you  have  done  the  subject,  I 
wish  you'd  write  me  one  line  and  tell  me  how,  that  I  may  be  sure 
we  agree." 

In  sending  to  Dickens  for  approval  a  sketch  of  the  ruined  home 
of  Mr.  Haredale,  the  artist  enclosed  the  following  letter,  now  printed 
for  the  first  time : — 

"My  Dear  Dickens, — I  cannot  hope  you  will  make  much  out 
of  the  accompanying  sketch.'  I  suppose  the  spectator  to  be  placed 
upon  the  roof  of  one  of  the  wings  of  the  Warren  House,  and  towards 
him  are  rushing  .  .  .  [Rudge]  and  Mr.  Haredale  as  they  issue  from  a 
small  door  in  the  tower,  whereunto  is  attached  (as  part  and  parcel 
of  the  same)  the  bell-turret.  A  small  closet  through  which  they  pass 
to  the  roof  has  been  dismantled,  or  rather  thrown  down  and  carried 
by  the  fire  and  the  other  spoilers ;  on  the  grass  below  is  rooted 
Solomon  Daisy  in  an  ecstasy  of  wonder,  &c.,  &c.  ;  beyond  are  clouds 
of  smoke  a-passing  over  and  amongst  many  tall  trees,  and  all  about 
are  heard  the  tenants,  frightened  rooks,  flying  and  cawing  like  mad. — 
In  haste,  my  dear  Charles,  G.  Cattermole." 

Clapham,  Aug.  12  [1841]. 

It  will  be  observed  that  the  incident  depicted  in  this  illustration 
takes  place  in  utter  darkness,  while  the  published  woodcut  represents 
a  daylight  scene.  This  remark  also  applies  to  the  subject  of  the 
next  letter  (dated  August  19,  1841),  which  was  treated  by  the  artist 

>  See  Plate.    Both  sketch  and  letter  are  in  the  collection  of  Mr.  Augustin  Daly,  of  New 
York,  to  whom  I  am  indebted  for  the  opportunity  of  reproducing  them. 

Plate  XLI 




Facsimiks  fii  Original  Sketches  for  "  Bamaby  Rudge"  by 

Lent  by  Mr,  S.  /.  Davty. 


'^^f  ,.'T   ,.  J 

t    •       ■.•r'-.i-'-'r  f  ■! 

■<-V'\    >, 


in  a  similar  manner  ;  the  effect  of  torchlight  being  entirely  absent  from 
the  picture  necessarily  deprives  it  of  much  dramatic  character  : — 

"  When  Hugh  and  a  small  body  of  the  rioters  cut  off  from  the 

Warren  beckoned  to  their  pals,  they  forced  into  a  very  remarkable 

postchaise  Dolly  Varden  and  Emma  Haredale,  and  bore  them  away 

with  all  possible   rapidity  ;  one  of  their   company  driving,   and   the 

rest  running  beside  the  chaise,   climbing  up  behind,   sitting  on  the 

top,  lighting  the  way  with  their  torches,  &c.,  &c.     If  you  can  express 

the  women  inside  without  showing  them — as  by  a  fluttering  veil,  a 

delicate  arm,   or  so   forth,  appearing  at  the  half-<:losed  window — so 

much   the   better.     Mr.    Tappertit   stands   on   the   steps,   which   are 

partly  down,  and,   hangjing  on  to  the  window  with  one   hand   and 

extending  the  other  with  great  majesty,  addresses   a  few  words  of 

encouragement  to  the  driver  and  attendants.     Hugh  sits   upon  the 

bar  in  front ;  the  driver  sitting   postilion-wise,   and  turns   round   to 

look  through  the  window  behind  him  at  the  little  doves  within.     The 

gentlemen  behind  are  also  anxious  to  catch  a  glimpse  of  the  ladies. 

One  of  those  who  are  running  at  the  side  may  be  gently  rebuked  for 

his  curiosity  by  the  cudgel  of  Hugh.     So  they  cut  away,  sir,  as  fast 

as  they  can. 

"P.S.—]ohn  Willet's  bar  is  noble." 

There  were  yet  a  few  more  illustrations  required  for  the  closing 
chapters  of  "  Barnaby  Rudge,"  concerning  which  the  artist,  received 
very  precise  instructions  from  the  author.  For  example,  on  September 
14,  1 84 1,  Dickens  forwarded  to  his  illustrator  the  following  "business 
letter,  written  in  a  scramble  just  before  post-time,"  the  directions 
having  reference  to  incidents  in  chapters  Ixxiii.,  Ixxxi.,  and  Ixxxii. : — 

"Firstly,  Will  you  design,  upon  a  block  of  wood.  Lord  George 
Gordon,  alone  and  very  solitary,  in  his  prison,  and  after  your  own 
fancy  ;  the  time,  evening  ;  the  season,  summer  ? 

''Secondly,  Will  you  ditto  upon  a  ditto,  a  sword-duel  between  Mr. 
Haredale  and  Mr.  Chester,  in  a  grove  of  trees  .<•  No  one  close  by. 
Mr.  Haredale  has  just  pierced  his  adversary,  who  has  fallen,  dying,  on 


the  grass.  He  (that  is,  Chester)  tries  to  staunch  the  wound  in  his 
breast  with  his  handkerchief;  has  his  snuff-box  on  the  earth  beside 
him,  and  looks  at  Mr.  Haredale  (who  stands  with  his  sword  in  his 
hand  looking  down  on  him)  with  most  supercilious  hatred,  but  polite 
to  the  last.     Mr.  Haredale  is  more  sorry  than  triumphant. 

"  Thirdly,  Will  you  conceive  and  execute,  after  your  own  fashion, 
a  frontispiece  for  '  Barnaby '  ? 

''Fourthly,  Will  you  also  devise  a  subject  representing  'Master 
Humphrey's  Clock'  as  stopped;  his  chair  by  the  fireside  empty  ;  his 
crutch  against  the  wall ;  his  slippers  on  the  cold  hearth  ;  his  hat  upon 
the  chair-back;  the  MSS.  of  'Barnaby'  and  'The  Curiosity  Shop' 
heaped  upon  the  table ;  and  the  flowers  you  introduced  in  the  first 
subject  of  all  withered  and  dead  ?  Master  Humphrey  being  supposed 
to  be  no  more. 

"  I  have  a  fifthly,  sixthly,  seventhly,  and  eighthly ;  for  I  sorely 
want  you,  as  I  approach  the  close  of  the  tale  ;  but  I  won't  frighten  you, 
so  we'll  take  breath. 

"  P.S. — I  have  been  waiting  until  I  got  to  subjects  of  this  nature, 
thinking  you  would  like  them  best." 

Owing  to  an  illness  from  which  Cattermole  was  then  suffering,  the 
frontispiece  here  referred  to  was  designed  by  Habl6t  Browne.  A  few 
days  later,  the  author  bethought  him  of  an  incident  earlier  in  the 
story  (chapter  Ixix.),  which  required  an  illustration,  and  anent  this  he 
despatched  the  following  note  : — 

"  Will  you,  before  you  go  on  with  the  other  subjects  I  gave  you, 
do  one  of  Hugh,  bareheaded,  bound,  tied  on  a  horse,  and  escorted  by 
horse-soldiers  to  jail.-*  If  you  can  add  an  indication  of  old  Fleet 
Market,  and  bodies  of  foot-soldiers  firing  at  people  who  have  taken 
refuge  on  the  tops  of  stalls,  bulk-heads,  etc.,  it  will  be  all  the 

This  letter  is  the  last  (of  those  which  have  been  preserved)  having 
reference  to  George  Cattermole's  artistic  association  with  "Master 
Humphrey's  Clock."     Of  the  one  hundred  and  ninety-four  illustrations 

Plate  XLII 


Facsimile  of  the  Original  Sketch  for  "  Barnaby  Rudge  "  by 

Ltnt  by  Mr.  AtigusHn  Daly. 

.,1..     J     ..U;,1tlt  . 





7:..^ . 




contained  in  this  work,  thirty-nine  were  designed  by  him,  these  com- 
prising fourteen  for  "  The  Old  Curiosity  Shop,"  fifteen  for  "  Barnaby 
Rudge,"  and  ten  for  the  "Clock"  chapters;  his  signature,  "G.C.," 
appended  thereto  has  occasionally  been  mistaken  for  the  initials  of 
George  Cruikshank,  to  whom  some  of  these  designs  have  been  incor- 
rectly attributed.  There  can  be  no  doubt  that  George  Cattermole's 
drawings  greatly  enhanced  the  popularity  of  the  work,  for  nothing 
could  be  happier  than  his  facile  treatment  of  such  subjects  as  the 
"  Maypole "  Inn,  the  interior  of  the  Old  Curiosity  Shop,  and  Quilp's 
Wharf;  while  especially  effective  are  his  representations  of  the  old 
church  in  the  village  where  Little  Nell  died.  This  picturesque  little 
structure  really  exists  at  Tong,  in  Shropshire,  and,  with  its  splendid 
carving  and  magnificent  monuments,  presents  the  same  attractive 
appearance  which  inspired  both  Dickens  and  his  illustrator.  The 
novelist  was  so  much  charmed  with  Cattermole's  designs  in  "The 
Old  Curiosity  Shop"  that  he  could  not  refrain  from  expressing  to 
the  artist  his  warm  appreciation  of  them.  "  I  have  so  deeply  felt,"  he 
wrote,  "  your  hearty  and  most  invaluable  co-operation  in  the  beautiful 
illustrations  you  have  made  for  the  last  story,  that  I  look  at  them 
with  a  pleasure  I  cannot  describe  to  you  in  words,  and  that  it  is  im- 
possible for  me  to  say  how  sensible  I  am  of  your  earnest  and  friendly 
aid.  Believe  me  that  this  is  the  very  first  time  that  any  designs 
for  what  I  have  written  have  touched  and  moved  me,  and  caused  me 
to  feel  that  they  expressed  the  idea  I  had  in  my  mind.  I  am  most 
sincerely  and  affectionately  grateful  to  you,  and  am  full  of  pleasure 
and  delight." 

In  concluding  this  account  of  George  Cattermole's  illustrations  for 
the  writings  of  Dickens,  it  only  remains  to  add  that  he  prepared  a 
special  design  as  the  frontispiece  for  the  first  cheap  edition  of  "  The 
Old  Curiosity  Shop"  (1848),  an  admirable  drawing  on  wood,  excel- 
lently engraved  by  Thomas  Williams,  depicting  "  Little  Nell  in  the 

On  the  completion  of  "Master   Humphrey's  Clock,"  the  author 


commissioned  Cattermole  to  make  two  water-colour  drawings  of  scenes 
in  "  The  Old  Curiosity  Shop,"  one  representing  "  Little  Nell's  Home," 
while  the  other  (now  in  the  Forster  Collection  at  South  Kensington) 
portrays  "Little  Nell's  Grave"  in  the  old  church,  this  being  an  en- 
larged version  of  the  woodcut.  These  drawings  are  excellent  examples 
of  Cattermole's  work,  and  were  highly  valued  by  the  novelist,  who, 
in  a  letter  to  the  artist  (dated  December  20,  1842),  expressed  his 
sincere  approval  of  them.  "  It  is  impossible,"  he  said,  "for  me  to  tell 
you  how  greatly  I  am  charmed  with  those  beautiful  pictures,  in  which 
the  whole  feeling,  and  thought,  and  expression  of  the  little  story  is 
rendered,  to  the  gratification  of  my  inmost  heart ;  and  on  which  you 
have  lavished  those  amazing  resources  of  yours  with  power  at  which 
I  fairly  wondered  when  I  sat  down  yesterday  before  them.  I  took 
them  to  Mac  [Maclise]  straightway  in  a  cab,  and  it  would  have  done 
you  good  if  you  could  have  seen  and  heard  him.  You  can't  think 
how  moved  he  was  by  the  old  man  in  the  church,  or  how  pleased  I 
was  to  have  chosen  it  before  he  saw  the  drawings.  You  are  such  a 
queer  fellow,  and  hold  yourself  so  much  aloof,  that  I  am  afraid  to  say 
half  I  would  say  touching  my  grateful  admiration  ;  so  you  shall  imagine 
the  rest.  .  .  ." 

After  two  years  of  failing  health  and  much  acute  suffering,  George 
Cattermole  closed  an  anxious  and  laborious  life  on  the  24th  of  July, 
1868,  the  end  being  undoubtedly  hastened  by  the  almost  simultaneous 
deaths,  in  1862,  of  a  much-loved. son  and  daughter.  Dickens,  who 
sincerely  lamented  the  loss  of  this  cherished  friend,  actively  interested 
himself  on  behalf  of  his  widow  and  young  children  (who  were  left  in  a 
very  distressed  condition)  by  starting  a  fund  for  their  relief 

It  needs  but  an  examination  of  the  correspondence  that  passed 
between  Charles  Dickens  and  George  Cattermole  (in  which,  during 
later  years,  the  novelist  playfully  addressed  his  friend  as  "  My  dear 
Kittenmoles  ")  to  prove  how  deep  was  their  mutual  affection.  The 
artist's  natural  vivacity  and  good-fellowship  caused  him  to  be  a  great 
favourite,  and    those  of  his    family  who  survive    recall  with  delight 


the  "red-letter"  days  when  Dickens.  Thackeray.  Landseer,  and  other 
kindred  spirits  foregathered  at  the  Cattermole  residence  in  Clapham 
Rise,  on  which  occasions  the  genial  company  retired  after  dinner  to 
brew  punch  in  the  studio — a  picturesque  apartment  adorned  with 
armour  and  tapestry  and  carved  furniture,  indicative  of  the  artist's 
tastes,  and  strongly  reminiscent  of  his  most  characteristic  pictures. 






IT  was  nothing  less  than  an  inspiration  when,  in  1843,  Dickens 
conceived  the  idea  of  "A  Christmas  Carol,"  the  composition  of 
which  induced  in  him  such  mental  excitement,  that  when  it  was 
completed  he  "broke  out  like  a  madman."  Its  extraordinary  popu- 
larity encourged  him  to  prepare  a  similar  story  for  publication  at 
the  end  of  the  following  year,  this  being  succeeded  by  three 
others,  all  of  them  appearing  during  the  festive  season,  in  a  binding 
of  crimson  cloth  embellished  with  gold  designs.*  Not  the  least 
interesting  feature  of  these  handsome  little  volumes  is  the  illustra- 
tions, mainly  owing  to  the  fact  that  they  were  designed  by  the 
leading  black-and-white  artists  of  the  day,  including  three  Royal 
Academicians  and  one  Associate  of  the  Royal  Academy.  Of  this 
talented  company  only  one  member  survives, — Sir  John  Tenniel, 
whose  pencil  is  still  actively  employed  in  the  pages  of  Punch.  The 
following  table  denotes  the  number  of  designs  supplied  by  each 
artist  to  the  Christmas  Books. 

'  The  first  issue  of  the  "  Carol "  was  bound  in  cloth  of  a  brownish  colour,  the  subsequent 
issues  appearing  in  crimson. 




Analysis  of  Illustrations. 


A  Christmas 




The  Cricket 

on  the 



The  Battle 

of  Ufe, 




Man,  1848. 


Leech   .    .    . 
Doyle    .     .     . 
Stanfield    .     . 
Maclise      .     . 
Tenniel      .     . 
Stone    .     .     . 

















The  engravers  were  the  Dalziel  Brothers  (14  subjects),  T. 
Williams  (11),  W.  J.  Linton  (10),  Martin  and  Corbould  (8),  Smith 
and  Cheltnam  (5),  Groves  (3),  Thompson  (3),  F.  P.  Becker  (2),  Gray 
(2),  Swain  (2),  Green  (i).  Four  designs  were  etched  on  steel  by 
John  Leech,  thus  making  up  the  full  complement  of  illustrations. 


Leech's  Early  Attempts  at  Drawing — Medical  Studies— First  Published  Work— Desires  to 
Illustrate  "Pickwick" — Becomes  Acquainted  with  Dickens — "A  CHRISTMAS  Carol" — 
Sale  of  the  Original  Drawings — "THE  Chimes" — Leech  Misinterprets  his  Author — 
"The  Cricket  on  the  Hearth" — An  Altered  Design— The  Artist's  Humour  Exem- 
plified—"The  Battle  OF  Life"— Sale  of  Original  Drawings— Unpublished  Letters  by 
Leech— A  Grave  Error— "The  HAUNTED  Man"— Leech's  Method  of  Work— Artistic 
Value  of  his  Sketches — Ruskin's  Criticism — Leech  as  an  Actor — A  Serious  Accident — 
Dickens  as  Nurse— Ill-health— A  Fatal  Seizure — Sir  John  Millais'  Portrait  of  Leech. 

JOHN  LEECH,  the  leading  spirit  ol Punch  for  more  than  twenty 
years,  was  born  in  London  in  1817,  his  father  (an  Irishman  of 
culture)  being  a  vintner,  and  at  one  time  the  proprietor  of  the 
London  Coffee- House  on  Ludgate  Hill,  then  the  most  important  of 
the  large  City  hotels.  As  the  elder  Leech  showed  some  skill  as  a 
draughtsman,  we  may  reasonably  assume  that  from  him  the  son  in- 
herited a  talent  for  drawing,  by  means  of  which  he  was  destined, 
before  many  years  had  passed,  to  astonish  the  world  by  his  humour 
and  originality.  When  a  mere  lad,  he  exhibited  such  aptitude  and 
dexterity  with  the  pencil,  that  Flaxman,  the  famous  sculptor,  pro- 
nounced these  precocious  efforts  to  be  wonderful,  and  exclaimed : 
"  That  boy  must  be  an  artist ;  he  will  be  nothing  else  or  less." 
Notwithstanding  this  recommendation,  young  Leech  (after  a  course 
of  schooling  at  the  Charterhouse,  where  he  had  William  Makepeace 
Thackeray  as  a  fellow-pupil)  was  entered  by  his  father  at  St.  Bartho- 
lomew's Hospital,  with  a  view  to  his  adopting  the  medical  profession  ; 
but  his  penchant  for  drawing  and  sketching  proved  irresistible,  and 
he  gained  more  repute  among  the  students  by  means  of  his  lifelike 
(but  good-natured)  caricatures,  than  for  any  ability  he  may  have 
displayed  in  hospital  work.     On  leaving  St.  Bartholomew's,  he  was 

placed  under  an  eccentric  practitioner  named  Whittle  (whom  Albert 


Plate   XLIII 


From  the  Water-colour  Drawing  by 
Sir  JOHN   E.   MILLAIS,   P.R.A.,   1864 

finn-!  t  v.voi 

JOHN    LEECH  139 

Smith  has  immortalised  as  Mr,  Hawkins),  and  subsequently  under 
Dr.  John  Cockle,  afterwards  Physician  to  the  Royal  Free  Hospital. 

Leech,  however,  gradually  relinquished  his  medical  studies,  and 
resolved  to  live  by  his  pencil.  He  was  only  eighteen  years  of  age 
when  he  published  his  first  venture,  "  Etchings  and  Sketchings,  by 
A.  Penn,  Esq.,"  comprising  a  collection  of  slightly  caricatured  sketches 
of  various  odd  characters  to  be  met  with  on  the  streets  of  London. 
Shortly  after  this  maiden  effort  there  appeared  upon  the  scene  the 
initial  number  of  the  celebrated  "  Pickwick  Papers,"  and  when,  in  the 
second  number,  the  sad  death  was  announced  of  Robert  Seymour,  the 
illustrator,  Leech  immediately  conceived  the  idea  of  seeking  election 
as  his  successor.  "  Boz  "  at  this  time  was  absolutely  unknown  to  him 
except  by  that  strange  pseudonym,  so  the  ambitious  young  artist  com- 
municated his  desire  to  the  publishers.  Chapman  &  Hall,  to  whom  he 
sent  as  a  specimen  of  his  powers  a  clever  drawing,  delicately  tinted  in 
colour,  of  that  familiar  scene  in  "  Pickwick  "  where  Tom  Smart  sits 
up  in  bed  and  converses  with  the  animated  chair.*  Thackeray  (it 
will  be  remembered)  also  aspired  to  the  position  coveted  by  Leech,  but 
neither  possessed  the  necessary  qualifications. 

In  those  early  years  Leech  designed  numerous  illustrations  for 
Belts  Life  in  London,  and  concocted  schemes  of  drollery  with  his 
literary  friends  which  resulted  in  the  publication  of  such  humorous 
productions  as  the  "  Comic  Latin  Grammar,"  "  Comic  English 
Grammar,"  &c.  In  August,  1841,  he  contributed  his  first  drawing 
to  Punch  (the  fourth  number),  this  being  the  forerunner  of  many 
hundreds   of  pictures,  chiefly   of   "  life   and   character,"  bearing   the 

'  Concerning  this  design,  of  which  a  facsimile  is  given  in  the  Victoria  edition  of  "  The 
Pickwick  Papers,"  1887,  a  correspondent  received  the  following  interesting  communication 
from  a  representative  of  Dickens's  publishing  firm  : — 

"Mayvid,  1888. 

"Dear  Sir,— The  history  of  the  drawing  by  Leech  of 'Tom  Smart  and  the  Arm-chair' 
is,  that  at  the  time  there  was  a  difficulty  about  the  artist  for  illustrating  '  Pickwick,'  Mr.  Leech 
sent  it  in  as  a  specimen  of  his  ability  to  illustrate  the  work.  This  was  in  the  year  1836,  and 
it  was  in  the  possession  of  my  predecessor,  Mr.  Edward  Chapman,  until  twenty-five  years  ago, 
when  it  came  into  my  possession. — Faithfully  yours,  Fred.  Chapman." 


familiar  sign-manual  of  a  leech  wriggling  in  a  bottle.  The  artist's 
connection  with  Punch  gave  him  a  great  opportunity,  for  he  was 
thus  enabled  to  come  before  the  public,  week  after  week,  with 
an  endless  succession  of  scenes  in  high  life  and  low  life,  now  of 
the  hunting-field  and  now  of  the  river, — always  with  something  that 
could  not  fail  to  delight  the  eye  and  to  excite  good-natured  laughter. 
His  deftness  and  versatility  naturally  brought  many  commissions 
from  publishers  anxious  to  secure  the  aid  of  his  prolific  pencil,  so 
that  besides  his  weekly  contribution  to  Punch  he  was  occupied  in 
preparing  designs  for  other  works,  notably  Douglas  Jerrold's  Shilling 
Magazine,  Hood's  Comic  Annual,  and  "  The  Ingoldsby  Legends." 

The  year  1843  w^s  memorable  to  John  Leech,  for  then  he  first 
.   ,  became   acquainted  with  the  author  of  "  Pickwick." 

C  n1  ifl/iQ  ^y  whom  the  introduction  was  brought  about  is 
not  quite  clear ;  perhaps  the  credit  of  it  may  be 
awarded  to  Douglas  Jerrold  or  Thomas  Hood.  In  the  above-men- 
tioned year  Leech's  services  were  obtained  for  the  illustration  of 
"  A  Christmas  Carol,"  for  which  he  prepared  eight  designs ;  four 
of  these  were  etched  on  steel,  the  impressions  being  afterwards 
coloured  by  hand,  while  the  remaining  four  were  drawn  on  wood, 
and  beautifully  engraved  by  W.  J.  Linton.  The  popularity  of 
the  "Carol"  (the  pioneer  of  all  Dickens's  Christmas  Books,  and, 
indeed,  of  Christmas  literature  generally)  proved  enormous,  and 
much  of  its  success  was  undoubtedly  due  to  the  attractive  designs 
of  John  Leech,  who  entered  so  thoroughly  into  the  spirit  of  this 
charming  little  allegory.  In  1893  the  original  drawings,  with  the 
exception  of  that  entitled  "  Scrooge's  Third  Visitor,"  were  sold  at 
Sotheby's  for  155  guineas,  and  afterwards  catalogued  by  a  London 
bookseller  at  j[,2Afi — a  considerable  advance  on  the  price  paid  to 
the  artist  and  engraver,  which  was  just  under  ;^50.  This  interesting 
series  of  drawings  (two  of  them  tinted  in  colours)  had  hitherto  re- 
mained in  the  possession  of  a  daughter  of  the  artist. 

Plate  XLIV 
"richard  and  margaret" 

FatrimiU  of  the  Original  Sketch  for  "  The  Chimes"  by 

The  figure  of  Richard  was  altered  in  the  published  design. 

By  Permission  of  the  An  Museum  Commitlet  9f  Iht 
CorforatUm  cf  NoUiiigkam. 


JOHN    LEECH  141 

To   "  The    Chimes "    Leech    contributed    five    illustrations,    the 
original   drawings   for   which   realised  66   guineas   at 
P  '    Sotheby's  in  1893.     Some  of  these  slight  pencillings 

now  form  part  of  the  Leech  Collection  at  Nottingham 
Castle,  including  the  first  sketch  for  the  illustration  referred  to  by 
Dickens  (in  a  letter  to  his  wife)  as  being,  together  with  a  sketch 
by  Doyle  for  the  same  story,  so  unlike  his  ideas  that  he  invited  both 
artists  to  breakfast  with  him  one  morning,  and,  "  with  that  winning 
manner  which  you  know  of,  got  them,  with  the  highest  good-humour, 
to  do  both  afresh."  The  design  in  question  appears  in  the  "Third 
Quarter,"  in  which  two  scenes  are  represented,  the  upper  one  depict- 
ing Margaret  in  her  garret,  while  in  the  lower  compartment  appears 
Richard,  with  "matted  hair  and  unshorn  beard,"  as  he  enters  Trotty 
Veck's  cottage.  The  artist  misunderstood  his  author,  and  delineated, 
instead  of  Richard  as  described  in  the  text,  an  extremely  ragged  and 
dissipated-looking  character,  with  a  battered  hat  upon  his  head.  When 
the  novelist  saw  it,  the  drawing  had  already  been  engraved,  but 
the  woodcut  was  promptly  suppressed ;  there  still  exists,  however, 
an  impression  of  the  cancelled  engraving,  which  is  bound  up  with 
what  is  evidently  a  unique  copy  of  "  The  Chimes"  (now  the  property 
of  Mr.  J.  F.  Dexter),  where  blank  spaces  are  left  for  some  of  the 
woodcuts;  this  particular  copy  is  probably  the  publishers'  "make 
up,"  and  had  accidentally  left  their  hands. 

'•  The  Cricket  on  the  Hearth  "  is  embellished  with  seven  designs 

by   Leech.      The  original  sketch    for    one    of    these 

,  illustrations,    representing    John    and   Dot   seated  by 

H      tVi   iR/tft    ^^^  ^^^'  i'^dicates  that  it  was  Leech's  intention  at  first 

to  introduce  Tilly  Slowboy  nursing  the  baby ;   but  it 

was  apparently  considered  that  her  presence  in  the  picture  destroyed 

the  domestic  harmony  of  the  scene,  so  the  figure  was  omitted,  and 

a  separate  woodcut  made  of  the  subject  for  a  subsequent  chapter. 

It  is  interesting  to  compare  Leech's  illustration  of  Caleb   Plummer 


and  his  blind  daughter  at  work  with  a  similar  design  by  Doyle  in 
the  same  chapter,  the  vigorous  character  of  the  former  happily  con- 
trasting with  the  more  restrained  treatment  of  the  latter.  In  the  final 
woodcut  of  "  The  Dance,"  Leech's  sense  of  humour  (not  always 
devoid  of  exaggeration)  has  free  play,  for  here  not  only  do  we  see 
the  human  characters  in  the  story  indulging  in  the  pleasant  exercise, 
but  observe  that,  in  one  corner,  the  carrier's  pets.  Boxer  and  the 
cat,  are  similarly  disporting  themselves,  while  even  the  artist's  signa- 
ture (in  the  opposite  corner)  of  a  leech  in  a  bottle  is  placed  upon  a 
couple  of  lively  legs,  and  is  kicking  away  with  an  abandon  worthy 
of  the  occasion. 

In  Dickens's  fourth  Christmas  Book,  "  The  Battle  of  Life,"  John 
Leech  is  represented  by  three  illustrations,  all  of  which 
t  T 't        ^     ^^  designed  in  the  manner  characteristic  of  these  little 
Q  ,     *  volumes,     in    having   one    scene    superimposed    upon 

another.  The  original  sketches  for  two  of  these 
woodcuts,  viz.,  "The  Parting  Breakfast"  and  "The  Night  of  the 
Return,"  are  in  the  South  Kensington  Museum,^  while  the  third 
drawing  has  found  its  way  to  America,  whither  so  many  Dickens 
relics  have  departed.  When,  in  June  1893,  some  highly-finished 
replicas  of  these  designs  were  disposed  of  at  Sotheby's,  they  realised 
the  extraordinary  sums  of  ;^35,  los.,  £,\T,  los,,  and  ;^20,  los.  re- 
spectively. In  the  Forster  Collection  at  South  Kensington  there 
are  two  very  interesting  letters,  addressed  by  Leech  to  the  biographer 
of  Dickens,  having  special  connection  with  these  illustrations.  The 
first  (dated  November  16,  1846)  refers  to  the  breakfast  scene,  and 
from  it  we  gather  that  there  was  a  very  limited  time  for  preparing 
the  designs : — 

'  Facsimiles  of  these  have  already  appeared  in  my  Memoir  of  John  Leech.  A  duplicate 
sketch  (more  completely  carried  out)  of  "The  Parting  Breakfast"  will  be  found  in  the  Print 
Room  of  the  British  Museum,  but  there  is,  I  believe,  some  doubt  as  to  its  authenticity.  The 
late  Mr.  G.  A.  Sala  pointed  out  that  the  engraving  of  this  subject  contains  an  astonishingly  good 
likeness  of  that  admired  comedian,  Robert  Keeley,  as  the  old  servant  Britain. 

Plate  XLV 


Fatsimilt  of  the  Original  Drawing  for  ' '  The  Cricket  on  the  Hearth  "  by 

The  figure  of  Tilly  Slowboy  was  omitted  in  the  published  Drawing,  a 
separate  Illustration  being  made  of  that  portion  of  the  Design. 

Unt  fy  Mr.  W.  H.  Ixvtr. 

VJX     fTAl'? 

■"'""^    '     '  '         '^^  ,i,uu  ,.-. 

H-JH'M    VlHOi 

JOHN    LEECH  143 

"  My  Dear  Forster, — I  really  cannot  say  off-hand  how  many 
illustrations  I  can  make  within  the  week ;  indeed,  I  am  so  embarrassed 
by  the  conditions  under  which  I  am  to  make  my  share  of  the  drawings 
that  1  hardly  know  what  to  do  at  all.  Conscientiously,  I  could  not 
make  Clemency  Newcome  particularly  beautiful.  If  you  will  read 
a  little  beyond  the  words  '  plump  and  cheerful,'  you  will  find  the 
following  :  '  But  the  extraordinary  homeliness  of  her  gait  and  manner 
would  have  superseded  any  face  in  the  world.  To  say  that  she  had 
two  left  legs  and  somebody  else's  arms,  and  that  all  four  limbs 
seemed  to  be  out  of  joint,  and  to  start  from  perfectly  wrong  places,' 
&c.,  &c.  Again,  she  is  described  as  having  'a  prodigious  pair  of 
self-willed  shoes,'  and  a  gown  of  '  the  most  hideous  pattern  pro- 
curable for  money.'  The  impression  made  upon  me  by  such  a 
description  as  I  have  quoted  certainly  is  that  the  character  so  de- 
scribed is  both  awkward  and  comic.  Of  course  I  may  be  wrong  in 
my  conception  of  what  Dickens  intended,  but  /  imagine  the  lady  in 
question  a  sort  of  clean  'Slowboy.'  The  blessed  public  (if  they 
consider  the  matter  at  all)  will  hold  me  responsible  for  what  appears 
with  my  name ;  they  will  know  nothing  about  my  being  obliged  to 
conform  to  Maclise's  ideas.  I  cannot  tell  you  how  loath  I  should 
be  to  cause  any  delay  or  difficulty  in  the  production  of  the  book,  or 
what  pain  it  would  give  me  to  cause  either  Dickens  or  yourself  any 
annoyance.  I  confess  I  am  a  little  out  of  heart. — Believe  me  ever 
yours  faithfully,  John  Leech." 

"John  Forster,  Esq." 

Maclise,  who  also  provided  illustrations  to  "  The  Battle  of  Life," 
was  anxious  that  his  own  type  of  character  for  Clemency  Newcome 
should  be  reproduced  in  the  designs  by  Leech  ;  hence  that  artist's 
protest.     Writing  again  two  days  later  on  the  subject.  Leech  said  : — 

"  Mv  Dear  Forster, — Perhaps  I  was  wrong  in  using  the  word 
'conditions'  in  my  note  to  you — I  should  have  said  'circumstances,' 


and  by  being  '  embarrassed '  by  them  I  meant  that  I  found  it  very 

harassing  to  do  work  (that  I  am  for  several  reasons  anxious  to  do 

well)  under  the  constant  feeling  that  I  have  too  little  time  to  do  it 

in ;  and  also  I  meant  to  convey  to  you  that  the  necessity  (which  I 

certainly  supposed  to  exist)  of  preserving  a  sort  of  resemblance  to 

the  characters  as  conceived  by  Mr.  Maclise  made  it  a  rather  nervous 

undertaking  to  me.     It  seems   I   expressed  myself  clumsily,  as  the 

tone  of  my  note  appeared  to  you  anything  but  what  I  intended  it  to 

be.    Any  suggestion  from  you  I  should  always  consider  most  valuable. 

I  send  you  one  drawing,  completed  this  morning  at  four  o'clock,  and 

I  assure  you  I  would  spare  neither  time  nor  any  personal  comfort  to 

show  my  personal  regard  for  both  yourself  and  Dickens. 

"  I  should  not  like  to  promise  more  than  two  other  drawings,  if 

Saturday  is  positively  the  last  day.     I   might  be  able  to  do  more, 

but  I  should  not  like  to  promise,  and  fail.     Pray  overlook  any  glaring 

defects  in  the  block  I  send,  and  believe  me  yours  faithfully, 

John  Leech, 
"John  Forster,  Esq.,  &c.  &c. 

"P.S.  I  should  like,  if  there  is  no  objection,  that  Linton  should 
engrave  for  me." 

It  was  natural  that,  remembering  the  excellent  reproductions  of 
his  wood-drawings  in  the  "Carol"  and  "The  Chimes,"  Leech  should 
express  a  wish  that  Linton  *  might  also  engrave  those  in  "  The 
Battle   of  Life ; "    but   the    signatures  appended   to   the   cuts   show 

1  As  I  write,  the  decease  of  that  admirable  artist  and  engraver  is  reported  from  New 
Haven,  U.S.A.  W.  J.  Linton  was  bom  in  London  in  1812,  and  had  therefore  attained  a 
venerable  age,  spending  the  latter  portion  of  his  life  in  America.  During  an  extremely  active 
career  he  produced,  among  other  literary  works,  a  valuable  and  comprehensive  history  of  the 
art  of  which  he  was  undoubtedly  the  most  capable  exponent.  Mr.  Linton,  who  may  justly 
be  termed  the  father  of  modern  wood-engraving,  carried  on  the  tradition  of  Bewick,  and  was 
a  thorough  champion  of  the  "  white-line  school."  As  a  zealous  Chartist  he  took  an  active 
and  prominent  part  in  politics,  and,  in  addition  to  this,  he  was  a  voluminous  writer  both  in 
poetry  and  prose,  his  works  including  "  The  English  Republic,"  "  Claribel,  and  other  Poems," 
"  A  Life  of  Whittier,"  &c. 


Plate  XLVI 

"CALEB    AT    WORK" 

FacsimiU  of  the  Original  Drawing  for  "  The  Cricket  on  the  Hearth  "  by 

Lent  ty  Mr.  W.  H.  Lever. 

IVJX     ITA.lH 

3JAD  ■ 

HD33.I    WHOO 


•J"  0  ^   ■■■ 









JOHN    LEECH  145 

that,  doubtless  for  some  sufficient  reason,  the  artist's  wish  was  not 

In  his  third  design  for  "The  Battle  of  Life"  Leech  committed 
an  extraordinary  blunder,  the  result  (it  must  be  confessed)  of  care- 
lessly studying  his  author.  In  this  illustration,  where  the  festivities 
to  welcome  the  bridegroom  at  the  top  of  the  page  contrast  with  the 
flight  of  the  bride  represented  below,  Leech  gravely  erred  in  suf>- 
posing  that  Michael  Warden  had  taken  part  in  the  elopement,  and 
has  introduced  his  figure  with  that  of  Marion,  This  curious  mistake, 
which  might  have  been  avoided  had  the  drawing  been  submitted  to 
Dickens,  was  not  discovered  until  too  late  for  remedy,  and  it  is 
highly  characteristic  of  the  novelist,  of  the  true  regard  he  felt  for 
the  artist,  that  he  preferred  to  pass  it  silently.  The  most  remarkable 
thing  of  all  is  (as  Forster  has  pointed  out),  nobody  seems  to  have 
noticed  the  unfortunate  oversight,  although  it  must  be  obvious  to  every 
attentive  reader  that  it  makes  great  havoc  of  one  of  the  most  delicate 
episodes  in  the  story.  The  feelings  of  the  author,  on  realising  the 
seriousness  of  this  terrible  misconception  on  the  part  of  the  artist, 
may  be  readily  imagined.  Writing  to  his  biographer,  he  said : 
"When  I  first  saw  it,  it  was  with  a  horror  and  agony  not  to  be 
expressed.  Of  course  I  need  not  tell  you,  my  dear  fellow,  Warden 
has  no  business  in  the  elopement  scene.  He  was  never  there!  In 
the  first  hot  sweat  of  this  surprise  and  novelty,  I  was  going  to  implore 
the  printing  of  that  sheet  to  be  stopped,  and  the  figure  taken  out  of 
the  block.  But  when  I  thought  of  the  pain  this  might  give  to  our 
kind-hearted  Leech,  and  that  what  is  such  a  monstrous  enormity  to 
me,  as  never  having  entered  my  brain,  may  not  so  present  itself  to 
others,  I  became  more  composed ;  though  the  fact  is  wonderful  to 
me.  No  doubt  a  great  number  of  copies  will  be  printed  by  the  time 
this  reaches  you,  and  therefore  I  shall  take  it  for  granted  that  it 
stands  as  it  is.  Leech  otherwise  is  very  good,  and  the  illustrations 
altogether  are  by  far  the  best  that  have  been  done  for  any  of  my 
Christmas  Books.  .  .  ." 



"  The  Haunted  Man  and  the  Ghost's  Bargain  " — the  last  of  the 

Christmas  stories — contains   five  designs  by   Leech, 

__         n  -,         and  one  of  the  original  sketches  is  here  reproduced, 
Man,  1848.         ,         ,     .  f    u     A/r  L.    •  • 

through  the  courtesy  ot  the   Museum  authorities  at 

Nottingham  Castle.  They  are  not  among  Leech's  happiest  efforts, 
and  do  not  compare  favourably  with  the  vignettes  in  "  A  Christmas 

Like  Cruikshank,  "  Phiz,"  and  other  contemporary  book-illustrators, 
John  Leech  never  worked  from  models,  relying  chiefly  upon  his  re- 
tentive memory ;  he  seldom  made  sketches  of  any  kind,  but  merely 
jotted  down  such  useful  memoranda  of  bits  of  scenery  and  character, 
details  of  particular  costume,  &c.,  as  could  be  recorded  in  a  little 
note-book  which  he  invariably  carried  about  with  him.  When 
developing  an  idea  for  a  drawing,  he  would  first  make  a  slight  out- 
line of  the  subject  upon  paper  of  the  size  required,  then  trace  it 
down  upon  the  wood-block,  and  finally  complete  the  picture  with 
care  and  deliberation.  The  only  lessons  in  etching  he  ever  had  he 
received  from  George  Cruikshank ;  but  it  was  as  a  draughtsman  on 
wood  that  he  excelled,  his  etchings  (of  which  those  in  the  "Carol" 
are  among  the  best)  not  being  technically  equal  to  those  of  either 
Cruikshank  or  "  Phiz,"  nor  do  they  exhibit  that  sense  of  freedom 
and  spontaneity  visible  in  his  published  drawings.  The  late  George 
du  Maurier,  his  friend  and  colleague  on  Punch,  tells  us  that  Leech 
"drew  straight  on  the  wood  block,  with  a  lead-pencil;  his  delicate 
grey  lines  had  to  be  translated  into  the  uncompromising  coarse  black 
lines  of  printer's  ink — a  ruinous  process  ;  and  what  his  work  lost  in 
this  way  is  only  to  be  estimated  by  those  who  know."  In  giving 
an  account  of  Leech's  work.  Professor  Ruskin  points  out  a  fact  not 
generally  known,  viz.,  that  from  an  artistic  standpoint  his  first  sketches 
for  the  woodcuts  are  much  more  valuable  than  the  finished  drawings, 
even  before  those  drawings  sustained  any  loss  in  engraving.  "  The 
first  few  lines  in  which  he  sets  down  his  purpose  are  invariably,  of  all 
drawing  that  I  know,"  says  the  eminent  critic,  "the  most  wonderful 



Plate  XLVII 


Faesimilt  of  the  Original  Drawing  for  ' '  The  Haunted  Man  '  by 

By  Permission  of  the  Art  Museum  Committee  of  tkt 
Corporation  of  Noltingkam. 



>5.    _ 

JOHN    LEECH  147 

in  their  accurate  and  prosperous  haste."  Dickens  remained  a  constant 
admirer  of  Leech's  genius,  and  when,  in  1848,  there  appeared  a  col- 
lection of  lithographs,  where  the  artist  humorously  depicted  "The 
Rising  Generation,"  the  novelist  indited  for  The  Examiner  a  glowing 
eulogium  upon  the  work  of  his  friend,  in  the  course  of  which  he 
declared  that  he  was  "the  very  first  Englishman  who  had  made 
beauty  a  part  of'  his  art."  It  was  from  Dickens  that  Leech  occa- 
sionally accepted  happy  thoughts  for  Punch,  and  it  will  be  remembered 
that  he  frequently  availed  himself  (as  did  Sir  John  Tenniel  subse- 
quently) of  "  Phiz's  "  designs  for  Dickens,  whenever  he  thought  they 
could  be  appropriately  converted  into  political  cartoons. 

John  Leech  occasionally  associated  himself  with  the  amateur 
theatrical  performances  organised  by  Dickens,  but  it  must  be  admitted 
that,  owing  to  his  naturally  modest  and  retiring  disposition,  he  did 
not  achieve  great  distinction  as  an  actor.  In  1849,  while  on  a  visit 
to  the  novelist  at  Bonchurch,  he  was  stunned  by  a  huge  wave  when 
bathing,  and  was  put  to  bed  with  "  twenty  of  his  namesakes  on  his 
temples."  Congestion  of  the  brain  ensued,  and  Dickens,  who  pro\/ed 
one  of  the  most  attentive  of  nurses  during  this  anxious  time,  proposed 
to  Mrs.  Leech  to  try  magnetism.  "Accordingly,"  he  wrote  to  Forster, 
"  in  the  middle  of  the  night  I  fell  to,  and  after  a  very  fatiguing  bout 
of  it,  put  him  to  sleep  for  an  hour  and  thirty-five  minutes.  A  change 
came  on  in  the  sleep,  and  he  is  decidedly  better.  I  talked  to  the 
astonished  Mrs.  Leech  across  him,  when  he  was  asleep,  as  if  he  had 
been  a  truss  of  hay." 

Incessant  brain-work  induced  in  John  Leech  a  peculiar  irritability, 
and  he  was  so  much  affected  by  street  noises,  even  such  as  would 
escape  ordinary  attention,  that  he  was  compelled  at  length  to  resort 
to  the  device  of  double  windows.  Eventually  this  abnormal  sensi- 
tiveness told  so  seriously  upon  his  health  that  he  was  ordered  to 
Homburg  for  change  of  scene  ;  but,  on  returning  to  his  London  home 
in  the  autumn  of  1864,  he  was  still  strangely  susceptible  to  noise  of 
all  kinds.     In  addition  to  this,  the  artist  suffered  acutely  from  angina 


pectoris,  and  on  October  29,  1864,  he  was  seized  with  an  attack  of 
that  terrible  disease,  which,  alas !  proved  fatal.  Dickens  was  sadly 
overcome  by  the  death  of  this  kindly  man,  and  attributed  thereto  his 
inability  to  make  progress  with  "  Our  Mutual  Friend,"  upon  which 
he  was  then  engaged.  Around  the  artist's  grave  there  assembled, 
on  a  bright  autumn  day,  many  who  were  distinguished  in  Art  and 
Literature,  in  honour  of  him  they  sincerely  mourned,  grieving  for  the 
loss  of  a  spirit,  so  gentle  and  graceful,  that  had  just  passed  away. 

The  portrait  of  John  Leech  reproduced  for  this  work  is  from  a 
beautiful  water-colour  drawing  by  his  friend,  the  late  Sir  John  E. 
Millais,  P.R.A.,  representing  the  artist  in  the  prime  of  life.  This 
interesting  and  valuable  presentment  of  the  great  pictorial  humorist 
was  purchased  in  1892  by  the  Trustees  of  the  National  Portrait 
Gallery,  and  during  the  previous  year  a  reproduction  of  it  was  given, 
at  my  suggestion,  as  the  frontispiece  to  the  biography  of  John  Leech 
by  Mr.  W.  P.  Frith,  R.A.  Another  intimate  friend  of  Leech,  Mr. 
Holman  Hunt,  informs  me  that  he  considers  this  drawing  by  Millais 
as  undoubtedly  the  best  portrait  of  the  artist. 






IllVJX  :m..i'f 

!    i  Y  O  '■      fj  H  A  i: 

.t<t    ..k.A    ,UMi.,Vr,    H, 

Platk  XLVIII 


From  a  Photograph  by 

/^n/  *v  Afn.  Henry  Voyle. 

D.     MACLISE,     R.A. 

From  the  Painting  by 
E.    M.    WAKD,    R.A.,    lK4fi 


Inherits  a  Talent  for  Drawing— Not  Permitted  to  Study  from  Models— No  Regular  Training 

in  Art — A    Skilful   Amateur— Precocious  Sense  of   Humour — Fanciful   Designs Doyle 

Joins  the  Punch  Staff— Instructed  in  Drawing  on  Wood— His  Sign-manual— Retirement 
from  Punch— Hot  Acquainted  with  Dickens— His  Illustrations  for  "The  Chimes"— Elves 
and  Goblins— An  Oversight  by  the  Artist— "The  Cricket  ON  THE  Hearth  "  and  "The 
Battle  of  Life"- Doyle's  Original  Sketches  for  the  Christmas  Books  Dispersed. 

WITH  the  single  exception  of  John  Leech,  Richard  Doyle 
contributed  the  greatest   number  of  illustrations  to  the 
Christmas  Books,  three  of  these  little  volumes  containing, 
in  the  aggregate,  ten  designs  by  him.     He  Wcis  born  in  London  in 
1824,  his  father,  John  Doyle,  being  the  famous  caricaturist,   "H.B.," 
whose  political  cartoons  created  much  sensation  in  their  day.     At  an 
early  age  Richard  Doyle  proved  that  he  inherited  a  talent  for  drawing, 
and  was  encouraged  in  this  direction  by  his  father,  who  (strange  to 
say)  would  not  allow  him  to  study  from  the  living  model,  preferring 
that  the  boy  should  be  taught   "to  observe  with  watchful  eye  the 
leading  features  of  the  object  before  him,  and  then  some  little  time 
after  to  reproduce  them  from  memory  as  nearly  as  he  could."     He 
had  no  regular  training  in  art,  except  such  as  he  was  privileged  to  enjoy 
in  his  father's  studio,  the  result  being  that  (as  Mr.  M.  H.  Spielmann 
reminds  us  in  his  "History  of  Puruh")  he  never  attained  a  higher 
position   than  that  of  an   extremely  skilful  amateur,    "whose   short- 
comings were  concealed  in  his  charming  illustrations  and  imaginative 
designs,  but  were  startlingly  revealed  in  his  larger  work  and  in  his 
figure-drawing.  .  .  .  He  was  saved  by  his  charm  and  sweetness,  his 
inexhaustible  fun  and  humour,  his  delightful  though  superficial  realisa- 
tion of  character,  and  his  keen  sense  of  the  grotesque." 

Richard  Doyle's  precocious  sense  of  humour  is  exemplified  in  his 


illustrations  for  the  Comic  Histories,  executed  by  him  when  fifteen  years 
of  age,  but  which  were  posthumously  published.  An  extraordinary 
power  of  fanciful  draughtsmanship  distinguishes  the  majority  of  his 
designs,  so  that  his  pencil  was  in  frequent  request  for  works  which 
demanded  the  display  of  this  special  faculty,  such  as  Leigh  Hunt's 
"Jar  of  Honey,"  Ruskin's  "King  of  the  Golden  River,"  "Pictures 
from  the  Elf  World,"  Planches  "  Old  Fairy  Tales,"  &c.  In  1843, 
when  the  artist  was  only  nineteen,  he  was  installed  as  a  member  of 
the  regular  pictorial  staff  of /*««M,  and  received  instruction  in  drawing 
on  wood  from  Joseph  Swain,  the  engraver  for  that  journal.  Richard 
Doyle  was  familiarly  known  to  his  intimate  friends  as  "  Dicky  Doyle," 
which  probably  suggested  his  sign-manual  of  a  little  dicky-bird 
perched  upon  his  initials,  R.D., — a  signature  that  may  be  found 
appended  to  a  very  considerable  number  of  cuts  designed  for  Punch 
during  a  period  of  seven  years — that  is,  until  his  retirement  there- 
from in  1850. 

Although    Doyle    furnished    illustrations    to    three    of   Dickens's 
— ,,     -,,  ,  Christmas  Books,  there  is  no  evidence  that  he  was 

jO  '     ever   personally   acquainted   with  the  novelist.      No 

reference  is  made  to  the  artist  by  Forster,  nor  does 
it  appear  that  any  correspondence  passed  between  him  and  Dickens, 
the  necessary  instructions  being  apparently  transmitted  through  the 
publishers.  The  earliest  Christmas  story  with  which  we  find  him 
associated  is  "  The  Chimes,"  to  which  he  supplied  four  illustrations, 
viz.,  "  The  Dinner  on  the  Steps,"  "  Trotty  at  Home,"  "  Trotty 
Veck  among  the  Bells,"  and  "Margaret  and  her  Child."  His  de- 
signs embellish  the  initial  pages  of  each  chapter,  and  are  treated 
in  a  decorative  and  fanciful  manner.  In  the  first  of  these  it  will  be 
noticed  that  the  upper  portion  consists  of  a  representation  of  the  tower 
of  St.  Dunstan's  Church  in  Fleet  Street, — a  subject  repeated  by 
Clarkson  Stanfield,  R.A.,  in  a  subsequent  illustration.  In  the  other 
woodcuts  the  artist  exhibits  his  acknowledged  skill  in  delineating  elves 


and  goblins,  that  depicting  Trotty  among  the  Spirits  of  the  Bells 
affording  a  delightful  example  of  his  wonderful  power  in  portraying 
goblin-like  creatures,  with  their  weird  expressions  and  varied  postures. 
Apropos  of  this  engraving,  a  curious  oversight  has  been  discovered 
by  the  Rev.  H.  R.  Haweis,  for  Doyle  has  introduced  only  three 
bells,  thus  seeming  to  have  forgotten  that  four  are  required  to  ring 
a  quarter!  The  subject  of  the  remaining  design,  where  Margaret, 
with  her  babe,  kneels  at  the  river's  brink,  is  replete  with  pathos,  the 
impression  of  desolation  and  despair  being  admirably  rendered  by 
means  of  a  few  simple  lines. 

The  next  Christmas  story,   "The  Cricket  on  the  Hearth,"  con- 
tains   three    illustrations    by    Doyle,    one    for    each 
y^  chapter,  as  before.      The  first   really   comprises  two 

H  th  \9,a(  '^is^'"'^^  subjects,  separated  by  a  quaintly-designed 
initial  letter;  in  the  upper  drawing  is  seen  John 
Peerybingle's  cart  on  its  journey,  preceded  by  Boxer,  while  below 
we  are  presented  with  an  ideal  scene  of  domestic  happiness,  where 
John  and  Dot  are  seated  before  the  fire  in  their  humble  home. 
The  first  page  of  "  Chirp  the  Second  "  contains  a  capital  picture  of 
Caleb  Plummer  and  his  blind  daughter  Bertha,  busily  at  work  among 
the  toys ;  in  the  last  design,  illustrating  the  opening  lines  of  "  Chirp 
the  Third,"  the  honest  carrier  is  observed  reclining  his  head  upon 
his  hand  in  silent  grief,  while  comforting  spirits  hover  around  him. 

Dickens's  fourth  Christmas  Book,  "  The  BatUe  of  Life,"  includes 
three  designs  by  Doyle,  which  are  also  introduced  as 
The  Battle  of   embellishments  of  the  initial  pages  of  the  different 
Lite,  1846.  .  _,  .    .    , ,      .  I. 

chapters.  They  are  much  bolder  m  treatment,  how- 
ever, than  the  artist's  earlier  drawings,  and  do  not  possess  the 
artistic  charm  appertaining  to  his  illustrations  in  "  The  Cricket  on  the 
Hearth."  The  most  successful  are  the  vignette  subjects  at  the  top 
of  each  page,  which  are  charming  little  studies. 


It  is  unfortunate  that  no  original  sketches  for  these  illustrations 
are  available  for  reproduction.  A  member  of  the  artist's  family 
declares  that  they  were  dispersed,  principally  as  gifts  to  friends,  and 
that  their  present  destination  is  unknown. 

On  December  lo,  1883,  Richard  Doyle  was  struck  down  by 
apoplexy  as  he  was  quitting  the  Athenaeum  Club,  and  died  on  the 
following  day.  Thus  passed  away  not  only  one  of  the  most  graceful 
limners  of  Fairyland  that  England  has  produced,  but  one  who 
will  long  be  remembered  for  his  many  noble  qualities  of  heart 
and  mind. 



Plate  XLIX 
clarkson  stanfield,  r.a. 

From  a  Photograph 

Lenl  by  Mr.  Fitld  StanJuUL 


From  a  Photograph 

Lent  by  Mrs.  Kalt  Ptnigini. 


Apprenticed  to  a  Heraldic  Painter — Goes  to  Sea — Meets  Douglas  Jerrold— Scene-painting — 
Exhibits  at  the  Royal  Academy— Becomes  Acquainted  with  Dickens— A  Memorable 
Trip  to  Cornwall— The  Logan  Stone— Illustrations  for  "The  Chimes"— A  Labour  of 
Love — A  Present  and  a  Letter  from  Dickens— Illustration  for  "The  Cricket  on  the 
Hearth"— A  Quaint  Epistle,  signed  "Henry  Bluff"— Illustrations  for  "The  Battle  of 
Life"— Dickens's  Opinion  of  Stanfield's  Designs— Illustration  for  "The  Haunted  Man" 
—Another  Gift  from  Dickens  to  the  Artist— A  Drawing  of  the  "  Britannia"  Steam-ship— 
Private  Theatricals— A  Remarkable  Act-Drop — Declining  Health— Death  of  the  Artist 
—Dickens's  Eulogium— "  The  Most  Lovable  of  Men." 

FIRST  a  sailor,  then  an  artist  and  a  Royal  Academician, 
William  Clarkson  Stanfield  acquired  the  reputation  of  being 
the  greatest  marine-painter  of  his  time.  Born  in  1793,  he 
was  brought  up  to  the  sea,  and  at  sea  (curiously  enough)  was 
thrown  into  the  companionship  of  Douglas  Jerrold,  who,  like  him- 
self, was  ordained  to  make  his  mark  in  a  very  different  profession. 

When  about  twelve  years  old  Clarkson  Stanfield  was  appren- 
ticed to  a  heraldic  painter  in  Edinburgh,  but  an  intense  longing  for 
the  career  of  a  sailor  resulted  in  his  entering  the  merchant  service 
in  1808.  Four  years  later  he  was  pressed  into  the  Royal  Navy, 
and  while  on  board  the  King's  ship  Namur  in  18 14  (where  he  first 
met  Jerrold,  then  a  midshipman),  his  talent  for  drawing  was  dis- 
covered, whereupon  he  was  sent  ashore  at  Sheerness  to  assist  in 
the  painting  and  decoration  of  the  Admiral's  ball-room,  his  work 
giving  so  much  satisfaction  that  he  was  promised  his  discharge 
from  the  Navy — a  promise,  however,  that  was  not  fulfilled.  After 
another  interval  of  three  or  four  years  he  finally  left  the  sea,  having 
been  temporarily  disabled  by  a  fall,  and  procured  an  engagement 
as  scene-painter  at  the  East  London  Theatre,  for  he  had  already 
essayed  this    branch    of  Art   on    board   ship.      So  eminently   satis- 



factory  were  his  pictorial  achievements  in  East  London  that  he 
obtained  a  similar  position  at  the  Edinburgh  Theatre,  and  thence, 
in  1822,  in  conjunction  with  his  friends  David  Roberts  and  Nasmyth, 
he  was  employed  in  a  like  capacity  at  the  Theatre  Royal,  Drury 
Lane.     From  that  time  his  success  in  Art  was  assured. 

Stanfield  had  already  exhibited  in  the  Royal  Academy,  and  year 
by  year  his  work  in  this  and  other  Institutions  continued  to  excite 
interest  and  admiration,  by  reason  of  the  simple  truthfulness  of  all 
his  representations.  Usually,  but  not  invariably,  he  preferred  to 
depict  scenes  in  which  his  nautical  experience  could  be  made  avail- 
able, and  his  natural  gifts  permitted  him  to  combine  with  the 
genuine  sailor-like  feeling  displayed  in  the  treatment  of  his  subjects 
a  poetical  sentiment  which  considerably  enhanced  the  charm  of  his 
productions.  In  1832  Stanfield  was  elected  an  Associate  of  the 
Royal  Academy,  and  three  years  later  he  attained  full  honours.  It 
will  thus  be  seen  that  he  had  gained  a  very  dignified  position  in 
the  world  of  Art  before  even  the  name  of  Charles  Dickens  became 
known  to  the  reading  public, — as  a  matter  of  fact,  the  future  novelist 
was  at  that  date  writing  the  earliest  of  those  wonderful  sketches 
which  appeared  under  the  nom  de  guerre  of  "  Boz." 

Clarkson  Stanfield,  who  was  Charles  Dickens's  senior  by  about  nine- 
teen years,  made  the  acquaintance  of  the  novelist  late  in  the  "  Thirties," 
when  began  those  affectionate  relations  subsisting  between  the  two 
distinguished  men.  "  I  love  you  so  truly,"  observed  Dickens  to  the 
artist,  in  a  letter  dated  August  24,  1844,  "and  have  such  pride  and 
joy  of  heart  in  your  friendship,  that  I  don't  know  how  to  begin  writing 
to  you."  Two  years  previously  Stanfield  joined  Dickens  and  his 
friends  Forster  and  Maclise  in  their  famous  trip  to  Cornwall, — three 
memorable  weeks,  overflowing  with  enjoyment  and  fun  ;  the  artists 
made  sketches  of  the  most  romantic  of  the  halting-places,  one  of 
these  being  a  drawing  of  the  Logan  Stone  by  Stanfield  (now  in  the 
Forster  Collection  at  South  Kensington),  where  are  seen  the  figures 
of  himself  and  his  three  fellow-travellers. 


In  1844  Dickens  conceived  the  idea  of  a  second  Christmas  Book, 

_  "The  Chimes,"  and  what  more  natural  than  that  he 

J,  *     should  desire  to  enlist  the  services,  as  illustrator,  of 

so  skilled  a  draughtsman  as  Clarkson  Stanfield?     It 

was  decided  to  depart  from  the  plan  adopted  in  regard  to  the  "Carol," 

by  engaging  more  than  one  artist,  thus  imparting  an  agreeable  variety 

to  the  designs.     Stanfield,  eager  to  gratify  his  friend,  did  not  require 

much  persuasion  to  co-operate  in  the  pictorial  embellishment  of  the 

little  volume,  for  which  he  provided  two  choice  drawings,  viz.,  "The 

Old  Church," — a  faithful  representation  of  the  "  old  London  belfry  "  of 

St.  Dunstan's  in  Fleet  Street, — and  "Will  Fern's  Cottage," — a  pretty 

bit  of  landscape  scenery,  such  as  the  artist  knew  so  well  how  to  depict. 

With  these  Dickens  was  charmed,  and  in  a  letter  to  his  wife  he  said : 

"  Stanfield's  readiness,  delight,  wonder  at  my  being  pleased  with  what 

he  has  done  is  delicious." 

Stanfield,  it  appears,  would  not  accept  payment  for  these  drawings, 
preferring  that  they  should  be  considered  as  tokens  of  friendship. 
Dickens,  however,  could  not  pass  over  so  generous  an  act  without 
some  acknowledgment,  and  this  took  the  form  of  a  silver  claret-jug, 
which  was  presented  (as  the  inscription  records)  "  In  Memory  of 
'The  Chimes.'"  Accompanying  the  gift  was  the  following  letter, 
dated  October  2,  1845,  where  allusion  is  made  to  the  succeeding 
Christmas  Story : — 

"Mv  Dear  Stannv, — I  send  you  the  claret-jug.  But  for  a 
mistake,  you  would  have  received  the  little  remembrance  almost 
immediately  after  my  return  from  abroad. 

"...  I  need  not  say  how  much  I  should  value  another  little 
sketch  from  your  extraordinary  hand  in  this  year's  small  volume,  to 
which  Mac  again  does  the  frontispiece.  But  I  cannot  hear  of  it, 
and  will  not  have  it  (though  the  gratification  of  such  aid  to  me  is 
really  beyond  all  expression),  unless  you  will  so  far  consent  to  make 
it  a  matter  of  business  as  to  receive,  without  asking  any  questions, 


a  cheque  in  return  from  the  publishers.  Do  not  misunderstand  me — 
though  I  am  not  afraid  there  is  much  danger  of  your  doing  so,  for 
between  us  misunderstanding  is,  I  hope,  not  easy.  I  know  perfectly 
well  that  no  terms  would  induce  you  to  go  out  of  your  way,  in  such 
a  regard,  for  perhaps  anybody  else.  I  cannot,  nor  do  I  desire  to, 
vanquish  the  friendly  obligation  which  help  from  you  imposes  on  me. 
But  I  am  not  the  sole  proprietor  of  these  little  books ;  and  it  would 
be  monstrous  in  you  if  you  were  to  dream  of  putting  a  scratch 
into  a  second  one  without  some  shadowy  reference  to  the  other 
partners,  ten  thousand  times  more  monstrous  in  me  if  any  considera- 
tion on  earth  could  induce  me  to  permit  it,  which  nothing  will 
or  shall. 

"  So,  see  what  it  comes  to.  If  you  will  do  me  a  favour  on  my 
terms,  it  will  be  more  acceptable  to  me,  my  dear  Stanfield,  than  I  can 
possibly  tell  you.  If  you  will  not  be  so  generous,  you  deprive  me 
of  the  satisfaction  of  receiving  it  at  your  hands,  and  shut  me  out 
from  that  possibility  altogether.  What  a  stony-hearted  ruffian  you 
must  be  in  such  a  case ! — Ever  affectionately  yours, 

"Charles  Dickens." 

The  "small  volume"  here  alluded  to  was  "The  Cricket  on  the 
The  Cricket  Hearth,"  for  which  Stanfield  prepared  one  illustra- 
on  the  tion,  viz.,  "  The  Carrier's  Cart." 

Hearth,  1846. 

To  the  fourth  Christmas  Book,  "The  Battle  of  Life,"  Stanfield 
_  contributed  three   beautiful   little   designs,  represent- 

L'f     iR/i^  *"S  respectively  "War,"  "Peace,"  and  "The  'Nut- 

meg Grater'  Inn."  Happily,  I  am  enabled  to 
present  facsimiles  of  the  original  sketches  (very  slight  in  treatment) 
of  the  first  two  subjects,  through  the  courtesy  of  the  artist's  son, 
Mr.  Field  Stanfield.  The  story  was  written  at  Lausanne,  and, 
during  Dickens's  absence  in  Switzerland,  Forster  succeeded  in 
enlisting  Stanfield  as  one  of  the  illustrators   as  a  glad   surprise  for 


Plate  L 

"war"  and  "peace" 

Faciimilt  of  the  Original  Sketches  for  "  The  Battle  of  Life  "  by 
C.   STANFIELD,    R.A. 

LtHt  by  Mr  Field  Slanfietd. 




the  author,  who,  on  being  informed  of  the  fact,  wrote  to  his  biog- 
rapher :  "  Your  Christmas  Book  illustration-news  makes  me  jump 
for  joy."  Forster  intimates  that  these  "  three  morsels  of  English 
landscape,"  delineated  by  Stanfield,  had  a  singular  charm  for  Dickens 
at  the  time,  who  referred  to  the  illustrations  altogether  as  by  far 
the  best  that  had  been  done  for  any  of  the  Christmas  Books.  "  It 
is  a  delight,"  he  remarked  concerning  Stanfield's  designs,  "  to  look 
at  these  little  landscapes  of  the  dear  old  boy.  How  gentle  and 
elegant,  and  yet  how  manly  and  vigorous  they  are!  I  have  a 
perfect  joy  in  them." 

The  last  of  the  Christmas  Books,  viz.,  "  The   Haunted    Man," 

_  contains  three  illustrations  by  this  artist,  viz.,  "  The 

M         8  8  Lighthouse,"   "  The    Exterior  of  the  Old  College," 

and    "  The   Christmas    Party  in   the  Great   Dinner 

Hall."     In  the  first  subject,  which  is  decidedly  the  most  successful, 

Stanfield  found  a  most  congenial  theme,  for  here  his  knowledge  of 

sailors   and   of  the   dangers   of  the  sea   proved  serviceable.      With 

regard  to  his  designs  for  these  little   annuals,    it  appears   that   the 

artist   could   not   be   prevailed   upon   to    accept   payment   for   them, 

Dickens's   protests  notwithstanding.       He  consequently  became  the 

recipient  of  another  gift — a  pair  of  handsome  silver  salvers,  bearing 

the  simple  inscription,  "Clarkson  Stanfield  from  Charles  Dickens,"  in 

recognition  of  his  friendly  collaboration,  and  these  are  now  in  the 

possession  of  one  of  the  artist's  sons. 

There  is  another  illustration  by  Stanfield  to  which  some  allusion 
must  be  made.      This  is  an  admirable  water-colour 
J,  Q  drawing     of    the     Britannia,    the    steamship    that 

conveyed  Dickens  to  America  in  1842.  The 
drawing  was  made  with  a  view  to  reproduction  as  the  frontis- 
piece for  the  first  cheap  edition  of  "American  Notes,"  and  the 
following    hitherto    unpublished    letter    (dated    May     11,    1850)    to 


Edward   Chapman   (of   Chapman   &    Hall),    is   of   interest    in    this 
connection  : — 

"  Dear  Sir, — Mr.  Stanfield  will  ^draw  the  packet-ship  for  the 
frontispiece  to  the  '  American  Notes.'  He  says  lithograph  is  better 
than  wood  for  that  kind  of  subject ;  please  let  me  know  immediately 
whether  it  will  suit  us  to  lithograph  it.— Faithfully  yours, 

"Charles  Dickens." 

The  suggestion  was  found  impracticable,  so  it  was  decided  that 
the  drawing  should  be  made  on  wood.  The  block  was  therefore 
forwarded  to  the  artist,  who  complained  to  Dickens  of  its  imperfect 
surface,  whereupon  the  novelist  despatched  to  Edward  Chapman  this 
brief  missive,  dated  May  22  : — 

"  Dear  Sir, — Mr.  Stanfield  wonders  you  didn't  send  him  a  paving- 
stone  to  draw  upon,  as  send  a  block  in  this  unprepared  state.  I  send 
you  his  drawing  to  do  the  best  you  can  with.  It  costs  nothing,  and 
I  wish  it  to  be  kept  very  clean  and  returned  to  me. — Faithfully  yours, 

"Charles  Dickens." 

It  may  be  inferred  from  this  letter  that  the  drawing  was  copied 
upon  the  wood-block  by  the  engraver  himself,  whose  name  (T. 
Bolton)  is  appended  to  the  frontispiece.  The  original  picture  was 
purchased  at  the  sale  of  Dickens's  effects  in  1870  for  the  sum  of 
£1 10,  5s.,  by  the  late  Earl  of  Darnley,  for  many  years  the  novelist's 
friend  and  neighbour. 

Clarkson  Stanfield,  whose  intimacy  with  the  Dickens  family  was 
very  close,  used  to  take  part  in  their  Christmas  sports  and  gambols, 
and  in  connection  with  the  private  theatricals  at  Tavistock  House 
his  services  as  scene-painter  were  invaluable.  Apropos  of  this,  the 
novelist  once  wrote  to  Frank  Stone,  A.R.A.  :  "Stanfield  bent  on 
desperate  effects,  and  all  day  long  with  his  coat  off,  up  to  his  eyes 
in  distemper  colours."     Again :  "  If  Stanfield  don't  astonish  'em  [the 


audience],  I'm  a  Dutchman.  O  Heaven,  if  you  could  hear  the  ideas  he 
proposes  to  me,  making  even  my  hair  stand  on  end!"  For  Wilkic 
Collins's  drama,  "  The  Lighthouse,"  produced  at  Tavistock  House,  the 
artist  painted  a  very  remarkable  act-drop  representing  the  Eddystone 
Lighthouse,  concerning  which  it  may  be  observed  that,  although  it 
occupied  the  great  painter  only  one  or  two  mornings,  it  realised  at 
the  novelist's  death  nearly  a  thousand  guineas  ! 

Dickens,  when  writing  to  Stanfield,  frequently  adopted  nautical 
expressions,  in  allusion  to  the  artist's  experiences  as  a  seaman.  He 
sometimes  addressed  him  as  "Old  Tarpaulin,"  "Old  Salt,"  "Messmet," 
&c,  and  as  an  example  of  this  I  here  reprint  a  letter,  written  on  an 
occasion  when  Stanfield  innocently  demanded  of  Dickens  to  be  in- 
formed of  the  amount  due  for  a  pair  of  candlesticks  that  the  novelist 
had  sent  him  : — 

"Mv  Dear  Stannv, — In  reference  to  the  damage  for  the  candle- 
sticks, I  beg  to  quote  (from   'The  Cricket  on  the  Hearth,'  by  the 
highly  popular  and  deservedly  so  Dick)  this  reply : 
'  I'll  damage  you  if  you  inquire.' 
Ever  yours. 

My  block-reeving, 

Main-brace  splicing, 





Son  of  a  sea-cook, 

Henry  Bluff, 

H.M.S.  Timber:" 

■  From  "The  Letters  of  Charles  Dickens."  Mr.  Field  Stanfield  informs  me  that  it  is 
quite  certain  the  candlesticks  were  not  a  gift  from  Dickens  to  his  father.  It  would  seem  most 
probable  that  there  may  have  been  some  accident  during  theatrical  preparations,  for  which  the 
artist  considered  himself  responsible,  and  that  Dickens  undertook  to  repair  the  misfortune 


During  the  last  ten  years  of  his  life  Stanfield's  health  became 
less  strong,  and  he  was  obliged  in  some  measure  to  retire  from  the 
congenial  circle  of  his  artistic  and  literary  associates,  continuing,  how- 
ever, to  take  great  delight  in  his  art.  Stanfield  breathed  his  last 
on  May  i8,  1867.  His  death  proved  a  great  blow  to  Dickens, 
who,  in  a  note  of  sympathy  to  Mr.  George  Stanfield,  observed : 
"  No  one  of  your  father's  friends  can  ever  have  loved  him  more  dearly 
than  I  always  did,  or  can  have  better  known  the  worth  of  his  noble 
character."  To  the  famous  painter,  for  whom  he  ever  entertained 
a  strong  affection,  the  novelist  had  dedicated  "  Little  Dorrit,"  and, 
as  a  tribute  to  his  memory,  wrote  (in  All  the  Year  Round)  a 
sympathetic  eulogium  upon  his  departed  friend  of  thirty  years, 
where,  after  alluding  to  the  artist  as  "the  National  historian  of 
the  Sea,"  he  says :  "  He  was  a  charitable,  religious,  gentle,  truly 
good  man.  A  genuine  man,  incapable  of  pretence  or  of  concealment. 
He  was  the  soul  of  frankness,  generosity,  and  simplicity.  The  most 
genial,  the  most  affectionate,  the  most  loving,  and  the  most  lovable 
of  men." 



His  Precocious  Talent— Studies  Anatomy— Enters  the  Royal  Academy  Schools— Gains  a 
"Travelling  Studentship"— Elected  a  Royal  Academician— Declines  the  Presidency- 
Introduced  to  Dickens  —  A  Lifelong  Friendship —  "  Master  Humphrey's  Clock" — 
Maclisc  Essays  an  Illustration— "The  Chimes"— A  Reading  by  Dickens  and  a  Sketch  by 
Madise — His  Original  Drawings— "The  CRICKET  ON  THE  HEARTH  "—An  Unpublished 
Letter  from  Madise— "The  Battle  of  Life"— Dickens's  Appreciation  of  Maclise's 
Illustrations — The  Artist's  Correspondence  with  Forster  Respecting  his  Designs— His 
Anxiety  Concerning  the  Engraving— An  Indignant  Letter— "  Little  Dirty  Scratches" — 
Madise  Dispenses  with  the  Living  Model  —  Dickens's  Relations  with  the  Artist  — A 
Memorable  Trip— Picture  of  the  Waterfall  at  St.  Nighton's  Cave — A  Portrait  of  Dickens 
—An  Interesting  Pencil- Drawing  — Death  of  "Grip"  — The  Raven  Immorulised  by 
Madise — A  Letter  of  Sympathy— The  Artist's  Dedining  Health— His  Death  a  Severe 
Shock  to  Dickens — The  Novelist's  Tribute  to  his  Memory. 

A  MONG  a  host  of  intimate  friends,  none  was  more  beloved  by 
/  \       Dickens  than  the  warm-hearted  Irish  artist,  Daniel  Maclise, 
■^      ^   whose  fine  genius  and  handsome  person  charmed  all  who 
knew  him.     Maclise  was  the  son  of  a  Scotch  soldier  quartered  at 
Cork,  and  was  born  in  that  city  on  January  25,  181 1,  being  thus  the 
novelist's  senior  by  about  a  year.     As  a  child  he   exhibited   great 
facility  in   executing  caricatures,   and  was   soon  enabled   to  support 
himself  by  the  sale  of  his  sketches.     It  was  at  first  intended  that 
he  should  adopt  the  surgical  profession,  with  which  object  he  studied 
anatomy  under  Dr.  Woodroffe,  but,  like  John  Leech,  he  did  not  take 
kindly  to  the  science  of  healing,  preferring  (as  did  Leech)  the  more 
congenial  pursuit  of  Art.      Accordingly,    in    1827,    Maclise   entered 
the  Royal  Academy  Schools,  where  he  made  such  rapid  progress, 
that  two  years  later  his  work  was  admitted  to  the  Exhibition  of  the 
Royal  Academy.     Although,  in  1831,  the  fortunate  young  painter  re- 
ceived the  gold  medal  entitling  him  to  the  "  Travelling  Studentship," 
he  elected  to  remain  in  England,  having  already  visited  Paris  and 


studied  at  the  Louvre  and  the  Luxembourg.  Achieving  success  after 
success  as  a  painter  of  Shakesperian  scenes,  portraits,  &c.,  he  became 
an  Associate  of  the  Royal  Academy  in  1836,  and  attained  full  honours 
in  1840.  In  1866  he  was  offered  the  Presidency,  but,  as  did  Sir 
Edwin  Landseer  during  the  previous  year,  he  declined  that  distinction. 

It  was  in  the  year  of  his  election  as  Associate  that  Maclise  was 

introduced  by  Forster  to  Charles  Dickens,  and  we 

Master  Hum'     ^^^^^  ^^^^  ^^le  tastes  and  pursuits  of  the  three  friends 

phre/s  Clock,  ...       ,         r    .    , 

ifl/in  /If  were  so  congenial  that  thenceforth  they  were  msepar- 

able, — this  affectionate  intercourse  being  maintained 
without  interruption  for  nearly  thirty  years.  When,  in  1840,  Dickens 
contemplated  the  publication  of  "  Master  Humphrey's  Clock,"  it 
was  his  intention  to  endeavour  to  secure  the  valuable  co-operation 
of  Maclise  as  an  illustrator  of  that  work,  in  conjunction  with  George 
Cattermole.  Forster  states  that  there  seems  to  have  been  a  desire 
on  Maclise's  part  to  try  his  hand  at  an  illustration,  but  he  did  not 
remember  that  it  bore  other  fruit  than  "a  very  pleasant  day  at  Jack 
Straw's  Castle,  where  Dickens  read  one  of  the  later  numbers  to  us." 
That  Maclise's  wish  was  actually  realised,  however,  is  proved  by 
the  fact  that  in  the  fifty-fifth  chapter  of  "The  Old  Curiosity  Shop" 
there  is  a  design  by  him  representing  Little  Nell  and  the  Sexton. 
Why  this  should  have  been  his  only  contribution  to  the  pages  of 
"  Master  Humphrey's  Clock  "  has  never  been  explained,  but  it  is  not 
improbable  that  the  artist  was  too  busily  occupied  with  his  paintings 
just  at  this  time,  and  therefore  unable  to  devote  serious  attention  to 
black-and-white  work. 

Maclise  had  been  much  engaged  in  book-illustration  (sometimes 

-,,     p.,  signing  himself  "Alfred  Croquis")  when,   in  1844, 

o  '      it  was  proposed  that  he  should  provide  designs  for 

Dickens's  second  Christmas  Book,   "The  Chimes." 

This  little  story  was  written  in  Italy,  and,  during  Dickens's  absence. 


Plate  LI 




Fiutimibs  of  the  Original  Drawings  for  "  The  Chimes  "  bjr 

-•i  /,' 



^    ^>-    !:^>  Rm7^  -^  "i^ 

DANIEL    MACLISE,    R.A.  163 

the  necessary  arrangements  respecting  the  illustrations  were  made  by 
Forster.  It  may  be  incidentally  mentioned  that,  eager  to  try  the 
effect  of  the  story,  the  novelist  journeyed  to  England  for  the  express 
purpose  of  reading  it  aloud  to  his  friends  at  Forster's  residence  in 
Lincoln's  Inn  Fields,  the  memorable  incident  being  depicted  by  Mac- 
lise  in  an  amusing  pencil-sketch,  afterwards  reproduced  for  Forster's 
biography.  Maclise  became  responsible  for  the  frontispiece  and  de- 
corative title-page  of  "The  Chimes,"  both  of  these  fanciful  designs 
gracefully  portraying  elves  and  fairies,  spirits  of  the  bells,  and  alle- 
gorical figures  typifying  Love,  Life,  and  Death.  The  original  drawings, 
now  in  South  Kensington  Museum,  were  delicately  executed  in  pencil, 
and  engraved  on  steel  by  F.  P.  Becker.  With  reference  to  these 
illustrations,  the  artist  wrote  : — 

"  My  Dear  Forster, — I  wonder  if  it  would  be  possible  to  make  the 
paper  of  the  book  an  inch  bigger,  that  is,  to  increase  the  width  of 
margin  around  the  letterpress,  without  much  additional  expense.  I 
wish  you  to  put  the  question.  I  do  not  think  my  design  too  large,  but 
it  would  marvellously  increase  the  elegance  of  the  look  of  the  book.  I 
must  say  the  '  Carol '  book  is  the  very  climax  of  vulgarity  in  its  mise 
en  planches. — Au  revoir.  D.  M."' 

It  was,  of  course,  considered  inadvisable  to  depart  from  precedent 
by  acting  upon  the  above  suggestion.  Dickens  was  highly  pleased 
with  the  artist's  designs,  and,  writing  to  his  wife  on  December  2, 
1844,  he  said  :  "  Mac's  frontispiece  is  charming." 

To  the  third  Christmas  Book,    "The  Cricket  on  the  Hearth," 

Maclise  also  contributed  the  frontispiece  and  deco- 

u     ''  rative    title-page,    which    were   engraved    on    wood 

??     .1     o  A     instead   of  steel.     These   designs   are   replete  with 
Hearth,  1846.  .      ,  ,     r       •    •        l  •  •  n  u 

quamt  fancy,  the  frontispiece  being  especially  worthy 

of  attention,  comprising,  as  it  does,  no  less  than  ten  miniature  tableaux, 

•  This  and  the  succeeding  letters  from  Maclise  to  Forster  are  now  printed  for  the  first  time. 


the  chief  of  these  representing  a  homely  scene,  where  the  Carrier  and 
his  wife  are  seated  by  the  fireside,  their  babe  being  rocked  in  its 
cradle  by  the  fairies,  while  above  the  steaming  kettle  is  perched  that 
good  spirit,  the  Cricket.  The  following  undated  letter  is  interesting 
on  account  of  its  connection  with  this  Christmas  story  : — 

"  My  Dear  FoRSTER, —  .  .  .  I  write  to  ask  ifyou  have  a  moment  to 
see  B[radbury]  and  E[vans]  about  these  blocks  for  my  little  designs.  I 
wrote  to  Dpckens]  Saturday,  and  there  came  to  me  such  a  small  pair 
that  I  instantly  sent  them  back.  Then  on  Saturday  evening  two  more 
came ;  one  of  them  will  do — but  as  you  understand  the  matter,  and  last 
year  even  got  the  book  enlarged  a  little,^  I  want  you  to  say  that  I 
muU  have  a  block  for  the  frontispiece  the  exact  size  of  the  leaf  on 
which  the  frontispiece  of  the  '  Chimes '  is.  I  have  made  a  little  sketch 
to  be  placed  on  the  wood,  and  some  of  the  little  shapes  come  as  close  to 
the  edge  of  the  page  as  this  line  I  make — .  I  want  the  wood  as  high 
and  as  wide  as  that  page — but  oh !  my  I — on,  if  it  could  but  be — the 
page  I  mean,  not  the  wood, — a  little — so  much  larger,  ah  !  I  should  be 
happy  for  life.  Tell  B.  and  E.  this  and  ask  D.  to  insist  on  it.  Mind, 
I  am  not  exceeding  the  present  paper  of  the  'Chimes,'  but  for  the 
look  of  the  book  it  would  be  very  important — and  they  have  sent  me  a 
block  much  smaller  than  that  page,  whereas  I  cannot  afford  one- 
hundredth  part  of  a  pin's  point.  I  know  'tis  vain  to  write  to  them — so 
trouble  you,  and  I  want  the  blocks — in  an  hour ! ! ! — Ever  most 
faithfully,  D.  M." 

The  artist  prepared  for  "  The  Battle  of  Life "  not  only  the  custo- 

_  .    mary  frontispiece   and  title-page,  but  two  additional 

J  ,r      p  X  designs  for  the  later  portion  of  the  story.     Dickens, 

who  was  in  Paris  at  the  time,  was  delighted  when  he 

heard  of  this,  and  in  a  letter  to  a  friend  observed :  "  Forster  writes 

me  that  Mac  has  come  out  with  tremendous  vigour  in  the  Christmas 

*  There  was  practically  no  enlargement 

DANIEL    MACLISE,    R.A.  165 

Book,  and  took  off  his  coat  at  it  with  a  burst  of  such  alarming  energy 
that  he  has  done  four  subjects!"  Of  these,  the  principal  is  the 
frontispiece,  representing  the  Dance  round  the  Appletree,  but  the 
most  successful  design  is  that  depicting  "The  Sisters," — a  graceful 
composition,  and  the  last  drawing  produced  by  the  artist  for  Dickens. 

Remembering  the  novelist's  keen  appreciation  of  Maclise's  illustra- 
tions in  the  preceding  Christmas  Books,  it  seems  somewhat  strange  that 
the  artist  should  have  thus  emphatically  expressed  himself  to  Forster 
in  the  following  letter,  evidently  indited  in  a  moment  of  pique : — 

"  My  Dear  F., — It  is  clear  to  me  that  Dickens  does  not  care  one 
damn  whether  I  make  a  little  sketch  for  the  book  or  not.  However, 
if  jfou  think  that  the  appearance  of  the  volume  should  be  as  like  the 
former  ones  as  possible,  I  will  with  even  pleasure  gulp  down  my 
jealousy  and  draw  on  the  wood  that  apple-tree,  &c.,  for  a  frontispiece. 
In  which  case  you  must  skut  tip  that  same  subject  to  Doyle— as  I  saw 
in  his  sketch  last  night.  But  I  do  this  at  your  bidding,  and  not  at  all 
for  D.,  and  on  the  whole  would  much  prefer  not  engaging  in  the 
matter  at  all. — Yours  truly,  D.  M." 

Apparently  some  little  misunderstanding  had  hurt  the  suscepti- 
bilities of  the  artist,  but,  happily,  it  was  speedily  removed,  for  he 
presently  wrote  in  a  more  conciliatory  spirit : — 

"  My  Dear  Forster, — I  have  received  the  blocks  and  will  make 
the  design  of  the  apple-tree  and  the  girls  dancing — so  keep  that 
subject  sacred  to  me.  B[radbury]  and  E[vans]  have  sent  the  block 
as  large  as  the  last,  but  as  I  do  not  approve  the  look  of  the  design 
without  margin,  I  intend  to  keep  this  one  within  bounds.  They  have 
sent  me  a  smaller  one  for  title-page.  Now  I  propose,  and  I  know  it 
will  improve  the  appearance  of  the  little  book,  not  to  cram  in  another 
design  there  with  the  title — a  printed  title  in  type  has  always  still  been 
necessary — but  if  you  like  I  will  make  another  design  for  the  body  of 


the  book.  That  one,  perhaps,  the  lover  of  Marion's  interview  with 
her — and  Clemency.  I  hope  very  much  you  will  see  no  good  objection 
to  this  proposition — or  will  j^ou  propose  a  second  subject  ? — Ever  yours 
truly  D.  M." 

Again,  a  few  days  later : — 

"  My  Dear  Forster, — .  .  .  I  write  to  say  that  you  will  find  me  at 
the  Athenaeum  to-morrow  at  five  o'clock.  Do  not  be  later,  I  hope 
tken  to  bring  with  me  the  drawing  on  the  block  for  the  frontispiece — 
the  girls  dancing ;  for  the  other,  I  will  do  what  you  like,  the  girls  and 
the  Doctor,  Marion  reading,  &c.,  or  the  lover  of  Marion's  interview 
with  her,  and  Clemency  outside  the  door,  &c.  We  will  agree  to- 
morrow.— Very  truly  yours,  D.  Maclise. 

"  I  hope  there  may  be  time  enough  then  not  to  hurry  it." 

The  following  letter  probably  refers  to  the  allegorical  design  on 
the  title-page,  depicting  the  triumph  of  Virtue  over  Vice,  in  which  the 
figures  (with  one  exception)  are  nude  :  although,  from  an  allusion  to 
"that  tree,"  it  might  be  suggested  that  it  was  the  frontispiece  : — 

"My  Dear  Forster, — I  suppose  the  stern  moralist,  Thackeray, 
would  have  described  the  last  design  I  made  lecherous,  libidinous, 
lustful,  lewd,  and  loose ;  but  I  meant  it  to  be  pure  and  '  mi-Id  as  the 

"...  I  only  write  to  tell  you,  if  you  can  exercise  any  control  over 
its  fate,  that  it  may  be  placed  in  the  hands  of  as  good  a  wood-man  as 
possible,  and  that  he  be  recommended  to  spare  tAai  tree-^-. 

"  I  fear  that  my  character  is  gone  abroad,  and  that  I  am  a  dog  with 
a  bad  name.  .  .  . — Ever  yours,  Daniel  Maclise." 

Both  the  frontispiece  and  title-page  were  excellently  rendered  on 
wood  by  John  Thompson,  one  of  the  foremost  engravers  of  the  day. 

DANIEL    MACLISE,    R.A.  167 

Maclise,  however,  had  hoped  the  work  would  have  been  ent'rusted  to 
others,  for  he  observed  to  Forster :  "I  am  annoyed  that  neither 
Williams  nor  Dalziel  are  to  do  that  little  design.  Some  one  called  here 
and  took  it  away  on  Monday,  and  he  said  that  there  was  not  time  (the 
old  excuse)  to  do  it  justice."  Judging  from  the  following  trenchant 
remarks,  the  artist  was  anything  but  gratified  by  the  engraved  repro- 
ductions of  these  drawings  when  they  appeared  in  print : — 

"  My  Dear  F., — I  can  never  hope  to  get  you  to  understand  how 
I  am  mortified  and  humiliated  by  the  effect  of  these  damnable  cuts. 
It  really  is  too  much  to  be  called  upon  to  submit  to,  to  be  shown 
up  in  these  little  dirty  scratches  and  to  have  one's  name  blazoned  as 
if  one  was  proud  of  them.  I  wish  to  Heaven  you  would  have  my 
name  cut  out  from  the  corners,  that  at  least  I  might  have  the  benefit 
of  the  doubt  as  to  which  of  the  blots  is  mine.  I  would  give  anything 
that  I  had  kept  to  my  original  notion  and  had  nothing  to  do  with  the 
thing.  ...  I  wish  you  had  left  me  that  last  one ;  I  would  have  tried 
to  beguile  myself  with  a  belief  that  it  might  be  improved.  My  curses 
light  upon  the  miserable  dog  that  produced  it — I  don't  mean  myself. — 
Ever  yours,  D.  Maclise. 

"  And  what  is  the  good  of  employing  Thom[p]son — if  the  demon 
printers  are  to  ruin  them  with  their  diabolic  press  ?  " 

Maclise,  like  other  draughtsmen  on  wood,  doubtless  often  ex- 
perienced a  sense  of  disappointment  when  their  delicately-pencilled 
drawings  were  hurriedly  engraved  and  submitted  to  the  arbitrary 
treatment  of  printer's  ink.  In  this  way  those  subtle  touches  upon 
which  the  artist  prided  himself  were  lost  for  ever,  so  that  the  designs 
appear  coarse  and  crude.  Such  was  obviously  the  case  with  regard 
to  the  illustrations  now  under  consideration,  notwithstanding  the  fact 
that  they  bear  the  signatures  of  thoroughly  experienced  engravers.  It 
is  a  fact  worth  recording  here  that  Maclise  did  not  draw  from  life 
the  figures  in  his  designs  for  the  Christmas  Books.     Indeed,  it  was 


a  matter  of  astonishment  to  his  brother  artists  that,  even  when 
working  upon  his  more  important  canvases,  he  very  rarely  resorted 
to  the  use  of  the  living  model,  his  singular  facility  in  composition 
leading  him,  perhaps,  too  often  to  dispense  with  the  study  of  the 
human  form ;  yet  his  works,  although  possessing  a  mannered  look, 
are  distinctively  marked  by  characteristics  of  individual  as  well  as 
general  nature. 

As  already  intimated,  the  friendship  subsisting  between  Dickens 
and  Maclise  was  of  a  kind  the  most  sincere,  and  it  was  naturally 
coupled  with  a  true  admiration  which  each  entertained  for  the  genius 
of  the  other.  Dickens  never  tired  of  praising  the  talent  of  the  artist, 
whom  he  thought  "a  tremendous  creature,  who  might  do  anything," 
and  recalled  with  delight  those  halcyon  days  when  Maclise  accom- 
panied Clarkson  Stanfield,  Forster,  and  himself  on  that  memorable 
Cornish  trip  in  1842,  one  result  of  which  was  a  charming  painting 
(now  in  the  Forster  Collection  at  South  Kensington)  of  the  Waterfall 
at  St.  Nighton's  Keive,  near  Tintagel,  into  which  the  artist  introduced 
as  the  principal  feature  a  young  girl  carrying  a  pitcher,  the  model  for 
whom  was  Dickens's  sister-in-law,  Miss  Georgina  Hogarth.  It  should 
be  remembered  that  one  of  the  finest  of  the  early  portraits  of  Dickens 
himself  was  painted  by  Maclise  in  1839,  at  the  instigation  of  Chap- 
man &  Hall,  with  a  view  to  an  engraving  for  "Nicholas  Nickleby," 
the  reproduction  duly  appearing  as  the  frontispiece.  The  original 
picture  was  presented  to  Dickens  by  his  publishers,  and  at  the 
sale  of  the  novelist's  effects  in  1870  this  very  interesting  canvas 
was  purchased  for  .^693  by  the  Rev.  Sir  E.  R.  Jodrell,  by  whom 
it  was  bequeathed  to  the  National  Gallery,  where  it  may,  now  be 
seen.  Maclise  is  responsible  also  for  another  excellent  portrait  of 
the  novelist  at  the  same  youthful  period — a  slight  pencil-drawing 
(executed  in  1843)  representing  him  with  his  wife  and  her  sister. 

The  premature  death  of  Dickens's  raven,  immortalised  in  "  Bar- 
naby  Rudge,"  was  formally  notified  to  Maclise  by  the  novelist  in 
the  form  of  a  letter  narrating  the  details  of  that  domestic  calamity. 

DANIEL    MACLISE,    R.A.  169 

The  artist  forwarded  the  missive  to  Forster,  together  with  a  sketch 
purporting  to  represent  "Grip's"  apotheosis,  while  to  Dickens  him- 
self he  dispatched  (March  13,  1841)  the  following  letter,  which  does 
not  appear  in  the  published  collection,  and  is  one  of  a  very  few 
letters  extant  that  were  addressed  by  him  to  the  novelist:' 

"Mv  Dear  Dickens,— I  received  the  mournful  intelligence  of 
our  friend's  decease  last  night  at  eleven,  and  the  shock  was  great 
indeed.  I  have  just  dispatched  the  announcement  to  poor  Forster, 
who  will,  I  am  sure,  sympathise  with  us  in  our  bereavement.  I 
know  not  what  to  think  of  the  probable  cause  of  his  death, — I  re- 
ject the  idea  of  the  Butcher  Boy,  for  the  orders  he  must  have  in  his 
(the  Raven's)  life-time  received  on  account  of  the  Raven  himself  must 
have  been  considerable.  I  rather  cling  to  the  notion  o{  felo  cU  se — 
but  this  will  no  doubt  come  out  upon  the  post-mortem.  How  blest 
we  are  to  have  such  an  intelligent  coroner  as  Mr.  Wakley.  I  think 
he  was  just  of  those  melancholic  habits  which  are  the  noticeable 
signs  of  your  intended  suicide,  his  solitary  life,  those  gloomy  tones, 
— when  he  did  speak,  which  was  always  to  the  purpose.  Witness 
his  last  dying  speech,  '  Hallo !  old  girl,'  which  breathes  of  cheerful- 
ness and  triumphant  recognition, — his  solemn  suit  of  raven  black, 
which  never  grew  rusty.  Altogether  his  character  was  the  very  proto- 
type of  a  Byron  hero — and  even  of  a  Scott — a  Master  of  Ravens- 
wood.  He  ought  to  be  glad  he  had  no  family.  I  suppose  he  seems 
to  have  intended  it,  however,  for  his  solicitude  to  deposit  in  those 
Banks  in  the  garden  his  savings  was  always  very  touching.  I 
suppose  his  obsequies  will  take  place  immediately. 

"It  is  beautiful,  the  idea  of  his  return,  even  after  death,  to  the 

'  Replying  to  Mr.  W.  J.  O'DriscoU's  application  for  the  loan  of  any  of  the  artist's  corre- 
spondence, with  a  view  to  publishing  them  in  his  Memoir  of  Maclise,  Dickens  stated  that 
a  few  years  previously  he  destroyed  an  immense  correspondence,  expressly  because  he 
considered  it  had  been  held  with  him  and  not  with  the  public.  Thus  we  have  been  deprived 
of  valuable  records  which  would  have  thrown  additional  light  upon  the  friendly  intercourse 
subsisting  between  the  novelist  and  many  of  his  distinguished  contemporaries. 


scene  of  his  early  youth  and  all  his  associations,  and  lie  with  kindred 
dusts  amid  his  own  ancestral  graves  after  having  made  such  a  noise 
in  the  world,  having  clearly  booked  his  place  in  that  immortality- 
coach  driven  by  Dickens.  Yes,  he  committed  suicide ;  he  felt  he 
had  done  it  and  done  with  life.  The  hundreds  of  years !  what  were 
they  to  him  ?  There  was  nothing  more  to  live  for — and  he  committed 
the  rash  act. — Sympathisingly  yours,  Dan.  Maclise." 

It  is  evident  from  the  following  epistle,  addressed  to  Forster  at 
the  time  when  "  Dombey  and  Son"  was  appearing  in  monthly 
numbers,  that  Maclise,  while  acknowledging  his  intense  admiration  of 
the  novelist's  powers,  could  not  bring  himself  to  appreciate  certain  of 
his  youthful  creations  : — 

"My  Dear  Forster, — I  think  it  very  great — the  old  nautical- 
instrument-seller  novel,  and  most  promising.  I'm  never  up  to  his 
young  girls — he  is  so  very  fond  of  the  age  of  '  Nell,'  when  they  are 
most  insipid.  I  hope  he  is  not  going  to  make  another  'Slowboy' — 
but  I  am  only  trying  to  say  something,  and  to  find  fault  when  there  is 
none  to  find.    He  is  absolutely  alone. — Ever  yours,  D.  M." 

In  1870  Maclise's  health  began  seriously  to  fail  him ;  he  appeared 
languid  and  depressed,  and  in  April  of  that  year  he  succumbed  to 
an  attack  of  acute  pneumonia,  predeceasing  the  novelist  by  only  a 
few  weeks. 

Dickens  experienced  a  severe  shock  on  hearing  of  the  death  of 
this  steadfast  and  genuine  friend,  and  when,  three  days  later,  he 
returned  thanks  for  "  Literature  "  at  the  Royal  Academy  dinner  (his 
final  appearance  in  public),  he  offered  a  most  affectionate,  graceful, 
and  eloquent  tribute  to  the  memory  of  him  who  had  just  passed  away. 
"For  many  years,"  he  said,  "I  was  one  of  the  two  most  intimate 
friends  and  most  constant  companions  of  the  late  Mr.  Maclise.  Of 
his  genius  in  his  chosen  art  I  will  venture  to  say  nothing  here,  but 

DANIEL    MACLISE,    R.A.  171 

of  his  prodigious  fertility  of  mind  and  wonderful  wealth  of  intellect, 
I  may  confidently  assert  that  they  would  have  made  him,  if  he  had 
been  so  minded,  at  least  as  great  a  writer  as  he  was  a  painter.  The 
gentlest  and  most  modest  of  men,  the  freshest  as  to  his  generous 
appreciation  of  young  aspirants,  and  the  frankest  and  largest-hearted 
as  to  his  peers,  incapable  of  a  sordid  or  ignoble  thought,  gallantly 
sustaining  the  true  dignity  of  his  vocation,  without  one  grain  of  self- 
ambition,  wholesomely  natural  at  the  last  as  at  the  first,  'in  wit  a 
man,  simplicity  a  child,'  no  artist,  of  whatsoever  denomination,  I  make 
bold  to  say,  ever  went  to  his  rest  leaving  a  golden  memory  more 
pure  from  dross,  or  having  devoted  himself  with  a  truer  chivalry  to 
the  art-goddess  whom  he  worshipped."  These  were  the  last  public 
words  of  Charles  Dickens,  and  they  were  uttered  when  the  speaker 
was  far  from  well,  and  when,  indeed,  he  was  himself  nearing  the 
brink  of  the  Great  Unknown. 


Cartoons  for  Punch — Book  Illustrations — A  Self-Taught  Artist — Becomes  Acquainted  with 
Dickens — Designs  for  "  The  Haunted  Man  " — A  Wonderful  Memory  of  Observation — An 
Interview  with  Dickens — Knighthood. 

SIR  JOHN  TENNIEL,  lh&  doyen  of  the  Punch  staff,  is  un- 
doubtedly best  known  as  the  designer  and  draughtsman  of  the 
cartoon  published  weekly  in  that  journal.     This  famous  pictorial 
satirist  succeeded  Richard  Doyle  on  Punch  in  1850,  and  since  1861  , 

(with   the  exception   of  a   few   brief  intervals)  he  has  supplied  the  ^H 

subject  of  the  principal  engraving  with  unfailing  regularity.  Confining 
himself  almost  entirely  to  black-and-white  drawing,  Sir  John  has  pro- 
duced, during  a  long  and  active  career,  a  large  number  of  book- 
illustrations,  such  as  those  embellishing  certain  editions  of  "yEsop's 
Fables,"  "The  Ingoldsby  Legends,"  "  Lalla  Rookh,"  and  "The 
Arabian  Nights,"  while  those  charming  designs  in  the  late  "  Lewis 
Carroll's"  "Alice  in  Wonderland,"  with  its  sequel,  "Through  the 
Looking-Glass,"  will  be  readily  remembered.  In  Once  a  Week  may 
also  be  found  many  of  his  illustrations. 

Sir  John  Tenniel  was  born  in  London  in  1820.  Although  for  a  time 
he  attended  the  Royal  Academy  Schools,  he  is  practically  a  self-taught 
artist,  and  exhibited  his  first  picture  when  sixteen  years  of  age.  After 
this  initial  success  he  continued  to  paint  and  exhibit  pictures  both  in 
oil  and  water-colours,  but  soon  realised  that  he  could  exercise  his  facile 
pencil  with  greater  advantage,  his  designs  possessing  a  refinement  and 
good  taste,  coupled  with  a  sense  of  humour — characteristics  suggesting 
the  thought  that  to  him  may  be  attributed  the  establishment  of 
the  connection  between  "  High "  Art  and  what  may  be  termed 
"  Grotesque  "  Art. 


SIR    JOHN    TENNIEL  173 

Prior  to  joining  the  Punch  staff— that  is  to  say,  in  1847 — Sir 
TU  H  \  A  (^^^"  ^'"•)  J°^"  Tenniel  became  acquainted  with 
Man  1848  Charles    Dickens,    who    invited    the    young    artist 

to  contribute  (in  conjunction  with  Clarkson  Stan- 
field,  R.A.,  John  Leech,  and  Frank  Stone,  A.R.A.)  some  designs 
to  "The  Haunted  Man,"  published  in  1848.  Accordingly,  in  this 
Christmas  Book  we  find  him  represented  by  six  illustrations,  con- 
sisting of  the  frontispiece,  engraved  title-page,  and  four  other 
designs,  the  latter  appearing  at  the  opening  of  the  chapters.  The 
frontispiece  is  a  remarkable  achievement  in  respect  to  the  deco- 
rative border  surrounding  the  central  picture, — a  beautifully-fanciful 
treatment  of  elf-like  and  other  figures,  typifying  Good  and  Evil, 
the  drawing  being  admirably  engraved  on  wood  by  Martin  and 
Corbould.  In  the  second  chapter  the  artist  has  represented  the 
Tetterby  family,  which  it  is  interesting  to  compare  with  a  similar 
group  of  the  Tetterbys  by  John  Leech  in  the  same  chapter.  Sir 
John  Tenniel's  final  drawing  is  a  successful  attempt  to  portray, 
in  the  form  of  allegory.  Night  receding  before  Dawn. 

Except  in  painting,  Sir  John  Tenniel  never  resorts  to  the  use 
of  the  living  model  for  his  figures,  but  depends  entirely  upon  a 
wonderful  memory  of  observation.  Apropos  of  his  collaboration  with 
the  novelist,  he  has  favoured  me  with  the  following  note : — 

"  My  '  artistic  association '  with  Charles  Dickens  began  and  ended 
simply  with  my  poor  little  contributions  towards  the  illustration  of 
'  The  Haunted  Man.'  There  was  no  written  correspondence  between 
us  that  I  can  remember,  and  I  believe  I  had  but  one  interview  with 
Dickens  on  the  subject,  when  he  gave  me  certain  hints  as  to  treatment, 
&c.  &c.  &c.     Only  that,  and  nothing  more ! 

"  As  to  what  became  of  the  original  sketches  I  have  not  the 
remotest  idea ;  probably  I  gave  them  away — or,  more  probably  still, 
they  were  one  day  consigned  to  the  waste-paper  basket.  At  all 
events,  and  after  an  interval  of  about  forty-five  years,  it  is  perhaps 


scarcely  surprising  that  I  should  have  long  since  forgotten  all  about 

It  should  be  mentioned  that,  as  in  the  case  of  Leech,  many  of  Sir 
John  Tenniel's  Punch  cartoons  are  adapted  from  illustrations  in  the 
works  of  Dickens,  these  happily  suggesting  the  political  situation  of 
the  moment.  This  subject  is  fully  treated  in  my  paper  on  "  Dickens 
and  Punch"  in  the  English  Illustrated  Magazine,  August  1891. 

Sir  John  is  one  of  the  oldest  members  of  the  Royal  Institute  of 
Painters  in  Water-Colours.  In  June  1893  the  distinction  of  knighthood 
was  conferred  upon  the  veteran  artist,  his  name  having  been  included 
in  the  list  of  Royal  birthday  honours,  at  the  recommendation  of  Mr. 
Gladstone,  whose  face  and  figure  he  has  so  frequently  delineated  ;  thus 
for  the  first  time  were  the  claims  of  black-and-white  draughtsmen 
deservedly  recognised.  Sir  John  Tenniel's  busy  pencil  continues  to 
be  effectively  employed  in  the  pages  of  Punch  ;  but  he  remains,  alas ! 
the  sole  survivor  of  the  band  of  clever  artists  whose  designs  adorn 
the  Christmas  Books  of  Charles  Dickens. 

FRANK    STONE,    A.R.A. 

Early  Career— Intimacy  with  Dickens— Illustrations  for  "The  Haunted  Man"— Selects  his 
Own  Subjects— A  Letter  from  Dickens— His  Approbation  of  the  Drawing  of"  Milly  and 
the  Old  Man"— Hints  from  the  Novelist  to  the  Artist— Amateur  Theatricals- Frank 
Stone's  Portrait  of  Lieutenant  Sydney  Dickens — His  Election  as  Associate  of  the  Royal 
Academy — His  Portraits  of  'Tilda  Price,  Kate  Nickleby,  and  Madeline  Bray— His  Fron- 
tispiece for  the  First  Cheap  Edition  of  "  Martin  Chuizlewit  "—Sudden  Death. 

FRANK  STONE,  A.R.A,,  father  of  Mr.  Marcus  Stone,  R.A., 
was  privileged  to  join  the  ranks  of  Dickens  Illustrators.  This 
distinguished  artist,  born  in  1800,  was  the  son  of  a  Manchester 
cotton-spinner,  which  business  he  also  followed  until  twenty-four  years 
of  age,  when  he  abandoned  mercantile  pursuits  in  favour  of  Art 
During  the  early  portion  of  his  professional  career,  which  was  begpjn  in 
London  under  very  modest  and  unassuming  conditions,  he  made  pencil- 
drawings  for  Heath's  "  Book  of  Beauty,"  and  presently  became  suc- 
cessful as  a  painter  in  water-colours.  His  engaging  personality  and 
innate  abilities  caused  him  to  be  welcomed  in  both  literary  and 
artistic  circles,  and  in  this  way  he  secured  the  warm  friendship  of 
Dickens,  Thackeray,  and  other  celebrities  of  the  day. 


Frank  Stone's  intimacy  with  Charles  Dickens  was  especially  close. 

,     ^"   1845  the  artist,  with  his  family,  went  to  reside 

The  Haunted    •t--,,tt  t^-^ic 

--        op  m   Tavistock   House,    lavistock  Square,   remammg 

there  until  1851,  when  it  became  the  home  of  Dickens. 

In  the  interval  the  novelist's  fourth  Christmas  Book,  "The  Haunted 

Man,"  was  published,  for  which  Frank  Stone  prepared  three  designs, 

representing  respectively   "Milly  and   the  Old   Man,"   "Milly  and 

the  Student,"  and  "  Milly  and  the  Children."     As  indicated  by  the 

following  letter  (dated  November  21,  1848),  the  novelist  dispatched 



proofs  of  the  letterpress  to  the  artist,  in  order  that  he  might  select 
his  own  subjects  : — 

"My  Dear  Stone, — I  send  herewith  the  second  part  of  the  book, 
which  I  hope  may  interest  you.  If  you  should  prefer  to  have  it  read 
to  you  by  the  Inimitable  rather  than  to  read  it,  I  shall  be  at  home 
this  evening  (loin  of  mutton  at  half-past  five),  and  happy  to  do  it. 
The  proofs  are  full  of  printer's  errors,  but,  with  the  few  corrections 
I  have  scrawled  upon  it,  you  will  be  able  to  make  out  what 
they  mean. 

"  I  send  you  on  the  opposite  side  a  list  of  the  subjects  already  in 
hand  from  the  second  part.  If  you  should  see  no  other  in  it  that 
you  like  (I  think  it  important  that  you  should  keep  Milly,  as  you 
have  begun  with  her),  I  will  in  a  day  or  two  describe  you  an  un- 
written subject  for  the  third  part  of  the  book." 

"Subjects  in  hand  for  the  Second  Part. 

1.  Illuminated  page.     Tenniel.     Representing  Redlaw  going  up- 

stairs, and  the  Tetterby  family  below. 

2.  The  Tetterby  Supper.     Leech. 

3.  The  boy  in  Redlaw 's  room,  munching  his  food  and  staring  at 

the  fire." 

A  preliminary  sketch  (in  pencil  and  indian-ink)  for  the  first  subject 
was  immediately  submitted  to  the  novelist  for  approval,  and  elicited 
the  following  reply  : — 

"  We  are  unanimous. 

"The  drawing  of  Milly  on  the  chair  is  charming.  I  cannot  tell 
you  how  much  the  little  composition  and  expression  please  me.  Do 
that,  by  all  means. 

"  I  fear  she  must  have  a  little  cap  on.  There  is  something  coming 
in  the  last  part  about  her  having  had  a  dead  child,  which  makes  it 
yet  more  desirable  than  the  existing  text  does  that  she  should  have 

Plate  LI  I 


FacHmiU  of  Ihe  Original  Drawing  for  "  The  Haunted  Man  "  by 

Ltnt  by  Mr.  Marcus  Stout,  K.  A. 

1 1  - » '^-  -  —5-  S» 


FRANK    STONE,   A.R.A.  177 

that  little  matronly  sign  about  her.  Unless  the  artist  is  obdurate 
indeed,  and  then  he'll  do  as  he  likes. 

"  I  am  delighted  to  hear  that  you  have  your  eye  on  her  in  the 
students'  room.  You  will  really,  pictorially,  make  the  little  woman 
whom  I  love.  ..." 

The  original  sketch  of  Milly  on  the  chair  has  fortunately  been 
preserved,  and  has  been  kindly  lent  for  reproduction  by  Mr.  Marcus 
Stone,  R.  A.  The  drawing  of  the  old  man  in  the  published  engraving 
is  hardly  so  satisfactory  as  the  delineation  of  him  in  the  sketch.  The 
second  illustration,  "  Milly  and  the  Student,"  was  duly  executed  ;  it 
is  a  very  graceful  design,  the  pose  of  the  male  figure  being  excellently 
rendered.  Respecting  the  third  illustration,  the  novelist  communicated 
to  the  artist  the  following  facts,  to  assist  him  in  realising  the  principal 
theme  : — 

"  There  is  a  subject  I  have  written  to-day  for  the  third  part,  that 
I  think  and  hope  will  just  suit  you.  Scene — Tetterby's.  Time- 
morning.  The  power  of  bringing  back  people's  memories  of  sorrow, 
wrong,  and  trouble  has  been  given  by  the  ghost  to  Milly,  though  she 
don't  know  it  herself.  As  she  comes  along  the  street,  Mr.  and  Mrs. 
Tetterby  recover  themselves  and  are  mutually  affectionate  again,  and 
embrace,  closing  rather  a  good  scene  of  quarrel  and  discontent.  The 
moment  they  do  so,  Johnny  (who  has  seen  her  in  the  distance  and 
announced  her  before,  from  which  moment  they  begin  to  recover) 
cries  'Here  she  is! 'and  she  comes  in,  surrounded  by  the  little 
Tetterbys,  the  very  spirit  of  morning,  gladness,  innocence,  hope,  love, 
domesticity,  &c.  &c.  &c.  &c. 

"  I  would  limit  the  illustration  to  her  and  the  children,  which  will 
make  a  fitness  between  it  and  your  other  illustrations,  and  give  them 
all  a  character  of  their  own.  The  exact  words  of  the  passage  I 
enclose  on  another  slip  of  paper.  Note :  There  are  six  boy 
Tetterbys  present  (young  'Dolphus  is  not  there),  including  Johnny ; 
and  in  Johnny's  arms  is  Mulock,  the  baby,  who  is  a  girl.  .  .  .  Don't  wait 
to  send  me  the  drawing  of  this.     I  know  how  pretty  she  will  be  with 


the  children  in  your  hands,  and  should  be  a  stupendous  jackass  if  I 
had  any  distrust  of  it.  .  .  ." 

{Slip  of  paper  eficlosed.) 

"  '  Hurrah !  here's  Mrs.  Williams  ! '  cried  Johnny. 

"  So  she  was,  and  all  the  Tetterby  children  with  her ;  and  as  she 
came  in,  they  kissed  her  and  kissed  one  another,  and  kissed  the 
baby,  and  kissed  their  father  and  mother,  and  then  ran  back  and 
flocked  and  danced  about  her,  trooping  on  with  her  in  triumph. 

"(After  which  she  is  going  to  say,  'What,  zr^  you  all  glad  to 
see  me  too !  Oh,  how  happy  it  makes  me  to  find  every  one  so  glad 
to  see  me  this  bright  morning ! ')  " 

The  amateur  theatricals  brought  author  and  artist  constantly 
together,  Frank  Stone  being  an  actor  of  some  ability.  The  im- 
mortal Mrs.  Gamp,  in  describing  the  members  of  that  famous 
company  of  players,  alludes  to  Frank  Stone  as  "a  fine-looking  portly 
gentleman,  with  a  face  like  an  amiable  full  moon."  He  became  the 
recipient  of  many  nicknames,  that  of  "Pump"  (or  "Pumpion")  being 
one  by  which  Dickens  sometimes  addressed  him,  and  it  was  both 
pleasantly  intended  and  jocularly  received.  In  1849  the  artist  painted 
the  portrait  of  the  novelist's  fifth  son.  Lieutenant  Sydney  Dickens,  who 
was  buried  at  sea  in  1872,  his  death  being  due  to  a  sharp  attack 
of  bronchitis  when  on  his  way  home. 

Frank  Stone  exhibited  at  the  Society  of  Painters  in  Water- 
Colours  from  1833  to  1846,  and  was  elected  a  member  of  that 
Society  in  1842.  He  first  exhibited  at  the  Royal  Academy  in 
1838,  his  election  as  an  Associate  taking  place  in  185 1.  The 
artist,  on  receiving  a  commission  from  Dickens  for  a  picture, 
painted  a  presentment  of  "'Tilda  Price,"  the  yfaw^/ig  of  the  genial 
John  Browdie  in  "  Nicholas  Nickleby,"  the  picture  realising  the 
sum  of  ;^42  at  the  sale  of  the  novelist's  effects  in  1870.  This  and 
^wo   other    paintings    by   Stone    (portraits    of    Kate    Nickleby   and 

FRANK    STONE,   A.R.A.  179 

Madeline  Bray)  were  engraved  on  steel  by  Finden,  and  published 
("with  the  approbation  of  Charles  Dickens")  by  Chapman  &  Hall 
in  1848;  the  plates  were  intended  for  insertion  in  the  first  cheap 
edition  of  "Nicholas  Nickleby."  Besides  his  illustrations  for  "The 
Haunted  Man,"  he  also  designed  the  frontispiece  for  the  first  cheap 
edition  of  "Martin  Chuzzlewit"  (1849),  which  depicts  Mark  Tapley 
on  the  sick  -  bed ;  this  drawing  was  engraved  on  wood  by  T. 

The  sudden  death  of  Frank  Stone  in  1859  caused  Dickens 
heartfelt  sorrow.  "You  will  be  grieved,"  he  wrote  to  Forster  on 
November  19,  "to  hear  of  poor  Stone.  On  Sunday  he  was  not 
well.  On  Monday  went  to  Dr.  Todd,  who  told  him  he  had 
aneurism  of  the  heart.  On  Tuesday  went  to  Dr.  Walsh,  who  told 
him  he  hadn't.  On  Wednesday  I  met  him  in  a  cab  in  the  Square 
here  [Tavistock  Square],  and  he  got  out  to  talk  to  me.  I  walked 
about  with  him  a  little  while  at  a  snail's  pace,  cheering  him  up; 
but  when  I  came  home,  I  told  them  that  I  thought  him  much 
changed,  and  in  danger.  Yesterday  at  two  o'clock  he  died  of 
spasm  of  the  heart.  I  am  going  up  to  Highgate  to  look  for  a 
grave  for  him." 


First  Acquaintance  with  Dickens— Designs  an  Illustration  for  "The  Cricket  on  the 
Hearth"— Elected  a  Royal  Academician— Receives  the  Honour  of  Knighthood — 
Declines  the  Presidency  of  the  Royal  Academy— Severe  Illness  and  Death. 

CHARLES  DICKENS  first  became  acquainted  with  Sir 
Edwin  Henry  Landseer  during  the  "Nickleby"  period,  and 
ever  entertained  the  highest  admiration  and  personal  regard 
for  this  famous  artist,  to  whom  Thackeray  once  referred  as  "a  sort  of 
aristocrat  among  painters."  Sir  Edwin  was  an  artist  by  hereditary 
right  and  family  instinct,  being  the  eldest  son  of  the  well-known 
engraver,  John  Landseer,  A. R.A.  He  was  born  in  London  in  1802, 
and  at  the  age  of  thirteen  exhibited  two  pictures  at  the  Royal 
Academy,  thus  proving  that  he  possessed  most  exceptional  powers 
as  a  draughtsman  even  at  this  early  period. 

It  is  perhaps  not  generally  remembered  that  Sir  Edwin  Landseer 

has  a  just  claim  to  be  numbered  among  the  lllus- 

t.  trators  of  Dickens.      Though  he  made  but  a  single 

TT      4.t,     o  A     design,  it  is  indubitably  a  masterpiece,  and  suffices  to 

indicate   the   admirable   skill   acquired  by  this  great 

painter  in  depicting  what  may  be  considered  his  favourite  subject — 

the  dog.     The  charming  little  woodcut  of  "  Boxer" — the  irrepressible 

companion  of  John  Peerybingle,  in  "The  Cricket  on  the  Hearth" — 

defies  criticism. 

In  1825,  Sir  Edwin  (then  Mr.)  Landseer  was  elected  an  Associate 
of  the  Royal  Academy,  and  five  years  later  he  attained  the  full 
honours,  from  which  date  might  be  chronicled  a  long  and  regular 
patalogue  of  pictures  exhibited  by  him,  year  by  year,  either  at  the 



Platk  LI 1 1 

SIR    JOHN    TENNIEL,    R.I. 

From  a  Photograph  by 

Messrs.    BASSANO 

Lent  ty  Ikt  Artiil. 


From  the  Painting  by 

The  dog's  head  was  added  by  Sir  Edwin  himself. 

»n  «i8 

^(^^u^   /c^cyCt^tJC^  . 


SIR    EDWIN    LANDSEER,    R.A.  i8i 

British  Institution  or  on  tlie  walls  of  the  Royal  Academy.  In  1850  he 
received  the  honour  of  Knighthood,  and,  at  the  death  of  Sir  Charles 
Eastlake  in  1865,  was  offered  the  Presidency  of  the  Royal  Academy,— 
a  distinction  which  he  could  not  be  induced  to  accept.  In  1871  a 
severe  illness  paralysed  his  powerful  pencil ;  from  this  illness  the  artist 
never  recovered,  and  two  years  later  the  mournful  intelligence  of 
his  death  was  announced,  his  mortal  remains  being  interred  in  Sl 
Paul's  Cathedral.  In  private  life  Sir  Edwin  was  one  of  the  most  kind 
and  courteous  of  men  and  warmest  of  friends, — qualities  of  mind  and 
heart  which  endeared  him  to  all  with  whom  he  came  in  contact. 


A  Self-taught  Artist — Exhibits  at  the  British  Institution  and  the  Royal  Academy — Marriage 
with  John  Linnell's  Daughter— Visits  Italy— His  Sketches  of  Italian  Scenery— Elected  an 
Associate,  and  afterwards  a  Member,  of  the  Society  of  Painters  in  Water-Colours — An 
Etcher  and  Draughtsman  on  Wood— His  Designs  for  "Pictures  from  Italy"— A 
Letter  from  Dickens— The  Artist's  Method  of  Work— The  Villa  D'Este— His  Drawings 
Difficult  to  Reproduce — Elaborate  Instructions  to  Engravers — Literature  a  Favourite 
Amusement — Fondness  for  Reading  Aloud — Admires  the  Novels  of  Dickens — Illness 
and  Death. 

DURING  Charles  Dickens's  very  brief  connection  with  the 
Daily  News,  at  the  time  of  its  foundation  in  1846,  he  con- 
tributed to  its  columns  a  series  of  "Travelling  Sketches," 
descriptive  of  his  experiences  in  Italy,  and  of  his  impressions  con- 
cerning the  scenery,  institutions,  and  social  aspects  of  the  people  in 
that  beautiful  country.  Shortly  after  the  publication  of  the  conclud- 
ing paper,  these  "  Sketches  "  were  re-issued  in  book  form,  under  the 
title  of  "  Pictures  from  Italy,"  with  vignette  illustrations  on  wood  by 
Samuel  Palmer. 

Samuel  Palmer,  who  was  born  in  Newington,  London,  in  1805, 
was  to  a  great  extent  a  self-taught  artist,  his  first  successes  dating 
from  his  fourteenth  year,  when  he  was  represented  by  two  pictures 
at  the  British  Institution  and  three  at  the  Royal  Academy,  his  work 
from  that  time  being  frequently  seen  at  one  or  the  other  gallery. 
In  1837  (that  is,  while  "Pickwick"  was  in  course  of  publication)  he 
married  the  eldest  daughter  of  John  Linnell,  the  famous  portrait  and 
landscape  painter,  leaving  England  soon  afterwards  with  his  young 
wife  for  Italy.  Here  they  stayed  two  years — years  of  such  persistent 
and  enthusiastic  study  that  the  sketches  and  elaborate  drawings  of 

some  of  the  finest  Italian  scenery  which  the  artist  brought  back,  very 


Plate  LIV 
f.    w.    topham 

From  a  Photograph  by 
Messrs.    ELLIOTT   &    FRY 

Lent  fy  Mr.  F.  W.  W.  Tofham. 


From  a  J*hotograph 

Lent  by  Mr.  A.  H.  Palmer. 


r     I  /^,D. 


*    1 



numerous  though  they  were,  are  no  measure  of  the  influence  which 
the  sojourn  in  the  land  of  his  favourite  poet,  Virgil,  had  upon  his 
after-life  and  upon  his  artistic  labours. 

Samuel  Palmer  is  chiefly  remembered  by  his  charming  water- 
colour  drawings,  but  it  seems  that  in  his  early  years  he  preferred 
painting  in  oils,  whence  he  afterwards  gradually  drifted  into  the 
use  of  the  former  medium,  his  election  as  Associate  of  the  Society 
of  Painters  in  Water-Colours  in  1 843  *  determining  his  future  career. 
He  was  a  most  successful  etcher,  his  plates  being  admired  by  the  con- 
noisseur for  the  beauty  of  technique  therein  displayed.  Concerning  his 
efforts  with  the  needle,  Mr.  P.  G.  Hamerton  says  that  Samuel  Palmer 
was  one  of  the  most  accomplished  etchers  who  ever  lived,  and  that 
"  there  is  more  feeling,  and  insight,  and  knowledge  in  one  twig  drawn 
by  his  hand  than  in  the  life's  production  of  many  a  well-known  artist"  * 
It  must  be  admitted,  however,  that  the  occasional  drawings  executed 
by  him  for  the  wood-engraver  do  not  indicate  equal  ability  as  a 
draughtsman  on  wood.  In  early  days  he  actually  attempted,  in 
emulation  of  his  intimate  friend  Edward  Calvert,  to  engrave  upon 
wood  some  of  his  own  designs,  this  fact  testifying  to  the  extraordinary 
influence  exercised  by  William  Blake  over  the  contemporary  work  of 
such  young  artists  as  Palmer,  Calvert,  and  the  rest  of  the  "  Ancients," 
as  they  jocosely  dubbed  themselves. 

The  first  drawings  executed  upon  the  wood-block  by  Palmer  and 
intended  as    book-illustrations  were  apparently  the 
J    .       P  .  designs  for  "  Pictures  from  Italy  ;  "  these  are  four  in 

number,  representing  the  Street  of  the  Tombs,  Pompeii ; 
the  Villa  D'Este  at  Tivoli,  from  the  Cypress  Avenue ;  the  Colosseum 
of  Rome ;  and  a  Vineyard  Scene.  One  of  the  artist's  memorandum- 
books  contains  an  entry  recording  the  receipt  from  the  publishers 
of  twenty  guineas  for  these  drawings.     Samuel  Palmer  and  Charles 

>  Palmer  was  elected  a  Member  of  this  Society  in  1854. 
'  "Etching  and  Etchers,"  3rd  edition,  1880. 


Dickens  were  never  on  terms  of  intimacy ;  however  the  acquaintance 
originated  has  never  transpired,  nor  does  the  artist's  son,  Mr.  A.  H. 
Palmer,  remember  his  father  ever  referring  to  the  subject.  It  is  pro- 
bable that  the  novelist's  attention  had  been  directed  to  Palmer's 
excellent  rendering  of  Italian  scenery,  which  had  attracted  consider- 
able notice  among  artists,  and  that,  having  met  him,  he  found  a 
degree  of  warm  enthusiasm  for  that  scenery  which  was  so  unusual, 
that  he  felt  convinced  that  the  illustrating  of  the  "  Pictures"  could  not 
be  placed  in  better  hands.  Palmer  accepted  the  commission,  but, 
like  all  his  drawings  that  were  destined  to  be  engraved  on  wood,  it 
somewhat  perplexed  him,  for  reasons  presently  to  be  explained.  A 
correspondence  of  a  formal  business  character  ensued,  and  of  the 
few  letters  still  extant  I  am  enabled  to  print  the  following,  which 
endorses  the  belief  that  an  interview  had  taken  place  between  author 
and  artist. 

"  Devonshire  Terrace, 
Wednesday,  Thirteenth  May,  1846. 

"Dear  Sir, — I  beg  to  assure  you  that  I  would  on  no  account 
dream  of  allowing  the  book  to  go  to  press  without  the  insertion  of 
your  name  in  the  title-page.     I  placed  it  there  myself,  two  days  ago. 

"  I  have  not  seen  the  designs,  but  I  have  no  doubt  whatever  (re- 
membering your  sketches)  that  they  are  very  good. 

Dear  sir,  faithfully  yours,  ^  Charles  Dickens. 

"  Samuel  Palmer,  Esq." 

Two  of  the  woodcuts,  viz.,  those  printed  on  the  first  and  last  pages 
of  the  little  book,  were  designed  to  allow  the  text  to  be  dropped  in. 
Sketches  (or  rather  finished  drawings)  were  made  on  paper  before 
the  subjects  were  copied  by  the  artist  upon  the  wood-blocks,  which 
drawings,  by  the  way,  are  much  inferior  to  the  artist's  water-colours 
of  the  same  or  similar  subjects.  It  seems  evident,  from  the  word 
"  On  "  being  tentatively  introduced  at  the  top  of  the  original  sketch  of 
the  Villa  D'Este,  that  this  illustration  was  at  first  intended  to  be 


placed  at  the  beginning  of  the  chapter  entitled  "Going  through 
France,"  instead  of  appearing  (as  it  eventually  did)  in  conjunction 
with  the  opening  lines  of  the  preliminary  chapter,—"  The  Reader's 
Passport."  It  was  apparently  Palmer's  proposal  to  insert  on  the 
block  a  decorative  letter  "S,"  but  Dickens,  in  a  letter  to  the  artist, 
says,  "  I  am  afraid  I  cannot  comfortably  manage  an  S.  What  do 
you  say  to  the  word  'On'?    Could  you  possibly  do  that?" 

With  regard  to  the  treatment  of  these  illustrations,  there  is  no 
doubt  that  they  are  faithful  representations  of  Nature,  adapted  from 
sketches  made  on  the  spot.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  it  was  directly  con- 
trary to  the  artist's  habit  and  principles  to  transcribe  a  sketch  detail 
for  detail.  Although  the  character  of  his  drawing  was  somewhat 
involved,  rendering  more  difficult  the  work  of  the  engfraver,  the 
woodcuts  (which  bear  no  signature)  are  most  carefully  executed. 
Notwithstanding  this,  Mr.  A.  H.  Palmer  assures  me  that  these 
designs,  and  the  rendering  of  them  by  the  wood-engraver,  were 
not  of  a  kind  to  which  the  artist  could  look  back  with  much 

Mr.  A.  H.  Palmer  still  retains  in  his  possession  a  drawing  on 
wood  by  his  father  of  the  Villa  D'Este,  the  second  illustration  in 
"  Pictures  from  Italy,"  which  was  apparently  discarded  because  the 
artist  had  omitted  to  reverse  his  design,  and  therefore  could  not  be 
properly  adapted  to  the  particular  page  for  which  it  was  pre- 
pared. Those  who  are  familiar  with  the  freedom  and  vigour  of 
Samuel  Palmer's  work  from  Nature  will  realise  at  a  glance  that 
he  was  not  at  his  ease  upon  wood.  In  the  margin  of  this  draw- 
ing the  artist  pencilled  the  following  instructions  to  the  engraver, 
who  had  not  entirely  succeeded  in  producing  the  more  subtle 
effects : — 

"  I  wish  the  thin  cypress  to  be  very  much  as  it  appears  upon  the 
block — not  lighter.  Now  that  the  trees  have  been  darkened,  it  will  be 
necessary  to  leave  the  lines  of  the  building  guiie  as  thick  as  they  are 
drawn,   letting   them  gradually  gain  more  strength  as  they   come 


downwards  towards  the  steps.  The  degree  of  sharpness  with 
which  the  drawing  terminates  toward  the  letterpress  is  just  what  I 

From  this  and  the  following  notes,  minutely  written  upon  the  two 
retouched  proofs  of  the  engraving  of  this  subject,  we  discover  how 
very  much  too  sanguine  the  artist  was  as  to  the  result  of  the  trans- 
lation of  his  work,  the  voluminous  directions  clearly  indicating  his 
solicitude  respecting  the  treatment  of  microscopic  details  in  his  de- 
sign, the  alleged  importance  of  which  would  be  quite  beyond  the 
comprehension  of  an  ordinary  engraver.  Palmer  subsequently  learnt 
by  experience  that  his  drawing  on  wood  was  practically  untranslat- 
able as  he  preferred  to  offer  it  for  engraving. 

MS.  Notes  on  tJu  First  Proof. 

"  (i.)  In  both  proofs  the  top  of  the  cypress  is  very  indistinct,  which 
greatly  injures  the  design. 

"^.)  From  A  to  B  the  illuminated  side  of  the  cypress  has  lost  its 
tint  in  both  impressions,  which  is  ruinous  to  the  effect,  as  the  eye 
can  no  longer  follow  it  as  a  simple  object  distinct  from  the  building 
from  the  top  to  the  bottom  of  the  design.  The  top  of  the  building, 
too,  in  both  impressions,  is  nearly  invisible,  as  if  the  inking  had 
failed.  It  is  very  important  that  this  should  be  rectified,  so  as  not 
to  appear  in  the  printing  of  the  work,  as  otherwise  it  will  spoil  the 
whole  work.  I  have  worked  upon  building  and  cypress  a  little  in 
pencil  to  show  how  they  ought  to  have  come  even  in  a  faint 

"(3.)  Opposite  this  mark  the  light  on  the  cypress  stems  has  been 
carried  down  a  little  lower,  and  two  or  three  fine  threads  of  light 
have  been  introduced  into  the  shadowed  side  (which  are  intended  to 
be  scarcely  perceptible)  to  remove  a  blottiness  in  the  dark. 

"  (4.)  The  touches  on  the  steps,  the  statue,  and  the  whole  of  the 
lower  part  of  the  trees  and  ground,  though  not  very  numerous,  are 
very  important  to  the  finish  of  the  foreground. 

Plate  LV 


facsimile  of  an  Original  Design  for  "  Pictures  from  Italy  '  by 

Unlby  Afr.  A    H.  Palmtr. 



"(5.)  The  darkest  lines  in  the  great  vase  have  been  thinned  in  the 
slightest  degree. 

"(6.)  Close  to  C  the  thickness  of  a  black  line  on  the  edge  of  the 
cypress  has  been  split. 

"(7.)  From  E  down  to  F  a  minute  speck  of  light  has  here  and 
there  been  inserted  on  the  outline  of  the  cypress  foliage  to  split  some 
blots  of  dark  which  will  be  seen  on  the  untouched  proofs,  and  which 
were  rather  harsh. 

"  (8.)  The  light  flashing  on  the  steps  ought  to  make  thinner  without 
removing  the  outline  of  the  arm  of  the  statue.  The  foot  resting  upon 
the  pedestal  should  be  indicated.  The  action  of  the  other  leg  thrown 
back  is  shown  in  the  retouching  by  the  removal  of  the  black  line. 

"  (9.)  The  getting  the  upper  part  of  the  slender  cypress  of  as  full 
a  tint  as  I  have  given  it  here  seems  to  me  so  important  that  if  it  can 
be  done  in  no  other  way,  I  think  a  piece  should  be  inserted  into  the 
block  to  effect  it.  In  the  drawing  on  the  block  it  was  like  this,  which 
I  have  retouched  with  pencil." 

Second  Proof. 

"(i.)  Opposite  are  a  few  touches  on  the  slender  cypress — two  very 
thin  lines  of  light  on  the  stem.     Specks  of  light  on  the  foliage. 

"(2.)  There  is  a  thick  black  line  on  the  block,  thus)  which  I  have 
here  crossed  with  specks  of  white ;  although  it  is  in  the  body  of  the 
tree,  it  kills  the  fine  work  on  the  Villa. 

"  (3.)  The  thickness  of  outline  on  the  light  side  of  this  vase  un- 
finishes  the  foreground.     I  have  altered  it. 

"  (4.)  The  thick  outline  on  this  leaf  unfinishes  everything  about  it." 

Thus  we  discover  how  fastidious  to  a  degree  was  the  artist  in  his 
desire  that  every  subtle  touch  of  his  poetic  pencil  should  be  repro- 
duced— a  result  which,  as  he  quickly  perceived,  it  was  impossible 
to  achieve. 

Samuel  Palmer  took  a  still  keener  delight  in  Literature  than  he  did 


in  Art.  An  insatiable  but  punctilious  reader,  the  novels  of  Dickens 
and  Scott  were  among  the  very  few  works  of  fiction  which  he  read 
aloud  to  members  of  his  own  household.  Mr.  A.  H.  Palmer  informs 
me  that  he  has  known  his  father  to  be  so  engrossed  by  reading  aloud 
one  of  Dickens's  finer  and  more  exciting  passages,  that  the  announce- 
ment and  entry  of  a  visitor  served  to  stop  the  reading  only  for  a  few 
moments ;  the  crisis  past,  he  laid  down  the  book  and  apologised. 
Literature,  indeed,  constituted  the  chief  pleasure  of  his  simple  life — 
a  life  that,  at  one  period  at  least,  would  have  been  almost  insupport- 
able without  the  consolation  afforded  by  books.  Early  in  May,  1881, 
he  became,  alas !  too  ill  to  work,  and  on  the  twenty-fourth  of  that 
month  he  passed  peacefully  away,  leaving  behind  him  a  reputation 
which  is  blameless. 

F.    W.    TOPHAM 

Illustrations  for  "  A  CHILD'S  HISTORY  OF  ENGLAND  "—Begins  Life  as  a  Writing- Engraver- 
Designs  for  Books— Exhibits  at  the  Royal  Academy — Elected  an  Associate  of  the  New 
Society  of  Painters — Retires  from  the  Society — Elected  a  Member  of  the  Old  Society  of 
Painters  in  Water-Colours — First  Visit  to  Spain— Fatal  Illness — Some  Pictures  Inspired 
by  Dickens's  Stories — Histrionic  Ability — The  Artist  as  a  Juggler. 

DURING  the  years  1851-52-53,  there  appeared  in  the  pages 
of  Household  Words  one  of  Charles  Dickens's  less  familiar 
writings,  "A   Child's    History  of  England."      On  its   com- 
pletion as  a  serial,  the  little  work  was  issued  in  three  i6mo  volumes, 
each  containing  a  frontispiece  by  F.  W,  Topham.      These  illustra- 
A  Child's  tions  were  engraved  on  wood,   each  consisting  of  a 

History  of        circular  design,  printed  in  black,  and  surrounded  by 
England,  an  ornraaental   border  of  a  light   mauve   colour,  the 

1852-53-54.  latter  enclosing  familiar  scenes  from  English  History, 
viz.,  Alfred  in  the  Neatherd's  Cot ;  Canute  reproving  his  Courtiers ; 
Edwy  and  Elgiva ;  Eleanor  and  Fair  Rosamond.  The  decorative 
border  with  its  four  tableaux  remained  unchanged,  but  the  subject  of 
the  central  illustration  varied,  that  in  the  first  volume  depicting  a  girl 
reading  to  two  children  ;  in  the  second,  Alfred  the  Great  receiving 
instruction  in  reading  from  his  mother.  Queen  Osburgha ;  while  in  the 
third  there  is  a  more  modern  representation  of  a  similar  incident. 

Francis  William  Topham,  who  was  born  at  Leeds  in  1808,  enjoyed 
the  privilege  of  being  numbered  among  the  personal  friends  of  Charles 
Dickens.  He  entered  professional  life  as  a  writing-engraver,  and  his 
first  design  was  for  a  label  required  by  a  well-known  firm  of  pin 
manufacturers.  From  this  modest  beginning  he  advanced  to  more 
artistic  work,  and  was  soon  busily  engaged  in  engraving  plates  for 


pocket-books,  &c.  During  the  several  years  he  was  thus  occupied  he 
engraved  many  original  designs  for  book-illustrations,  and  in  1832 
began  to  exhibit  pictures ;  his  works  after  this  date  being  frequently 
seen  at  the  Royal  Academy  and  other  London  galleries.  In  1842  he 
was  elected  an  Associate  of  the  New  Society  of  Painters  in  Water- 
Colours,  of  which  body  he  became  a  full  member  in  the  following  year. 
He,  with  several  other  members,  left  the  New  Society  after  a  com- 
paratively short  time,  and  was  immediately  elected  into  the  Old  Society 
of  Painters  in  Water-Colours — the  present  Royal  Water-Colour  Society 
— to  the  Exhibitions  of  which  the  majority  of  his  more  important  pro- 
ductions were  contributed.  It  was  in  Spain,  whither  he  first  went  in 
1852-53,  that  he  found  subjects  most  congenial  to  his  tastes,  and  there, 
in  that  land  of  sunny  skies,  he  was  seized  with  a  fatal  illness  in  1877, 
expiring  at  Cordova  on  March  31st  of  that  year. 

Topham  was  a  great  admirer  of  the  works  of  Charles  Dickens,  and 
selected  from  them  the  subjects  of  some  of  his  most  successful  pictures. 
One  of  these — a  water-colour  drawing  executed  in  185 1 — illustrates  a 
scene  in  "  Barnaby  Rudge,"  where  children  flock  round  the  half-witted 
hero  as  he  and  his  mother  pass  through  her  native  village ;  the 
drawing  was  presented  by  the  artist  to  Dickens,  and  realised  at  the 
sale  of  the  novelist's  effects  the  sum  of  ;^ii5,  los.  This  picture  was 
followed  by  another  from  "  The  Old  Curiosity  Shop,"  representing 
Little  Nell  and  her  Grandfather  in  the  tent,  making  bouquets  for  the 
racecourse,  which  was  also  a  gift  to  Dickens,  being  subsequently  dis- 
posed of  at  the  above-mentioned  sale  for  ;^288,  15s.  It  is  also  recorded 
that  the  artist,  in  1856,  produced  a  drawing  portraying  "Little  Nell  in 
the  Churchyard,"  which  some  five  years  after  the  novelist's  death  found 
a  purchaser  for  ;^325,  los. 

F.  W.  Topham  proved  a  welcome  addition  to  Dickens's  company 
of  distinguished  amateur  actors,  and  concerning  his  histrionic  ability 
the  artist's  son,  Mr.  Frank  W.  W.  Topham  (himself  an  eminent  painter), 
thus  writes :  "  My  father  had,  from  quite  a  young  man,  a  great  love  of 
acting,  at  which  he  was  considered  unusually  good.    One  of  my  earliest 

F.  W.  TOPHAM  191 

recollections  of  a  play  was  one  acted  at  the  St.  James's  Theatre,  in 
which  my  father,  Sir  John  Tenniel,  the  late  Francis  Holl,  A.R.A. 
(the  engraver),  and  others  took  part,  for  the  benefit  of  the  Artists' 
Benevolent  Fund.  I  do  not  know  if  my  father  owed  his  introduction 
to  Dickens  to  his  acting,  but  have  an  impression  that  he  did, — certainly 
it  was  the  cause  of  their  after  intimacy." 

Apropos  of  their  "splendid  strolling,"  and  the  fun  incidental 
thereto,  Dickens  observed  to  his  wife,  in  a  letter  dated  from  Clifton, 
November  13,  185 1  :  "I  forgot  to  say  that  Topham  has  suddenly 
come  out  as  a  juggler,  and  swallows  candles,  and  does  wonderful  things 
with  the  poker  very  well  indeed,  but  with  a  bashfulness  and  embarrass- 
ment extraordinarily  ludicrous." 


The  Artist's  Boyish  Admiration  of  Dickens's  Stories — His  Delineation  of  Jo,  the  Crossing- 
Sweeper — A  Present  and  a  Letter  from  Dickens — First  Success  as  a  Painter — Death 
of  his  Father — Desires  to  Become  an  Illustrator  of  Books — Befriended  by  Dickens — 
Initial  Attempt  at  Drawing  upon  Wood — Frontispiece  for  the  First  Cheap  Edition  of 
"Little  Dorrit" — The  Artist's  Dibut  as  a  Black-and- White  Draughtsman — His  Designs 
for  "Our  Mutual  Friend" — The  Pictorial  Wrapper— Suggestions  from  Dickens- 
Portrait  of  Silas  Wegg — Preliminary  Sketches  for  the  Illustrations — Valuable  Hints  for 
the  Artist — Realism  in  his  Designs — The  Prototype  of  Mr.  Venus— Photography  upon 
Wood — Defective  Engraving — Sale  of  the  Original  Sketches — Illustrations  for  Cheap 
Editions — Relinquishes  Black-and-White  Drawing — Elected  a  Royal  Academician — 
Popularity  of  his  Pictures — Intimacy  with  Dickens — Private  Theatricals. 

IT  will  be  remembered  that  "A  Tale  of  Two  Cities,"  the  last  of 
Dickens's  novels  containing  Hablot  Browne's  designs,  was  suc- 
ceeded by  "Our  Mutual  Friend,"  the  initial  number  of  which 
appeared  on  May  i,  1864.  In  this  story  Dickens  repeated  an  early 
experience  in  having  woodcut  illustrations  instead  of  the  customary 
etchings,  availing  himself  of  the  services  of  an  artist  whose  style  and 
method  of  work  differed  very  considerably  from  those  of  "  Phiz."  The 
new  recruit  was  Mr.  Marcus  Stone,  who  now  holds  high  rank  among 
Royal  Academicians. 

As  the  son  of  the  novelist's  cherished  friend,  Frank  Stone,  A.R.A., 
who  partly  illustrated  "The  Haunted  Man,"  Mr.  Marcus  Stone  was 
brought  by  force  of  circumstances  into  early  communication  with  the 
author  of  "Pickwick."  Born  in  1840,  he  soon  indicated  by  his 
penchant  for  Art  that  he  inherited  his  father's  talent,  becoming  in 
course  of  time  a  painter  even  more  distinguished  ;  for  Frank  Stone  did 
not  live  to  attain  full  honours  of  the  Royal  Academy.  Mr.  Marcus 
Stone  proudly  confesses  that,  even  as  a  mere  lad,  Charles  Dickens's 

romances  proved  most  fascinating  to  him,  and  he  recalls  an  interesting 


Plate  LVI 


From  a  Photograph  speciiiUy  taken  for  this  Work  by 


MARCUS    STONE,    R.A.  193 

incident  as  evidence  of  this  influence.  When,  in  1852-53,  the 
dramatic  story  of  "Bleak  House"  appeared  in  serial  form,  he  eagerly 
read  each  number  as  it  came  out,  and  was  much  attracted  by  the 
novelist's  rendering  of  Jo,  the  crossing-sweeper,  being  quick  to  per- 
ceive the  artistic  capabilities  of  the  scenes  in  which  that  pathetic 
character  is  introduced.  In  the  eleventh  chapter  a  specially  touching 
reference  is  made  to  the  poor  outcast — that  memorable  occasion  when 
he  softly  sweeps  the  step  of  the  gateway  leading  to  the  loathsome 
graveyard  in  which  was  buried  the  man  who  had  been  "wery  good" 
to  him.  Dickens's  vivid  description  of  the  weird  picture  at  once 
induced  Marcus  Stone  (then  twelve  years  of  age)  to  try  his  hand  at 
depicting  it  with  his  pencil.  While  so  engaged  the  novelist  entered 
the  room,  and,  looking  over  his  shoulder,  he  immediately  recognised 
the  subject  of  the  sketch,  whereupon  he  encouragingly  observed, 
"  Well,  now,  that  is  very  good.  You  will  have  to  give  that  to  me." 
Accordingly,  on  completion,  the  little  drawing  was  sent  to  Tavistock 
House.'  About  a  year  afterwards  the  young  artist  received  a  copy 
of  "  A  Child's  History  of  England,"  containing  the  author's  autograph, 
and  accompanied  by  the  following  note,  dated  December  19,  1853: — 

"  My  Dear  Marcus, — You  made  an  excellent  sketch  from  a  book 
of  mine  which  I  have  received  (and  preserved)  with  great  pleasure. 
Will  you  accept  from  me  this  little  book?  I  believe  it  to  be 
true,  though  it  may  be  sometimes  not  as  genteel  as  history  has 
a  habit  of  being. — Faithfully  yours,  Charles  Dickens." 

Even  at  the  early  age  of  three  or  four,  Mr.  Marcus  Stone  evinced 
a  desire  to  become  an  artist, — a  wish  that  was  never  discountenanced. 
In  his  seventeenth  year  he  ostensibly  began  his  career  as  a  painter, 
but  his  father,  who  was  then  an  invalid,  could  not  for  that  reason 

'  Curiously  enough,  "Phiz"  had  already  selected  the  same  subject  as  an  illustration  for 
the  succeeding  number,  an  early  proof  of  which  was  forwarded  by  Dickens  to  Mr.  Marcus 
Stone,  in  order  to  direct  his  attention  to  the  coincidence. 



efficiently  direct  the  course  of  his  son's  studies.  Indeed,  Mr.  Marcus 
Stone  never  had  any  systematic  training  in  the  details  of  his  profession, 
and  what  he  learnt  during  his  boyhood  was,  for  the  most  part,  casually 
"picked  up"  in  his  father's  studio.  At  this  time  he  painted  a  picture 
called  "  Rest,"  representing  a  knight  in  armour  lying  under  a  tree, 
and  this,  the  first  of  his  productions  accepted  by  the  Royal  Academy, 
excited  much  favourable  comment,  the  work  being  especially  remark- 
able on  account  of  the  juvenility  of  the  artist,  who,  as  he  himself 
intimates,  was  really  ten  years  before  his  time. 

In  November  1859,  shortly  after  his  initial  success  in  the  world  of 
Art,  Mr.  Marcus  Stone  mourned  the  death  of  his  father,  an  event 
rendering  it  imperative  that,  in  entering  upon  a  career  which  not  un- 
frequently  fails  to  yield  a  golden  harvest,  he  should  have  a  powerful 
helping  hand.  Among  those  of  his  father's  friends  who  recognised  this 
necessity  was  Charles  Dickens,  who,  with  characteristic  promptitude  and 
energy,  exerted  his  influence  on  behalf  of  the  young  man.  Besides 
other  kind  actions,  the  novelist  introduced  him  to  Thomas  Longman, 
the  publisher,  to  whom  he  wrote  :  "  I  am  very  anxious  to  present  to  you, 
with  the  earnest  hope  that  you  will  hold  him  in  your  remembrance, 
young  Mr.  Marcus  Stone,  son  of  poor  Frank  Stone,  who  died  suddenly 
but  a  little  week  ago.  You  know,  I  daresay,  what  a  start  this  young 
man  made  in  the  last  Exhibition,  and  what  a  favourable  notice  his  pic- 
ture attracted.'  He  wishes  to  make  an  additional  opening  for  himself 
in  the  illustration  of  books.  He  is  an  admirable  draughtsman,  has  a 
most  dexterous  hand,  a  charming  sense  of  grace  and  beauty,  and  a 
capital  power  of  observation.  These  qualities  in  him  I  know  well 
to  my  own  knowledge.  He  is  in  all  things  modest,  punctual,  and 
right ;  and  I  would  answer  for  him,  if  it  were  needful,  with  my  head. 
If  you  will  put  anything  in  his  way,  you  will  do  it  a  second  time,  I 
am  certain." 

The  opportunity  soon  arrived  when  the  novelist's  interest  in  the 

'  This  picture  was  entitled  "  Silent  Pleading "  and  represents  a  tramp  with  a  child  in  his 
arms,  who  are  discovered  asleep  in  a  shed  by  the  squire  and  the  village  constable. 

Plate    LVII 

studies  for 
"mr.  venus  surrounded  by  the  trophies  of 


Facsimile  of  Original  Sketches  for  "Our  Mutual  Friend  "  by 


Lent  by  the  Artist. 

MARCUS    STONE,    R.A.  .    195 

son  of  "  poor  Frank  Stone  "  assumed  a  very  practical  form,  for  at  this 
juncture  it  occurred  to  him  to  test  the  artistic  capabilities  of  Marcus 
Stone,  probably  without  any  intention  of  permanently  ousting  "  Phiz." 
The  young  proUg"^,  however,  possessed  no  knowledge  of  etching,  and, 
indeed,  had  gained  but  little  experience  in  any  other  form  of  illustration. 
Fortunately,  the  art  of  drawing  upon  wood  (then  much  in  vogue,  but  now 
practically  obsolete)  needed  very  little  training  in  the  hands  of  one 
skilled  in  the  use  of  the  pencil,  so  that  Dickens  was  induced  to  favour 
Marcus  Stone  by  agreeing  to  the  adoption  of  the  readiest  means  of 
producing  his  designs  for  the  engraver.  It  is  not  generally  known 
that  the  artist's  first  attempt  at  drawing  on  wood  was  the  frontispiece 
,  for  the  first  cheap  edition  of  "  Little  Dorrit"  (1861), 

p.  '        which,  although  showing  marked  ability,  is  by  no 

means  equal  to  his  subsequent  efforts.  Marcus  Stone 
was  fortunate  in  making  his  dSui  as  a  black-and-white  draughtsman 
at  the  time  when  a  remarkable  array  of  talent  presented  itself  in  the 
pages  of  the  Cornhill  Magazine,  just  then  launched  by  Thackeray,  the 
illustrations  for  which  were  supplied  by  Millais,  Fred.  Walker,  Sandys, 
and  Leighton — a  new  school  of  designers,  whose  admirable  pencillings 
could  not  fail  to  inspire  the  younger  members  of  the  craft. 

Mr.   Marcus  Stone,  who   was  scarcely  twenty-one  years  of  age 

when  he  first  essayed  the  art  of  book-illustration, 
Our  Mutual  .  ,  ,  .,         ,  ,    , 

T7  •     JO/     A      rightly  considers  that  one  01  the  most  important 
Fncnd,  1864-65.  .  u-     tr  u  r    u 

events  of  his  life  was  the  receipt  of  the  com- 
mission to  illustrate  "  Our  Mutual  Friend,"  and,  doubtless,  he  fully 
realised  at  the  time  how  valuable  was  the  prestige  arising  from 
such  collaboration  with  so  popular  a  writer  as  Charles  Dickens. 
This  story,  like  those  which  preceded  it,  was  issued  in  monthly  parts, 
the  first  instalment  appearing  in  May  1864.  At  the  beginning  the 
novelist  was  about  four  numbers  in  advance,  but  he  lost  his  advantage 
as  the  tale  progressed,  until  at  length  he  found  himself  in  a  position 
necessitating  the  preparation  of  each  number  month  by  month,  a^ 


required  by  the  exigencies  of  publication.  Before  the  initial  number 
could  be  circulated,  a  pictorial  wrapper  was  requisitioned,  for  which 
'  Mr.  Stone  designed  a  series  of  tableaux  embodying  somewhat  allegori- 
cally  the  leading  characters  and  incidents,  and  displaying  prominently 
in  the  centre  the  title  of  the  story,  the  word  "  Our  "  being  dropped  in 
over  one  of  the  subjects.  A  preparatory  sketch  was  submitted  to 
Dickens,  who,  while  thoroughly  approving  thereof,  made  certain  pro- 
posals tending  to  its  improvement.  Writing  to  the  artist  (February 
23,  1864)  he  said: 

"  I  think  the  design  for  the  cover  excellent,  and  do  not  doubt  its 
coming  out  to  perfection.  The  slight  alteration  I  am  going  to 
suggest  originates  in  a  business  consideration  not  to  be  overlooked. 
The  word  'Our'  in  the  title  must  be  out  in  the  open  like  'Mutual 
Friend,'  making  the  title  three  distinct  large  lines — 'Our'  as  big  as 
'Mutual  Friend.'  This  would  give  you  too  much  design  at  the 
bottom.  I  would  therefore  take  out  the  dustman,  and  put  the  Wegg 
and  Boflfin  composition  (which  is  capital)  in  its  place.  I  don't  want 
Mr.  Inspector  or  the  murder  reward  bill,  because  these  points  are 
sufficiently  indicated  in  the  river  at  the  top.  Therefore  you  can  have 
an  indication  of  the  dustman  in  Mr.  Inspector's  place.  Note,  that  the 
dustman's  face  should  be  droll,  and  not  horrible.  Twemlow's  elbow 
will  still  go  out  of  the  frame  as  it  does  now,  and  the  same  with  Lizzie's 
skirts  on  the  opposite  side.     With  these  changes,  work  away !  .  .  ." 

Before  executing  this  drawing  for  the  wrapper,  the  artist  had 
received  from  Dickens  a  few  general  hints  as  to  the  points  to  be 
illustrated,  beyond  which  he  had  little  to  guide  him.  "Give  a  vague 
idea,"  said  the  novelist,  "the  more  vague  the  better."  Mr,  Stone 
desired  to  introduce  Silas  Wegg  into  his  composition,  but  the  de- 
scription of  the  mercenary  old  ballad-monger  was  so  indefinite  that 
he  was  compelled  to  ask  Dickens  if  he  had  absolutely  decided  in  his 
own  mind  whether  Silas's  wooden  leg  was  the  right  or  the  left  one. 
Judging  by  his  reply,  the  novelist  had  evidently  overlooked  this  detail, 
for  he  said,  "  It's  all  right — please  yourself;"  whereupon  the  doubtful 

Plate  LVIII 


Facsimiles  of  the  Original  Studies  by 

These  Studies  were  prepared  for  the  First  Cheap  Edition  of 
"  A  Tale  of  Two  Cities." 

Ltnt  by  the  Artist. 


MARCUS    STONE,    R.A.  197 

point  was  settled  by  the  artist,  who  placed  the  timber  limb  on  Wegg's 
left  side.  Mr.  Stone  recalls  an  interesting  circumstance  in  the  fact 
that  Dickens  laid  special  stress  upon  a  certain  incident  which  he 
desired  should  be  hinted  at  by  the  artist  in  his  design  for  the  monthly 
cover.  "  One  of  the  strongest  features  of  the  story,"  observed  the 
novelist,  "will  be  the  death  of  Eugene  Wrayburn  after  the  assault 
by  the  schoolmaster.  I  think,"  he  added,  "  it  will  be  one  of  the  best 
things  I  have  ever  done."  Dickens,  however,  changed  his  mind,  for 
Wrayburn  does  not  die. 

It  is  a  recognised  fact  among  illustrators  of  works  of  fiction  that 
authors  are  usually  devoid  of  what  Mr.  Stone  aptly  designates  a  sense 
of  "  pictorialism," — that  is  to  say,  the  subjects  selected  by  them  for 
illustration  invariably  prove  to  be  unsuitable.  Charles  Dickens 
(according  to  Mr.  Stone's  experience)  was  a  noteworthy  exception  to 
the  rule,  although  he  usually  afforded  the  artist  free  scope  in  this 
matter,  sending  him  the  revised  proof-sheets  of  each  number,  that  he 
might  make  his  own  choice  of  the  incidents  to  be  depicted ;  and  it  is 
worthy  of  remzirk  that  in  no  instance  did  the  novelist  question  the 
propriety  of  his  selection.  A  preliminary  sketch  for  each  illustration 
was  forwarded  to  Dickens,  who  returned  it  to  the  artist  with  sug- 
gestions, and  with  the  title  inscribed  by  him  in  the  margin.  The 
finished  drawings  upon  the  wood  were  never  seen  by  the  novelist, 
as  they  were  dispatched  by  Mr.  Stone  to  the  engravers  immediately  on 

Mr.  Marcus  Stone  affirms  that  he  was  much  hampered  by  Dickens 
with  respect  to  these  designs,  for  the  novelist,  hitherto  accustomed 
to  the  diminutive  scale  of  the  figures  in  Hablot  Browne's  etchings,  was 
somewhat  imperative  in  his  demand  for  a  similar  treatment  of  the 
illustrations  for  "Our  Mutual  Friend."  The  author,  it  seems,  was 
usually  in  an  appreciative  mood  whenever  a  sketch  was  submitted  for 
approval,  now  and  then  favouring  his  illustrator  with  information  that 
often  proved  indispensable.  With  reference  to  the  drawing  entitled 
"  The  Boffin  Progress,"  he  wrote :  "  Mrs.  Boffin,  as  I  judge  of  her 


from  the  sketch,  '  very  good  indeed.'  I  want  Boffin's  oddity,  without 
being  at  all  blinked,  to  be  an  oddity  of  a  very  honest  kind,  that  people 
would  like."  Concerning  a  second  sketch  for  another  proposed  illustra- 
tion, he  observed:  "The  doll's  dressmaker  is  immensely  better  than 
she  was.  I  think  that  she  should  now  come  extremely  well.  A  weird 
sharpness  not  without  beauty  is  the  thing  I  want."  Towards  the  close 
of  the  first  volume  Dickens  wrote  to  the  artist  from  Paris  the  following 
letter  respecting  subsequent  designs  : — "  The  sooner  I  can  know  about 
the  subjects  you  take  for  illustration  the  better,  as  I  can  then  fill  the 
list  of  illustrations  to  the  second  volume  for  the  printer,  and  enable 
him  to  make  up  his  last  sheet.  Necessarily  that  list  is  now  left  blank, 
as  I  cannot  give  him  the  titles  of  the  subjects,  not  knowing  them 
myself.  ...  I  think  the  frontispiece  to  the  second  volume  should  be 
the  dustyard  with  the  three  mounds,  and  Mr.  Boffin  digging  up  the 
Dutch  bottle,  and  Venus  restraining  Wegg's  ardour  to  get  at  him.^ 
Or  Mr.  Boffin  might  be  coming  down  with  the  bottle,  and  Venus 
might  be  dragging  Wegg  out  of  the  way  as  described." 

The  story,  when  concluded,  was  issued  in  two  volumes,  each  contain- 
ing twenty  illustrations,  engraved  by  Dalziel  Brothers  and  W.  T.  Green 
in  almost  equal  proportions.  Mr.  Marcus  Stone  regards  these  early 
efforts  in  black-and-white  art  as  very  immature,  and  believes  he  could 
have  achieved  greater  results  if  he  had  been  less  handicapped  by 
certain  harassing  restrictions.  That  these  clever  designs  possess  the 
charm  of  unconventionality  is  undeniable,  while  in  addition  to  this  they 
are  marked  by  an  originality  of  treatment  which  may  be  attributed  to 
the  fact  that  each  drawing  is  the  fruit  of  many  careful  studies  of 
figures  and  accessories,  these  imparting  an  air  of  reality  to  the  scenes 
depicted.  Notable  instances  of  this  may  be  observed  in  the  first  fron- 
tispiece, entided  "The  Bird  of  Prey,"  in  which  is  represented  a 
characteristic  portion  of  the  river- bank  below  London  Bridge  (pro- 
bably Rotherhithe),  and  in  the  last  engraving  "Not  to  be  Shaken 
Off,"  the  snow-covered   lock-gates   in   this  illustration   having  been 

'  This  subject  was  chosen. 

Plate  LIX 

"BLACK     AND     WHITE" 

Facsimile  of  tbe  Original  Drawing  by 

This  Study  was  prepared  for  the  Library  Edition  of  ' '  American  Notes. ' 

Lent  by  the  Artist. 





MARCUS    STONE,    R.A.  199 

drawn   from  a  sketch   of  the  gates   still  existing  on  the   Regent's 
Canal,  Hampstead  Road. 

Mr.  Stone  enjoys  the  distinction  of  having  introduced  to  Dickens's 
notice  the  original  of  that  remarkable  personage,  Mr.  Venus.  Early 
in  1864,  the  artist  was  engaged  upon  a  painting  representing  a  "loaf- 
ing "  deserter  being  marched  off  under  arrest,  while  some  busy  work- 
men temporarily  suspend  their  labours  in  order  to  watch  the  military 
procession  as  it  wends  its  way  along  a  public  thoroughfare.*  The 
artist  desired  to  introduce  into  the  composition  a  begging  dog,  but,  not 
succeeding  to  his  own  satisfaction,  he  consulted  a  brother-artist  (well 
known  for  his  clever  delineation  of  animals),  who  said,  "  Why  don't 
you  go  to  Willis  ?  He  will  soon  find  you  a  dog,  and  '  set  him  up '  for 
you."  Willis  was  a  taxidermist,  who  lived  on  the  north  side  of  St. 
Andrew's  Street,  near  Seven  Dials,  and  to  him  Mr.  Stone  at  once 
stated  his  requirements,  with  the  result  that  in  the  course  of  a  few  days 
the  stuffer  of  skins  went  to  Mr.  Stone's  studio  accompanied  by  a  dog 
such  as  the  artist  had  described.  The  animal  being  deemed  suitable, 
its  fate  was  sealed,  and  there  is  a  touch  of  pathos  in  the  recollection 
that  the  little  creature  made  such  friendly  overtures  to  the  artist  during 
the  interview  that  he  felt  very  much  averse  to  authorising  its  destruc- 
tion. However,  sad  to  relate,  he  hardened  his  heart,  and  the  poor  beast 
was  "set  up"  accordingly.  On  the  evening  of  the  day  when  Mr. 
Stone  first  called  upon  Willis,  and  observed  the  strange  environment 
resulting  from  the  man's  occupation,  he  was  invited  by  Dickens  to  go 
with  him  to  the  play,  and  between  the  acts  the  novelist  enquired  if  he 
knew  of  any  peculiar  avocation,  as  he  wished  to  make  it  a  feature 
of  his  new  story, — "it  must  be  something  very  striking  and  unusual," 
he  explained.  The  artist  immediately  recalled  Willis  as  he  appeared 
when  "surrounded  by  the  trophies  of  his  art,"  and  informed  Dickens 
that  he  could  introduce  him  to  the  very  thing.  Delighted  with  the 
suggestion,  the  novelist  appointed  "two  o'clock  sharp"  on  the  follow- 

*  This  picture,  called  "  Working  and  Shirking,"  was  exhibited  at  the  Royal  Academy  during 
the  same  year. 


ing  day,  for  a  visit  to  Willis.  It  happened  that  the  man  was  absent 
when  they  called,  but  Dickens,  with  his  unusually  keen  power  of 
observation,  was  enabled  during  a  very  brief  space  to  take  mental 
notes  of  every  detail  that  presented  itself,  and  his  readers  were  soon 
enjoying  his  vivid  portrayal  of  that  picturesque  representative  of  a 
curious  profession,  Mr.  Venus.  The  novelist  was  so  elated  by  the 
discovery  that  he  could  not  refrain  from  confiding  the  secret  to 
Forster:  "While  I  was  considering  what  it  should  be,"  he  wrote, 
"  Marcus,  who  has  done  an  excellent  cover,  came  to  tell  me  of  an 
extraordinary  trade  he  had  found  out,  through  one  of  his  painting 
requirements.  I  immediately  went  with  him  to  St.  Giles's  to  look  at 
the  place,  and  found — what  you  will  see." 

Mr.  Stone  visited  Willis's  shop  two  or  three  times  for  the  purpose 
of  sketching,  in  order  that  he  might  effectively  introduce  the  more 
salient  features  into  his  drawing.  The  illustration  gives  an  approximate 
representation  of  that  dingy  interior,  with  its  "  bones  warious  ;  bottled 
preparations  warious ;  dogs,  ducks,  glass  eyes,  warious ; "  but,  in 
delineating  the  proprietor,  the  artist  did  not  attempt  to  give  a  true 
presentment  of  Willis,  whom,  by  the  way,  Dickens  never  saw,  and 
who  never  suspected  that  it  was  his  own  establishment  which  figures 
in  the  story. 

In  all  the  illustrations  there  is  that  happy  delineation  of  character 
which  indicates  how  admirably  the  artist  understood  his  author. 
Perhaps  the  most  successful  designs  are  those  where  Rogue  Rider- 
hood  appears,  particularly  that  in  which  we  behold  the  thankless 
ruffian  at  the  moment  of  his  recovery  from  "  that  little  turn-up  with 
Death  ; "  while  among  other  drawings  deserving  attention  special 
mention  must  be  made  of  those  containing  the  quaint  and  pathetic 
figure  of  Jenny  Wren,  and  of  that  entitled  "  The  Boofer  Lady,"  the 
latter  denoting  Mr.  Stone's  ability,  even  at  this  early  date,  in  depicting 
a  pretty  woman, — an  art  in  which  he  has  since  displayed  such  con- 
summate skill. 

Mr.  Marcus  Stone  claims  the  credit  of  bringing  into  repute  the 

Plate  LX 


Facsimilt  of  the  Original  Drawing  for  the  Library  Edition  of 
"Great  Expectations"  by 


In  the  engraved  version  of  this  Design,  Pip  is  seen  wearing  a  "  bowler  "  hat. 

Ltnt  by  tkt  Artist. 


MARCUS    STONE,    R.A.  201 

now  universal  custom  of  duplicating  drawings  upon  wood-blocks  by 
means  of  photography,  his  illustrations  for  Anthony  Trollope's  story, 
"  He  Knew  He  was  Right,"  being  the  first  thus  treated.  The  adop- 
tion of  this  plan  secures  the  preservation  of  the  original  designs,  and 
therefore  renders  them  available  for  comparison  with  the  engraved 
reproductions.  Mr.  Stone,  nevertheless,  is  by  no  means  satisfied  with 
the  engraver's  treatment  of  his  work,  nor  is  this  surprising  when  we 
critically  examine  such  deplorable  examples  of  wood-engraving  as 
instanced  in  the  illustrations  entitled  "  The  Garden  on  the  Roof" 
and  "  Eugene's  Bedside."  In  one  of  the  designs,  that  representing 
"The  Boffin  Progress,"  it  will  be  noticed  that  the  wheels  on  the  "  off-" 
side  of  the  Boffin  chaise  are  omitted,  an  oversight  (explains  Mr.  Stone) 
for  which  the  engraver  is  really  responsible. 

The  original  sketches  for  "Our  Mutual  Friend"  were  disposed 
of  by  the  artist,  many  years  ago,  to  the  late  Mr.  F.  W.  Cosens,  who 
desired  to  add  them  to  his  collection  of  Dickensiana.  At  the  sale  in 
1890  of  that  gentleman's  effects  at  Sotheby's,  the  series  of  forty 
drawings  (some  of  which  were  executed  in  pen-and-ink  and  others 
in  pencil)  sold  for  ;^66,  the  purchaser  acting  for  a  well-known 
firm  of  American  publishers.  The  drawings  were  subsequently 
bound  up  in  a  copy  of  the  first  edition  of  the  story,  and  the  treasured 
volume  now  reposes  in  the  library  of  a  New  York  collector. 

Mr.  Stone  is  naturally  best  known  as  a  Dickens  illustrator  through 

his  designs  for  "  Our  Mutual  Friend."     In  addition 

Illustrations       ^^  these,   however,   he  has  essayed   some   illustra- 

P ,,  ,  tions  (engraved  on  wood  by  Dalziel   Brothers)  for 

cheap  issues  of  the  works  of  the  great  novelist,  of 

which  the  following  is  a  complete  list : — 

Little  Dorrit — Firsi  Cheap  Edition,  1861.     Frontispiece. 
Great   Expectations — Library  Edition,   1862.      Eight  Illustra- 


Pictures  from  Italy — Library  Edition,  1862.    Four  Illustrations. 
American  Notes — Library  Edition,  1862.     Four  Illustrations. 
A  Child's  History  of  England — Library  Edition,  1862.     Eight 

A  Tale  of  Two  Cities — First  Cheap  Edition,   1864.      Frontis- 

From  this  record  it  will  be  seen  that  (with  the  exception,  perhaps, 
of  the  frontispiece  for  "  A  Tale  of  Two  Cities ")  all  the  above- 
mentioned  designs  were  executed  prior  to  those  for  "Our  Mutual 
Friend."  It  was  hardly  to  be  anticipated  that  Mr.  Stone's  pencil 
would  rival  the  work  of  his  more  experienced  contemporaries,  yet  it 
will  be  seen  that  these  illustrations  are  characterised  by  the  very 
essential  quality  of  always  telling  their  story.  Mr.  Stone  much  regrets 
that  he  never  had  the  opportunity  of  doing  himself  justice  in  black- 
and-white  Art.  Needless  to  say,  he  revels  in  subjects  appertaining 
to  a  bygone  age,  as  they  afford  considerable  scope  for  pictorial  treat- 
ment, and  one  of  the  novels  he  would  have  most  enjoyed  to  illus- 
trate is  "  Barnaby  Rudge,"  because  of  the  picturesque  period  in  which 
the  story  is  laid.  In  response  to  my  enquiry  why  he  did  not  under- 
take the  illustration  of  Dickens's  next  and  final  romance,  "The 
Mystery  of  Edwin  Drood,"  Mr.  Stone  explains :  "  I  had  entirely 
given  up  black-and-white  work  when  '  Edwin  Drood '  was  written, 
and  was  making  an  ample  income  by  my  pictures.  I  was  not  in 
the  field  at  all."  Indeed,  black-and-white  drawing  possessed  little 
to  attract  the  young  artist,  who,  preferring  the  more  alluring  charm 
of  colour,  had  already  begun  to  acquire  a  reputation  as  a  painter. 
In  1877  he  was  elected  an  Associate  of  the  Royal  Academy,  and 
ten  years  later  was  advanced  to  the  full  rank  of  Academician.  During 
the  last  twenty  years  his  most  popular  pictures  have  been  his  groups 
of  interesting  lovers  and  pathetic  maidens ;  for,  after  exhibiting  in 
eighteen  Academy  Exhibitions  various  presentments  ofhuman  passion, 
he  at  last  decided  to  limit  himself  to  the  one  which  makes  the  widest 

MARCUS    STONE,    R.A.  203 

appeal  to  all  sorts  and  conditions  of  men  and  women,  such  as  those 
subtle  domestic  dramas  in  which  love  plays  the  leading  r$le. 

Mr.  Marcus  Stone's  intimacy  with  Charles  Dickens  originated 
while  his  father,  Frank  Stone,  and  the  novelist  were  living  not  more 
than  a  couple  of  houses  apart ;  but  it  should  be  understood  that  the 
elder  artist  and  the  author  of  "Pickwick"  were  friends  many  years 
before  they  were  neighbours.  From  the  days  of  his  childhood  until 
the  famous  writer  breathed  his  last,  Mr.  Stone  spent  a  portion  of  every 
year  of  his  life  at  Dickens's  abode.  "  I  saw  him,"  he  observes,  "  under 
the  most  natural  and  simple  conditions,  and  my  affection  and  regard 
for  him  were  intense.  Dickens  was  one  of  the  shyest  and  most 
sensitive  of  men,  as  I  have  reason  to  know,  for  I  saw  him  constantly 
at  his  own  home,  often  for  weeks  together.  He  used  to  treat  me 
as  though  I  were  his  son.  Nothing  was  more  delightful  than  the 
way  in  which  he  shared  our  pleasures  and  pursuits.  His  influence 
was  like  sunshine  in  my  life  whilst  his  own  lasted."  Mr.  Stone 
occasionally  took  part  in  private  theatricals  at  Tavistock  House,  where 
the  novelist  had  installed  "  The  Smallest  Theatre  in  the  World,"  and 
the  artist  has  pleasant  recollections  of  his  own  share  in  the  various 
plays,  such  as  Planchd's  fairy  extravaganza,  "  Fortunio,"  in  which  he 
impersonated  the  Captain  of  the  Guard,  and  Wilkie  CoUins's  "  The 
Frozen  Deep,"  where,  as  an  Officer  in  the  British  Navy,  he  had  but 
three  words  to  say. 


An  Illustrator  Required  for  "The  Mystery  of  Edwin  Drood"— Charles  Alston  Collins 
Offers  his  Services — His  Design  for  the  Wrapper — He  Prepares  Sketches  for  the  First 
Number — Ill-Health — The  Project  abandoned — Death  of  Mr.  Collins  creates  a  Dilemma 
— "The  Fellow  for  'Edwin  Drood'"  Discovered — Luke  Fildes,  R.A. — His  Drawing  of 
"Houseless  and  Hungry" — Specimens  of  his  Black-and- White  Drawings  Submitted  to 
Dickens — A  Complimentary  Letter  from  the  Novelist— Mr.  Fildes  Elected  to  Illustrate 
"Edwin  Drood" — First  Meeting  of  Author  and  Artist — A  Pen-Portrait  of  Dickens — A 
Memorable  Interview — Pictorial  Exactness— Working  under  Difficulties — Studies  from  the 
Life — Successful  Realisation  of  Types — The  Opium-Smokers'  Den — Cloisterham — The 
Artist's  Method  of  Executing  his  Designs — The  Engraved  Reproductions — The  Finale 
of  the  Story  Hinted  at — Mr.  Fildes  Invited  to  Gad's  Hill — Suggestion  for  the  Last  Drawing 
— Death  of  Dickens — "The  Empty  Chair" — A  Visit  to  John  Forstcr — A  Curious  Coin- 
cidence—Pleasing Reminiscences  of  Dickens — Mementoes  of  the  Novelist — Unpublished 
Drawings  for  "  Edwin  Drood." 

WHEN  Mr.  Marcus  Stone,  R.A.,  had  completed  his  designs 
for  "  Our  Mutual  Friend,"  he  determined  to  relinquish 
black-and-white  drawing  and  to  concentrate  his  energy 
upon  painting ;  but  for  this,  it  is  probable  that  his  skilled  pencil  would 
have  been  requisitioned  for  Charles  Dickens's  last  story,  "  The  Mystery 
of  Edwin  Drood."  That  the  re-engagement  of  Hablot  Browne  as 
illustrator  of  that  unfinished  romance  was  not  contemplated  may  be 
attributed  chiefly  to  the  fact  that,  in  1867,  the  clever  artist  whose 
name  and  fame  will  ever  be  associated  with  the  writings  of  Dickens 
was  unhappily  struck  with  severe  paralysis,  and  consequently  his  hand 
had  lost  its  cunning.  The  assistance  of  either  of  these  draughtsmen 
being,  therefore,  out  of  the  question,  the  novelist  was  compelled 
to  seek  a  new  illustrator,  and  at  this  crisis  his  son-in-law,  Charles 
Alston  Collins  (brother  of  Wilkie  Collins),  intimated  that  he  would  like 
to  undertake  the  necessary  designs  for  "Edwin  Drood,"  or  rather 
to  test  his  powers  in  that  direction.     Although  he  occupied  himself, 

Plate  LXI 
luke  fildes,  r.a. 

From  a  Photograph  specially  taken  for  this  Work  by 

LUKE    FILDES,    R.A.  205 

in  a  desultory  fashion,  with  both  Literature  and  Art,  Charles  Collins 
had  been  bred  a  painter,  and  achieved  a  notable  position  among  the 
young  artists  of  the  Pre-Raphaelite  School,  He  favoured  the  pen, 
however,  rather  than  the  pencil,  his  fugitive  pieces  being  distinguished 
for  the  most  part  by  humour  of  a  charming  quality.  Dickens  had 
great  faith  in  his  artistic  talent,  and  accordingly  (on  September  14, 
1869)  sent  his  publishers  the  following  note:  "Charles  Collins 
wishes  to  try  his  hand  at  illustrating  my  new  book.  I  want  him  to 
try  the  cover  first.  Please  send  down  to  him  at  Gad's  Hill  any  of 
our  old  green  covers  you  may  have  by  you."  The  pictorial  wrapper  was 
satisfactorily  completed,  whereupon  Charles  Collins  began  to  prepare 
sketches  for  the  first  number,  an  undertaking  which  he  looked  upon 
rather  as  an  experiment.  Ill-health,  alas !  proved  a  serious  obstacle, 
and,  after  making  a  futile  endeavour  to  realise  his  conceptions,  he  was 
compelled  to  abandon  the  project  altogether.  It  has  been  suggested 
that,  as  the  leading  incidents  portrayed  by  him  on  the  cover  were 
intended  to  prefigure  the  course  of  the  narrative,  Charles  Collins  must 
have  obtained  a  clue  to  the  "mystery"  involved  in  the  story,  Asa 
matter  of  fact,  there  is  no  evidence  that  he  had  the  faintest  notion 
of  the  meaning  of  the  enigmatical  little  tableaux  of  which  his  design 
consists ;  on  the  contrary,  it  is  asserted  that  he  merely  received  the 
novelist's  verbal  directions  without  obtaining  any  hint  as  to  their  real 
significance.  Charles  Alston  Collins  died  in  1873  in  his  forty- 
fifth  year,  having  "  borne  much  suffering,  through  many  trying  years, 
with  uncomplaining  patience."  He  was  a  son-in-law  of  Charles 
Dickens,  whose  younger  daughter,  Kate,  he  married  in  i860,  the 
occasion  being  signalised  by  much  rejoicing  on  the  part  of  the  novelist's 
friends  and  neighbours  at  Gad's  Hill. 

The  speedy  relinquishment  by  Charles  Collins  of  the  illustrating 
of  "  Edwin  Drood  "  caused  something  of  a  dilemma.  Dickens  being 
again  without  an  illustrator,  he  appealed  for  advice  to  his  friends 
Mr.  (afterwards  Sir  John)  Millais,  R.A.,  and  Mr.  W.  P.  Frith,  R.A., 


who  promised  to  aid  him  in  searching  for  a  suitable  artist.  Shortly 
afterwards  there  was  published  in  the  initial  number  of  The  Graphic 
an  engraving  entitled  "  Houseless  and  Hungry,"  depicting  a  crowd 
of  vagrants  of  both  sexes  awaiting  admission  to  the  workhouse, — 
a  picture  at  once  so  powerfully  conceived  and  so  pathetic  in  sentiment 
that  it  immediately  attracted  the  attention  of  Sir  John  Millais,  who 
immediately  hastened  in  a  cab  to  Dickens's  rooms  at  Hyde  Park 
Place,  bearing  in  his  hand  a  copy  of  the  new  journal.  Striding  into 
the  study,  and  waving  The  Graphic  above  his  head,  the  famous 
painter  exclaimed,  "  I've  got  him  !  " 

"  Got  whom  ?  "  inquired  the  novelist. 

"  The  fellow  for  '  Edwin  Drood,' "  replied  Millais,  as  he  threw  the 
paper  down  on  the  table. 

No  sooner  had  Dickens  examined  the  picture  than  he  became 
similarly  enthusiastic  in  his  praise,  and  wrote  forthwith  to  his  pub- 
lishers, requesting  them  to  communicate  with  the  artist,  Mr.  Samuel 
Luke  Fildes,  now  a  popular  Royal  Academician,  but  who  was  then 
comparatively  unknown  in  the  world  of  Art.  At  the  period  referred 
to,  Mr.  Fildes  was  a  young  man  of  five-and-twenty,  who  had  but  just 
begun  to  make  his  mark  as  a  draughtsman  in  black-and-white.  After 
some  desultory  study  of  drawing  and  painting  at  Chester  and  Warring- 
ton, he  came  to  London  in  1862  for  the  purpose  of  seeing  the  Great 
Exhibition,  and  was  so  impressed  that  he  determined  to  make  his 
future  home  in  the  Metropolis.  In  the  following  year  he  gained  a 
scholarship  at  the  South  Kensington  Schools,  and  afterwards  became 
a  student  of  the  Royal  Academy.  The  Cornkill,  Once  a  Week,  and 
other  magazines  then  in  the  ascendant,  owed  much  of  their  popularity 
to  the  beautiful  designs  by  Millais,  Leighton,  and  similarly  distinguished 
artists,  and  these  remarkable  productions  inclined  Mr.  Fildes  to  adopt 
book-illustration  as  a  stepping-stone  towards  painting.  Good-fortune 
attended  his  efforts,  and  in  June  1869,  by  which  time  he  had  achieved 
a  position  as  a  black-and-white  draughtsman,  he  received  an  inti- 
mation from  Mr.  W.  L.  Thomas  that  he  had  conceived  the  idea  of 

Plate  LXII 

study  for  the  head  of 

Facsimilt  of  an  Original  Sketch  for  "  The  Mystery  of  Edwin  Drood  '  by 

LUKE    FILDES.    R.A. 

Ltnl  by  the  Artist. 



LUKE    FILDES,   R.A.  207 

publishing  a  new  illustrated  paper,  eventually  called  The  Graphic, 
and  suggested  that  he  should  draw  something  effective,  the  subject 
to  be  the  artist's  own  choice,  for  publication  therein. 

"  I  went  home,"  says  Mr.  Fildes,  "and,  at  ten  o'clock  on  a  terribly 
hot  night,  I  sat  with  a  piece  of  paper  and  sketched  out  the  idea  for 
'  The  Casuals.'  Some  few  years  before,  when  I  first  came  to  London,  I 
was  very  fond  of  wandering  about,  and  remember  beholding  somewhere 
near  the  Portland  Road,  one  snowy  winter's  night,  the  applicants  for 
admission  to  a  casual  ward."  Recollecting  the  incident,  Mr.  Fildes 
endeavoured  to  reproduce  this  scene  as  a  subject  likely  to  prove  accept- 
able to  the  manager  of  The  Graphic,  and  it  was  that  very  picture 
which,  as  already  related,  led  to  the  artist's  introduction  to  the  famous 

Messrs.  Chapman  &  Hall,  who  had  been  authorised  to  write  to 
Mr.  Fildes  respecting  the  illustration  of  "  Edwin  Drood,"  desired  him 
to  submit  specimens  of  his  black-and-white  work,  and  at  the  same  time 
expressed  a  hope  that,  as  they  had  no  recollection  of  having  seen 
representations  of  beautiful  women  in  any  of  his  drawings,  he  would 
enclose  a  few  examples  of  his  ability  in  that  direction,  for  the  very 
important  reason  that  in  Charles  Dickens's  new  story  would  appear 
two  attractive  heroines.  Mr.  Fildes  immediately  dispatched  a  parcel 
containing  various  illustrations  designed  by  him  for  the  magazines, 
and  promised  to  execute,  for  the  novelist's  inspection,  two  or  three 
drawings  of  scenes  from  one  of  his  stories.  A  few  days  later  the 
artist  became  the  recipient  of  a  very  complimentary  letter,  in  which 
Dickens  said :  "I  beg  to  thank  you  for  the  highly  meritorious  and 
interesting  specimens  of  your  art  that  you  have  had  the  kindness  to 
send  me.  I  return  them  herewith,  after  having  examined  them  with 
the  greatest  pleasure.  I  am  naturally  curious  to  see  your  drawing 
from  '  David  Copperfield,'  in  order  that  I  may  compare  it  with  my 
own  idea.  In  the  meanwhile,  I  can  honestly  assure  you  that  I  enter- 
tain the  greatest  admiration  for  your  remarkable  powers." 

In  accordance  with  his  own  proposal,  Mr.  Fildes  prepared  two  or 


three  designs  from  "Copperfield,"  one  of  which  fulfilled  the  requisite 
condition  that  it  should  contain  a  representation  of  a  pretty  girl,  the 
subject  selected  being  the  scene  depicting  Peggotty  embracing  Little 
Em'ly  after  the  announcement  of  her  betrothal  to  Ham.  Dickens 
considered  these  drawings  so  eminently  satisfactory  that  he  desired 
the  artist  to  call  upon  him  at  his  temporary  residence,  No.  5  Hyde 
Park  Place,  for  the  purpose  of  consulting  him  regarding  the  illustrations 
for  "  Edwin  Drood."  The  eventful  day  at  length  arrived  when  author 
and  artist  met  for  the  first  time,  and  the  auspicious  occasion  is  thus 
pleasantly  recalled  in  the  following  note  from  Mr.  Fildes  (written  for 
"Charles  Dickens  by  Pen  and  Pencil"),  in  response  to  my  inquiry 
respecting  his  earliest  impressions  of  the  novelist's  personality  : — 

"  I  can  tell  you  so  little  of  Dickens  that  is  '  terse,  graphic,  or  vivid.' 
It's  so  long  ago!  He  passed  by  me  so  like  a  vision.  At  least  it 
seems  so  to  me  now.  When  I  first  saw  him,  I  felt  a  little  oppressed — 
I  don't  know  why— he  loomed  so  large,  and  was  so  great  in  my  imagi- 
nation. He  rose  from  his  writing-table  to  greet  me.  He  was  dressed 
in  dark  clothes  ;  I  cannot  quite  recall  the  cut  of  coat,  but  it  was  loose 
and  unbuttoned, — a  black  silk  neckerchief  was  loosely  tied,  with  hang- 
ing ends,  round  his  throat.  His  general  appearance,  with  the  'cut'  of 
his  head,  gave  me  the  idea — perhaps  reminded  me  somehow — of  one 
who  was,  or  had  been,  connected  with  the  sea.  But  I  thought  so 
much  of  the  Man,  and  had  so  affectionate  a  respect,  that  it  never 
occurred  to  me  then  nor  since  to  take  an  inventory  of  his  features  or 
the  details  of  his  clothes.  I  could  possibly  be  contradicted  on  nearly 
every  point  were  I  to  attempt  it.  What  I  do  remember — and  it  is  as 
clear  to  me  as  yesterday — is  the  indescribable  sweetness  and  kindness 
of  manner — a  frank  affectionate  way  that  drew  me  towards  him  the 
moment  I  saw  him.  I  don't  know  what  it  was,  or  how — perhaps  his 
smile,  the  clasp  of  his  hand,  the  drawing  me  down  to  sit  beside  him — 
but  I  felt  like  one  does  with  one's  own  father,  that  you  '  get  on  with ' 
when  a  boy.     That  impression  never  left  me." 

When,  at  this  memorable  interview,  Dickens  had  expressed  his 

Plate    LXIll 


Facrimile  of  Original   Sketches   by 

This  figure  appears  in  the  Illustration  entitled  "  At  the  Piano.' 
ridf  "The  Mystery  of  Edwin  Drood." 

Lent  h  the  Artist. 


LUKE    FILDES,    R.A.  209 

requirements,  Mr.  Fildes  (as  he  himself  informs  me)  explained  to  the 
novelist  that,  while  fully  appreciating  the  honour  of  being  selected  as 
illustrator  of  "  Edwin  Drood,"  he  would  be  compelled  most  reluctantly 
to  forego  the  privilege  if  it  were  really  a  sine  qua  non  that  the  designs 
should  be  of  a  humorous  character,  following  the  lead  of  the  versatile 
"  Phiz."  He  conceived  it  advisable  to  make  it  clearly  understood, 
there  and  then,  that  comic  drawing  was  not  his  metier,  and  ventured  to 
remind  the  novelist  that  his  stories,  in  view  of  the  fact  that  they 
possessed  an  intensely  serious  side  as  well  as  a  jocular  one,  lent  them- 
selves admirably  to  a  graver  style  of  Art.  After  pondering  for  a 
moment,  Dickens  observed  that  he  was  "a  little  tired"  of  being  re- 
garded by  his  illustrators  mainly  as  a  humorist,— a  remark,  however, 
which  he  qualified  in  a  manner  that  did  not  at  all  suggest  dissatisfaction 
with  those  artists,  but  implied,  rather,  that  he  was  not  averse  to  the 
more  solemn  incidents  in  his  writings  being  considered  by  his  pictorial 
interpreters ;  his  agreement  with  Mr.  Fildes  in  this  respect  might 
well  have  arisen  from  what  he  knew  would  be  the  leading  character- 
istic of  his  last  romance  (certainly  not  humorous),  which  would  give 
scope  only  to  the  "serious"  artist.  The  interview  resulted  in  the 
appointment  of  Mr.  Fildes  as  illustrator  of  the  forthcoming  story,  and 
in  a  letter  to  James  T.  Fields  (of  Boston,  U.S.A.)  the  novelist  said : 
"  At  the  very  earnest  representations  of  Millais  (and  after  having  seen 
a  great  number  of  his  drawings),  I  am  going  to  engage  with  a  new 
man  ;  retaining,  of  course,  C.  C.'s  [Charles  Collins's]  cover."  So  con- 
tent was  Dickens  with  his  choice  of  this  artist,  that  he  could  not 
refrain  from  expressing  his  satisfaction  to  his  friends. 

As  the  date  fixed  for  the  publication  of  the  first  number  of  "  Edwin 
Drood"  was  rapidly  approaching,  it  became  necessary 
The  Mystery  of  ^.j^^^j.  jyjj.  YMe.s  should  immediately  begin  to  prepare 
P  '      his  designs.      Receiving   the  proof-sheets  of  each 

number,    he  studied   them  so  diligently  and  care- 
fully that  he  allowed   no   incident  or  personal  trait  to  escape  him. 


Indeed,  Dickens  himself  (as  Mrs.  Meynell  tells  us  in  The  Century  of 
February  1884)  was  astonished  at  the  way  in  which  his  mind  found 
itself  mirrored  in  that  of  his  coadjutor,  both  as  regards  the  pictorial 
exactness  of  inanimate  things  and  the  appreciation  of  individual  human 
character.  The  artist,  however,  was  at  first  considerably  perplexed 
in  being  kept  in  total  ignorance  of  the  plot,  as  Dickens  volunteered  no 
information  respecting  either  the  characters  or  the  various  parts  they 
played,  and  although  Mr.  Fildes  was  much  puzzled,  before  the  plot 
began  to  develop,  in  discovering  who  was  the  hero  and  who  the  villain  of 
the  story,  he  hesitated  to  interrogate  the  novelist,  because  he  surmised 
that  there  was  a  particular  motive  for  his  reticence.  "He  did,  at  my 
solicitation,"  observes  Mr.  Fildes,  "occasionally  tell  me  something — 
at  first  charily — for  he  said  it  was  essential  to  carefully  preserve  the 
'mystery'  from  general  knowledge  to  sustain  the  interest  of  the 
book,  and  later  he  appeared  to  have  complete  confidence  in  my 

Dickens,  it  seems,  was  seldom  in  advance  with  his  manuscript,  and 
each  number  was  barely  completed  in  time  for  the  printers,  thus  neces- 
sitating excessive  promptitude  on  the  part  of  the  engravers  as  well  as 
the  designer.  The  subjects  of  the  earlier  illustrations  were  selected 
by  the  author,  who  marked  on  the  proofs  the  particular  incidents  to 
be  depicted.  In  thus  trotting  after  the  novelist,  the  artist  experienced 
a  sense  of  restraint,  and  felt  unable  to  do  himself  justice.  At  length, 
when  Dickens  proposed  that  one  of  the  incidents  to  be  delineated 
should  be  that  in  which  John  Jasper  steals  up  a  winding  staircase  in 
absolute  darkness  with  murder  on  his  face,  Mr.  Fildes  courteously 
protested  by  pointing  out  the  artistic  disadvantages  of  illustrating  such 
a  scene,  adding  that  it  was  already  so  graphically  recounted  that 
further  elucidation  became  superfluous.  Apropos  of  this,  Mr.  M.  H. 
Spielmann  remarks  :  "  It  is  curious  to  observe  how  Dickens's  dramatic 
sense  obtruded  itself  when  arranging  for  the  drawings.  He  would 
always  wish  that  scene  or  tableau  to  be  illustrated  on  which  he  had 
lavished  the  whole  force  and  art  of  his  descriptive  powers — naturally 

Plate  LXIV 

studies  for 
mr.    jasper 

Facsimile  of  Original  Sketches  by 

The  figure  on  the  right  was  inlroductd  in  the  Illustration  entitled 

"  On  IJangerous  Ground.  " 

Vide  "  The  Mystery  of  Edwin  Drood." 

Lent  by  the  Artist. 

I     t 



LUKE    FILDES,    R.A.  211 

the  one  that  least  required  or  justified  illustration."  By  this  time 
the  novelist  realised  the  advisability  of  leaving  the  responsibility  of 
selection  in  the  hands  of  the  artist,  who  thenceforth  was  relieved  of 
the  limitations  and  restrictions  hitherto  imposed  upon  him. 

The  requisite  consultations  between  Dickens  and  his  illustrator 
were  invariably  held  at  Hyde  Park  Place.  Whenever  practicable, 
Mr.  Fildes  made  sketches  from  the  life  of  suitable  types  for  the 
characters  in  the  story,  and  was  fortunate  in  securing  living  models 
for  the  principal  personages.  Over  the  type  of  Jasper  there  was 
much  discussion,  the  artist  making  several  attempts  before  he  obtained 
an  exact  portrait  of  the  choirmaster ;  and  so  successful  and  sympathetic 
were  this  and  other  delineations  of  character,  that  Dickens  was  de- 
lighted with  them,  declaring  them  to  be  like  veritable  photographs 
of  the  people  themselves.  The  backgrounds,  too,  were  drawn  from 
actual  scenes,  as,  for  example,  the  opium-smokers'  den  which  figures 
in  the  first  and  last  illustrations ;  this  was  discovered  by  the  artist 
somewhere  in  the  East  End  of  London;  the  exact  spot  he  cannot 
recall,  nor  does  he  believe  that  Dickens  had  any  particular  den  in  his 
mind,  but  merely  described  from  memory  the  general  impression  of 
something  of  the  kind  he  had  observed  many  years  before.  The 
architectural  details  introduced  in  the  illustration,  "  Durdles  Cautions 
Mr.  Sapsea  against  Boasting,"  were  drawn  from  a  careful  sketch 
made  within  the  precincts  of  Rochester  Cathedral,  although  in  the 
published  design  there  is  substituted  a  gateway  different  from  that 
existing  at  this  spot,  in  order  to  assist,  no  doubt,  in  promoting  the 
novelist's  obvious  intention  of  disguising  the  identity  of  "  Cloisterham." 
In  the  engraving  entitled  "Good-bye,  Rosebud,  darling!  "it  is  very 
easy  to  recognise  the  quaint  courtyard  of  Eastgate  House  in  Rochester 
High  Street.  In  the  river  scene  we  obtain  a  glimpse  of  Putney 
Church  and  of  the  picturesque  wooden  bridge  which,  until  a  few  years 
ago,  spanned  the  Theunes  at  that  point ;  ^  while  in  a  third  illustration, 

'  By  a  curious  coincidence,  this  scene  is  almost  identical  with  that  depicted  by  Seymour 
on  the  wrapper  for  the  monthly  parts  of  "  Pickwick." 


"  Under  the  Trees,"  the  artist  availed  himself  of  a  sketch  (made  some 
time  previously)  of  the  cloisters  at  Chester  Cathedral. 

Concerning  another  of  these  designs,  viz.,  "  Mr.  Grewgious  Ex- 
periences a  New  Sensation,"  it  may  be  mentioned  that  not  only  was 
this  cosy  interior  actually  drawn  from  a  room  in  Staple  Inn,  but  that 
the  original  of  the  capacious  arm-chair  in  which  Rosa  is  seated  still 
remains  in  the  artist's  possession,  it  being  almost  the  sole  survivor  of 
the  furnishing  items  which  formed  part  of  his  bachelor  establishment. 

It  is  interesting  to  learn  that  Dickens,  who  placed  such  great  con- 
fidence in  his  illustrator,  did  not  consider  it  essential  that  preliminary 
sketches  should  be  submitted  to  him.  Mr.  Fildes's  original  studies 
for  his  designs  were  vigorously  executed  with  chalk  upon  tinted  paper, 
the  high-lights  being  emphasized  with  chinese-white ;  the  finished 
drawings  were  made  upon  paper  and  then  photographed  upon  boxwood 
blocks.  The  engraving  was  at  first  entrusted  to  Dalziel  Brothers,  one 
of  the  best-known  firms  of  wood-engravers  of  that  day,  but  after 
the  first  two  engravings  were  completed,  Mr.  Fildes  intimated  to  the 
novelist  a  wish  that  the  work  of  reproduction  might  be  transferred  to 
a  former  colleague  of  his,  Charles  Roberts,  whereupon  Dickens  thus 
wrote  to  the  late  Frederick  Chapman,  of  Chapman  &  Hall :  "  Mr. 
Fildes  has  been  with  me  this  morning,  and,  without  complaining  of 
Dalziel,  or  expressing  himself  otherwise  than  as  being  obliged  to  him 
for  his  care  in  No.  i,  represents  that  there  is  a  brother-student  of  his, 
a  wood-engraver,  perfectly  acquainted  with  his  style  and  well  under- 
standing his  meaning,  who  would  render  him  better.  I  have  replied 
to  him  that  there  can  be  no  doubt  that  he  has  a  claim  beyond  dispute 
to  our  employing  whomsoever  he  knows  will  present  him  in  the  best 
aspect.  Therefore,  we  must  make  the  change ;  the  rather  because 
the  fellow-student  in  question  has  engraved  Mr.  Fildes's  most  successful 
drawings  hitherto." 

An  examination  of  the  illustrations  discloses  the  fact  that  ten  out 
of  the  full  complement  of  twelve  bear  the  signature  of  C.  Roberts. 
In  some  instances,  however,  the  result  is  disappointing,  for  the  delicate 

Plate    LXV 

study  for 

Facsimile  of  the  Original  Sketch  for  "  The  Mystery  of  Edwin  Drood  "  by 

l-eni  by  the  Artist. 



LUKE    FILDES,    R.A.  213 

tone-values  which  mark  the  original  drawings  are  not  apparent  in  the 
reproductions.  This  defect  is  chiefly  due  to  the  technical  difficulties 
caused  by  the  thick  photographic  film  covering  the  surface  of  the 
wood-blocks,  which  curled  up  under  the  point  of  the  graver ;  un- 
engraved  portions  of  the  picture  were  thus  lost,  and  the  engraver, 
although  carefully  copying  the  missing  portions,  seldom  succeeded  in 
reproducing  the  characteristic  touch  of  the  artist.  Mr.  Fildes, 
perhaps,  is  hypercritical,  for  those  who  had  not  compared  the  en- 
graved replicas  with  the  original  designs  were  delighted  with  these 
decidedly  effective  illustrations,  while  Mr.  W.  P.  Frith,  R.A.,  quick 
to  recognise  the  unusual  ability  displayed  in  them,  wrote  to  the 
novelist  complimenting  him  on  securing  so  facile  and  graceful  an 
interpreter  of  his  text, — a  comment  with  which  Dickens  was  much 
gratified.  As  events  proved,  Mr.  Fildes  was  as  receptive  as  Dickens 
was  impressive,  and  "vividly  as  Dickens  saw  the  creatures  of  his 
brain,  he  saw  them  no  otherwise  than  as  they  lived  by  this  quick  and 
sympathetic  pencil." 

For  reasons  already  explained,  Dickens  never  wholly  confided 
to  his  illustrator  his  intentions  respecting  the  plot  of  the  story.  A 
part  of  the  "mystery,"  however,  was  (in  a  sense)  surprised  out  of  him 
by  the  keenness  and  care  with  which  the  artist  took  up  a  suggestion. 
Mr.  Fildes  informs  me  that  it  happened  in  this  way :  "  I  noticed  in 
the  proof  of  the  forthcoming  number  a  description  of  Jasper's  costume 
so  markedly  different  from  what  I  had  been  accustomed  to  conceive 
him  as  likely  to  wear,  that  I  went  at  once  to  Dickens  to  ask  him  if 
he  had  any  special  reason  for  so  describing  him.  It  was  a  matter  of 
a  neck-scarf.  Whereupon  Dickens,  after  some  little  cogitating,  said 
he  had  a  reason,  and  that  he  wished  the  scarf  to  be  retained,  and, 
after  some  hesitation,  told  me  why.  He  seemed  to  be  rather  troubled 
at  my  noticing  the  incident,  and  observed  that  he  feared  he  was 
'  paying  out '  the  '  mystery '  too  soon,  unconsciously  doing  so  ;  for,  he 
said,  he  trusted  to  the  'mystery'  being  maintained  until  the  end 
of  the  book.     He  seemed  to  me  to  think  it  was  essential  to  do  so, 


and  especially  enforced  me  to  secrecy  respecting  anything  I  knew  or 
might  divine.  This  description  of  my  interview  with  the  novelist  on 
the  occasion  in  question  gives,  of  course,  only  the  sense  of  what 
transpired,  and  I  do  not  pretend  to  quote  exactly  any  of  his  words, 
or  any  phrase  he  may  have  used."  The  scarf  was,  in  fact,  the  instru- 
ment of  murder,  employed  by  Jasper  as  the  means  of  strangling  the 
young  breath  of  Edwin  Drood  on  the  night  of  the  great  gale. 

Mr.  Luke  Fildes  having  made  so  shrewd  a  guess  respecting  the 
important  part  to  be  played  by  Jasper  in  the  story,  Dickens  thought 
fit  to  confide  in  him  some  details  concerning  the  final  scene.  Princi- 
pally, perhaps,  with  this  object  in  view,  he  invited  the  artist  to  spend 
a  few  days  with  him  at  Gad's  Hill,  in  order  that  he  might  become 
familiar  with  the  neighbourhood  in  which  many  of  the  scenes  in 
"  Edwin  Drood "  are  laid.  The  novelist  promised  him  that,  if  he 
were  a  good  pedestrian,  he  would  introduce  him  to  some  of  the  most 
charming  scenes  in  Kent,  and  they  would  visit  together  the  pictur- 
esque Hall  at  Cobham  with  its  famous  gallery  of  paintings,  Cobham 
Park  and  village,  and  other  interesting  places  in  that  locality. 
In  the  course  of  conversation  during  this  interview,  Dickens  (who 
evidently  anticipated  much  enjoyment  from  the  little  holiday)  recalled 
that,  when  a  boy,  he  had  seen  in  Rochester  a  gaol  or  "  lock-up,"  and 
significantly  added  that  Mr.  Fildes  should  make  a  note  of  one  of 
the  prison  cells,  which  would  do  admirably  to  put  Jasper  in  for  the 
last  illustration  —  thus  pretty  clearly  foreshadowing  the  conclusion 
of  the  story.  "  I  want  you  to  make  as  good  a  drawing,"  said  Dickens, 
"as  Cruikshank's  '  Fagin  in  the  Condemned  Cell,'" — a  suggestion 
which  Mr.  Fildes  did  not  approve,  as  any  attempt  on  his  part  to 
treat  the  subject  in  the  Cruikshankian  manner  might  be  resented  as 
an  obvious  plagiarism,  although  a  comparison  of  the  two  designs 
would  have  proved  interesting. 

It  was  decreed,  alas !  that  Mr.  Fildes 's  visit  to  Charles  Dickens's 
"little  Kentish  freehold"  would  never  be  realised  while  the  great 
writer  lived.    On  the  morning  of  the  appointed  day,  Dickens  intended 

Plate    LXVI 

study  for 

Facsimile  of  the  Original  Sketch  by 

This  figure  appears  in  the  Illustration  entitled  •■  Mr.  Grewgious  has  his 
Suspiaons."     Vide  -  The  Mystery  of  Edwin  Drood." 

/^nt  by  the  Anisl. 


LUKE    FILDES,    R.A.  215 

making  his  usual  weekly  call  at  the  office  of  All  the  Year  Round, 
and  was  to  have  been  accompanied  on  his  return  by  Mr.  Fildes. 
That  very  day,  however,  the  artist  (whose  luggage  was  packed  ready 
for  departure)  took  up  the  newspaper,  and  was  startled  to  read  the 
melancholy  intelligence  that  Dickens  was  no  more.  This  terribly 
sudden  death  changed  everything ;  but  in  order  to  fulfil  the  novelist's 
express  desire,  the  artist  was  invited  (after  the  funeral)  to  stay  with 
the  Dickens  family.  "It  was  then,"  remarks  Mr.  Fildes,  "while  in 
the  house  of  mourning,  I  conceived  the  idea  of  "  The  Empty  Chair," 
and  at  once  got  my  colours  from  London,  and  made  the  water-colour 
drawing  a  very  faithful  record[of  his  library."  * 

The  death  of  Dickens  had  an  extraordinary  effect  on  Mr.  Fildes, 
for  it  seemed  as  though  the  cup  of  happiness  had  been  dashed  from 
his  lips.  Following  the  example  of  Mr.  Marcus  Stone,  he  decided  to 
abandon  black-and-white  illustration  and  direct  his  entire  attention  to 
painting,  with  what  success  all  the  world  knows.  In  1879  he  was 
elected  an  Associate  of  the  Royal  Academy,  and  attained  full  honours 
eight  years  later.  The  first  picture  that  brought  him  into  notice  was 
"  Applicants  for  Admission  to  a  Casual  Ward "  (exhibited  at  the 
Royal  Academy  in  1874),  this  being  elaborated  from  The  Graphic 
drawing,  "  Houseless  and  Hungry,"  which,  as  already  described,  led 
to  his  acquaintance  with  the  author  of  "  Pickwick."  While  occupied 
with  this  important  canvas,  Mr.  Fildes  was  desired  by  Forster  to 
call  upon  him,  and,  on  entering  the  study,  he  was  interrogated  respect- 
ing his  welfare ;  for  Forster  apparently  opined  that  the  demise  of  the 
novelist,  and  the  consequent  termination  of  his  illustration-work  for 
"  Edwin  Drood,"  might  have  caused  the  young  artist  some  embar- 
rassment. After  listening  intently  to  Mr.  Fildes's  description  of  the 
subject  he  was  then  painting,  Forster  suddenly  exclaimed,  "  How 
very  strange !  You  are  exactly  depicting  a  scene  witnessed  by 
Dickens  himself  many  years  ago.  I  have  just  copied  his  letter 
referring  to  it,  which  has  never  been  out  of  my  possession  ; "  and 

'  An  engraved  reproduction  of  this  picture  appeared  in  The  Graphic  Christmas  number,  187a 


from  an  accumulation  of  papers  on  his  desk  (for  he  was  then  preparing 
his  biography  of  the  novelist)  he  abstracted  the  missive  in  which 
the  novelist  alluded  to  the  unfortunate  outcasts  as  "  dumb,  wet,  silent 
horrors — sphinxes  set  up  against  that  dead  wall,  and  none  likely  to 
be  at  the  pains  of  solving  them  until  the  general  overthrow."  Mr. 
Fildes  was  so  struck  by  this  coincidence,  that  he  sought  and  obtained 
permission  to  quote  Dickens's  forcible  sentence  under  the  title  of  his 
picture  when  printed  in  the  Academy  Catalogue. 

Mr.  Luke  Fildes  has  many  pleasant  recollections  of  Charles 
Dickens  to  impart.  "  He  was  extremely  kind  to  me,"  observes  the 
artist,  "and,  when  living  in  Hyde  Park  Place,  asked  me  to  many 
of  his  entertainments.  He  was  almost  fatherly,  seeming  to  throw 
a  protecting  air  over  me,  and  always  elaborately  introducing  me  to 
his  guests."  The  artist  still  cherishes,  as  valued  mementoes,  a  little 
memorandum  porcelain  slate  bound  in  leather,  a  quill  pen  with  the 
blue  ink  dried  upon  it,  and  a  square  sheet  of  blue  paper,  which  were 
given  to  him  by  Miss  Hogarth,  who  found  them  on  the  novelist's 
desk  just  as  he  had  left  them. 

When  Dickens  died,  only  three  numbers  of  "  The  Mystery  of 
Edwin  Drood  "  had  been  published.  The  illustrations  for  the  ensuing 
portion  of  the  story,  as  completed  up  to  the  time  of  his  brief  but  fatal 
illness,  had  yet  to  be  executed,  and  it  is  interesting  to  know  that  the 
titles  for  these  were  composed  by  the  artist.  With  a  view  to  future 
numbers,  Mr.  Fildes  had  made  several  drawings  in  Rochester,  in- 
cluding the  choir  of  the  Cathedral  and  the  exterior  of  Eastgate  House 
{t.e.  "  The  Nuns'  House"),  which  were  never  utilised  ;  he  also  painted 
a  view  of  Rochester  Castle  and  Cathedral  as  seen  from  the  Medway, 
this  being  reproduced  as  a  vignette  for  the  engraved  title-page.  The 
artist  invariably  signed  his  drawings  "  S.  L.  Fildes  ; "  but  in  the 
vignette  here  referred  to  the  signature  incorrectly  appears  as  "J. 
L.  Fildes." 

It   will   readily   be   conceded   that    Mr.    Fildes's   illustrations   for 
Dickens's   final   romance   are   remarkable    for    a  serious   and   sound 






Plate  LXVII 


Faesimilt  of  ihe  Original  Sketch  by 
LUKE    FILDES.    R  A. 

This  figure  appears  in  the  Illustration  entitled  "  Up  the  River." 
Vidt  "  The  Mystery  of  Edwin  Drood." 

Untby  the  Artist. 



LUKE    FILDES,    R.A.  217 

draughtsmanship,  while  the  lifelike  delineation  of  the  various  characters, 
as  well  as  the  pictorial  exactitude  of  backgrounds  and  accessories, 
invite  careful  study  and  examination.  Without  unduly  disparaging 
the  excellent  etchings  by  Cruikshank  and  "  Phiz,"  it  must  be  admitted 
that  there  is  a  vitality  appertaining  to  Mr.  Fildes's  designs  which 
imparts  to  them  a  reality  not  always  discoverable  in  the  illustrations 
produced  by  those  admirable  artists. 




C.  R.  Leslie,  R.A. — Design  for  "  Pickwick" — Washington  living's  Tribute  to  the  Artist — Por- 
trait of  "Dickens  as  Captain  Bobadil"— T.  Webster,  R.A. — His  Picture  of  "Dotheboys 
Hall"— A.  Boyd  Houghton— Illustrations  for  "  Hard  Times"  and  "  Our  Mutual  Friend" 
— G.  J.  PiNWELL — Illustrations  for  "The  Uncommercial  Traveller" — Interesting  Portrait 
of  the  Novelist— F.  Walker,  A.R.A. — Illustrations  for  "Reprinted  Pieces"  and  "Hard 
Times  "—Illustrators  of  the  Household  Edition— C.  Green,  F.  Barnard,  J.  Mahonev, 
E.  G.  Dalziel,  F.  A.  Fraser,  G.  Thomson,  H.  French,  A.  B.  Frost,  and  J. 
M'^L.  Ralston — Charles  Green's  Illustrations  for"The  Old  Curiosity  Shop,"  "Great  Expec- 
tations," and  the  Christmas  Books — F.  Barnard,  the  Premier  Illustrator  of  Dickens — The 
Novels  Illustrated  by  him — His  Favourite  Model — Tragic  Death  of  the  Artist — An 
American  Household  Edition  — New  Designs  by  C.  S.  Reinhart,  T.  Worth,  W.  L. 
Sheppard,  E.  A.  Abbey,  A.  B.  Frost,  and  T.  Nast— Illustrations  by  J.  M'^Lenan— F.  O. 
C.  Darley — His  Reputation  as  a  Draughtsman — His  Designs  for  an  American  House- 
hold Edition  Engraved  on  Steel — Independent  Illustrations — Death  of  the  Artist — Sir 
John  Gilbert's  Designs  for  "  Holiday  Romance  "— G.  G.  White— S.  Eytinge— Prolific 
Contributor  to  Books  and  Periodicals — His  Picture  of  "  Mr.  Pickwick's  Reception  " — De- 
signs for  the  Diamond  Edition,  &c.  —  Character  Sketches  —  Dickens's  Admiration  of 
the  Artist's  Conceptions — Gives  a  Sitting  for  his  Portrait  —  A  Unique  Print — Eytinge 
Visits  Gad's  Hill— Illustrations  by  H.  Billings  for  "A  Child's  Dream  of  a  Star"— The 
"Christmas  Carol"  Designs  by  Gaogengigl  and  Chominski— "  The  Cricket  on  the 
Hearth  "  Designs  by  Marold  and  MiTTis,  and  L.  Rossi— Some  Dickens  Illustrations  by 
J.  Nash,  T.  W.  Wilson,  J.  E.  Christie,  and  G.  Browne— Designs  by  E.  J.  Wheeler 
for  "Tales  from  Pickwick"— Illustrations  by  Phil  May,  Maurice  Greiffenhagen,  and 
Harry  Furniss — Coloured  Frontispieces  for  the  Temple  Library  Edition. 

BESIDES  the  illustrators  of  the  original  issues  of  Charles  Dickens's  novels 
there  are  other  distinguished  artists  concerning  whose  designs  for  the 
cheaper  editions  some  mention  should  be  made  in  the  present  work. 
Besides  Clarkson  Stanfield,  R.A.,  who  has  already  been  referred  to  as  supplying 
the  frontispiece  to  the  first  cheap  issue  of  "American  Notes,"  Dickens  was  under 
a  similar  obligation  to  two  other  Royal  Academicians,  Leslie  and  Webster,  for 
frontispieces  to  the  first  cheap  edition  of  "Pickwick"  (1847)  and  "Nicholas 
Nickleby  "  (1848)  respectively.  Charles  Robert  Leslie,  of  whom  Thackeray  once 
r*  1?  T  r  PA  ^^^^  ^^^  ^°  artist  possessed  so  much  as  he  "the  precious 
.  K»  Vx&  e,  quality  of  making  us  laugh  kindly,"  found  a  suitable  subject 

in  the  twelfth  chapter  of  "The  Pickwick  Papers,"  his  illustration  representing 


220  APPENDIX    I 

Mrs.  Bardell  fainting  in  the  arms  of  Mr.  Piclcwick, — an  incident  that  had 
already  been  depicted  by  "  Phiz."  The  original  picture  by  Leslie  —  which 
was  a  commission  from  Dickens  —  is  a  cabinet-painting  in  grisaille  or  mono- 
chrome; it  realised  £137,  lis.  at  the  sale  of  the  novelist's  effects  in  1870, 
and  is  now  the  property  of  Mr.  William  Wright,  of  Paris.  It  seems  probable 
that  Dickens  owed  his  introduction  to  this  artist  through  the  friendly  inter- 
vention of  Washington  Irving,  who,  in  May  1841,  thus  wrote  to  the  novelist: 
"  Do  you  know  Leslie  the  painter,  the  one  who  has  recently  painted  a  picture 
of  Queen  Victoria  ?  If  you  do  not,  I  wish  you  would  get  acquainted  with 
him.  You  would  like  one  another.  He  is  full  of  talent  and  right  feeling.  He 
was  one  of  my  choice  and  intimate  companions  during  my  literary  sojourn  in 
London.  While  I  was  making  my  early  studies  with  my  pen,  he  was  working 
with  his  pencil.  We  sympathised  in  tastes  and  in  feelings,  and  used  to  explore 
London  together,  and  visit  the  neighbouring  villages,  occasionally  extending  our 
researches  into  different  parts  of  the  country.  He  is  one  of  the  purest  and  best 
of  men,  with  a  fine  eye  for  nature  and  character,  and  a  true  Addisonian  humour." 
In  1846  Leslie  produced  his  well-known  picture  of  Dickens  as  Captain  Bobabil, 
in  Ben  Jonson's  play,  "  Every  Man  in  his  Humour,"  which  was  exhibited  in  the 
Royal  Academy  the  same  year ;  shortly  afterwards  the  painting  was  reproduced 
in  lithography  by  T.  H.  Maguire,  impressions  of  which  (especially  those  that 
were  coloured)  are  now  very  scarce. 

The  first  cheap  edition  of  "  Nicholas  Nickleby "  was  embellished  by  means 
_  __  p   .        of  a  frontispiece  engraved  on   wood  by  T.  Williams  from 

'  the  picture  by  T.  Webster,  R.A.,  which  (like  Leslie's)  was 

painted  for  the  novehst.  This  exquisite  painting  (measuring  only  ten  inches 
by  seven  inches)  depicts  the  familiar  scene  at  Dotheboys  Hall,  where  Mrs. 
Squeers  administers  the  much-dreaded  brimstone  and  treacle;  at  the  Dickens 
sale  the  interesting  little  picture  reahsed  the  substantial  sum  of  £535,  los.  It 
is  said  that  the  artist  was  so  thorough  and  so  persistent  in  illustrating  the 
humours  of  boys'  schools  that  he  earned  the  sobriquet  of  "  Dotheboys  Webster." 

The  first  cheap  editions  of  later  works  were  graced  with  frontispieces  from 

>.-  A   R  H       u  '^^  pencils  of  two  artists  better  known  as  draughtsmen  than 

-  /I  r   T  P'        11       ^^  painters.     These  were  A.  Boyd  Houghton,  who  designed 

the  frontispiece  for  "  Hard  Times  "  (1865)  and  "  Our  Mutual 
Friend"  (1867),  and  G.  J.  Pinwell,  who  furnished  an  illustration  for  "The  Un- 
commercial Traveller"  (1865) — all  of  which  were  engraved  on  wood  by  the 
Dalziel  Brothers.  In  1868  Pinwell  likewise  contributed  four  excellent  woodcut  illus- 
trations to  the  Library  Edition  of  the  same  work,'  and  it  is  interesting  to  note 

'  The  later  volumes  of  the  Library  Edition  were  issued  at  intervals  during  1862- 1868. 

APPENDIX    I  221 

that  in  one  of  these,  "Leaving  the  Morgue,"  he  has  introduced  a  full-length 
presentment  of  the  novelist.'    Associated  with  the  Library  Edition  we  find  the 
name  of  Fred.  Walker,  A.R.A.,  whose  position  as  a  designer  in  black-and-white 
F  W  lit      AJRJ^   stands  high  in  the  first  rank  of  English  masters.     This  clever 
*  artist  prepared  four  illustrations  respectively  for  "  Reprinted 

Pieces"  and  "Hard  Times"  (1868),  and  for  refinement  of  execution  they  have 
probably  never  been  excelled.  Fred.  Walker,  the  painter  of  those  world-famous 
pictures  known  as  "  The  Harbour  of  Refuge,"  "  The  Bathers,"  "  The  Lost  Path," 
&c.,  died  prematurely  of  consumption  in  1875,  at  the  age  of  thirty-five,  a  loss 
which  all  artists  and  art-lovers  have  never  ceased  to  deplore.  The  Library 
Edition  of  the  "Christmas  Stories"  is  illustrated  by  F.  A.  Fraser,  H.  French, 
E.  G.  Dalziel,  J.  Mahoney,  Townley  Green,  and  Charles  Green,  fourteen  wood- 
cuts in  all. 

After  Dickens's  death,  that  is,  during  1871-79,  Chapman  &  Hall  issued 
a  Household  Edition  of  his  novels,  ensuring  their  further  popularity  by  inserting 
entirely  fresh  illustrations.  The  artists  selected  for  this  undertaking  were  Charles 
Green,  Fred.  Barnard,  J.  Mahoney,  E.  G.  Dalziel,  F.  A.  Fraser,  Gordon  Thomson, 
H.  French,  A.  B.  Frost,  and  J.  M<=L.  Ralston,  nearly  all  of  whom  had  already  been 
represented  in  the  Library  Edition.  In  commenting  upon  these  designs,  it  may 
be  remarked  that,  of  his  numerous  illustrators,  Dickens  has  never  been  more 
sympathetically  interpreted  than  by  Charles  Green  and  Fred.  Barnard. 

The   thirty-two    illustrations  contributed  by  Charles   Green  to  the    House- 
_,     J     ^  hold  Edition  of  "  The  Old  Curiosity  Shop "  contrast  most 

favourably  with  those  by  "  Phiz  "  in  the  original  issue  ; 
these  drawings,  which,  for  the  most  part,  were  made  upon  paper  by  means  of 
the  brush-point,  are  entirely  free  from  the  gross  exaggeration  and  caricature 
which  impart  such  grotesqueness  to  the  majority  of  the  figure  subjects  by  Habldt 
Browne  for  this  story.  Mr.  Green's  design  for  the  wrapper  enclosing  each 
part  of  the  Crown  Edition  of  the  novelist's  works  (subsequently  published  by 
Chapman  &  Hall)  is  cleverly  conceived,  for  here  he  has  introduced  all  the 
leading  personages,  happily  grouped  around  the  principal  figure,  Mr.  Pickwick, 
who  occupies  an  elevated  position  upon  a  pile  of  books  representing  the  novels 
of  Dickens.  A  few  years  ago  Messrs.  A.  &  F.  Pears  commissioned  Mr.  Green 
to  design  a  number  of  illustrations  for  a  series  of  their  Annuals,  the  artist's 
services  being  specially  retained  for  the  following  reprints  of  Dickens's  Christmas 
Books:  "AChristmas  Carol"  (1892),  twenty-seven  drawings;  "  The  Battle  of  Life  " 
( 1 893),  twenty-nine  drawings ;  "The  Chimes"  (1894),  thirty  drawings;  and  "The 
Haunted  Man"  (1895),  thirty  drawings.     His  latest  productions  as  a  Dickens 

'  The  Library  Edition  of  "The  Uncommercial  Traveller"  also  contains  four  illustrations 
signed  "  W.M.,"  which  are  much  inferior  to  Pinwell's  designs. 

222  APPENDIX    I 

illustrator  consist  of  a  series  of  ten  new  designs,  reproduced  by  photogravure 
for  the  Gadshill  Edition  of  "Great  Expectations,"  recently  published  by  Chapman 
&  Hall.  Undoubtedly  Mr.  Green's  most  important  work  in  connection  with 
Dickens  is  to  be  found  in  his  water-colour  drawings  of  scenes  from  the  novels, 
of  which  a  complete  list  is  given  in  the  chapter  entitled  "Dickens  in  Art."^ 

Fred.  Barnard  has  come  to  be  considered,  par  excellence,  the  illustrator  of 
F  (4  B  «1  ^^  famous  novelist;  indeed,  he  has  been  not  inaptly  termed 
"the  Charles  Dickens  among  black-and-white  artists."  Like 
Dickens  himself,  he  was  essentially  a  humorist,  and  his  designs,  although 
never  lacking  in  infectious  humour,  had  always  something  in  them  which  raised 
them  above  the  commonplace.  To  his  skilful  and  vigorous  pencil  the  House- 
hold Edition  is  indebted  for  the  majority  of  the  illustrations  appearing  therein,  as 
the  following  list  testifies:  "Sketches  by  Boz,"  "Nicholas  Nickleby,"  "Martin 
Chuzzlewit,"  "Barnaby  Rudge,"  "Master  Humphrey's  Clock"  (incidental  chapters), 
"  David  Copperfield,"  "  Dombey  and  Son,"  "  Bleak  House,"  "  Christmas  Books," 
"A  Tale  of  Two  Cities,"  "Hunted  Down,"  "Holiday  Romance,"  and -"George 
Silverman's  Explanation," — making  a  grand  total  of  nearly  four  hundred  and 
fifty  drawings.  There  is  no  doubt  that  Fred.  Barnard  "knew  his  Dickens" 
as  well  as  any  man,  and  he  produced  (independently  of  the  foregoing  designs) 
a  number  of  pictures  and  drawings  of  characters  and  scenes  from  the  novels, 
to  which  special  reference  is  made  in  the  next  chapter. 

Mr.  M.  H.  Spielmann  informs  me  that,  for  the  purposes  of  his  Dickensian 
subjects,  the  model  who  sat  to  Barnard  was  the  late  well-known  French.  The 
tragic  death  (in  his  fiftieth  year)  of  this  popular  artist  in  September  1896  is 
not  yet  forgotten.  He  had  accustomed  himself  to  the  pernicious  habit  of 
smoking  in  bed,  and  falling  asleep  (under  the  influence  of  a  powerful  drug) 
while  his  pipe  was  yet  alight,  the  bedding  caught  fire,  with  the  result  that  he 
was  suffocated  by  the  smoke,  his  body  being  much  burned. 

The  Household  Edition  was  simultaneously  published  in  London  and  New 

York,    Harper    &    Brothers    having    arranged   with    Chapman    &    Hall   to   be 

supplied  with  clichh  of  the  illustrations.     For  some  reason,  however,  the  English 

engravings  do  not  appear  in  several  of  the  volumes  thus  issued  in  America,  there 

,  being  substituted  for  them  a  similar  number  of  entirely  new  designs 

"Household     ^^  ^^^  following  American  artists:   C.  S.   Reinhart  ("Nicholas 

Edition."  Nickleby,"  "The  Uncommercial  Traveller,"  and  "Hard  Times"), 

Thomas  Worth  ("The  Old  Curiosity  Shop"),  W.  L.  Sheppard 

("Dombey  and  Son"),  E.  A.  Abbey,  R.A.  ("Christmas  Stories"),  A.  B.  Frost 

("Sketches  by  Boz"),  and  Thomas  Nast  ("Pickwick"  and  "American  Notes"). 

'  During  the  printing  of  this  work,  the  death  was  announced  of  Mr.  Charles  Green,  R.I., 
who  succumbed  to  a  painful  illness  of  long  standing. 


APPENDIX    I  223 

Mr.  Nast  has  also  illustrated  various  Dickens  subjects  for  American  magazine*, 
and  independent  works  such  as  "Gabriel  Grub"  (from  "Pickwick"),  issued  by 
McLoughin  as  a  Christmas  book.  Mr.  Frost  is  likewise  responsible  for  twelve 
illustrations  engraved  on  wood  for  an  edition  of  "  Pickwick  "  published  a  few  years 
ago  by  Ward,  Lock  &  Co.,  of  London  and  New  York ;  and  there  is  a  design  by 
him  in  Scribner's  Magazine,  December  1897,  entitled  "That  Slide,"  and  depicting 
the  familiar  scene  described  in  the  thirtieth  chapter  of  "Pickwick."  In  1859 
Harper  &  Brothers  printed  "  A  Tale  of  Two  Cities "  as  a  serial  in  Harper's 
Weekly,  with  thirty-four  woodcut  illustrations  by  a  New  York  artist,  J.  M^Lenan, 
and  in  the  following  year  the  same  firm  similarly  produced  "  Great  Expectations," 
with  twenty-seven  illustrations  by  that  artist,  the  first  chapter  appearing  in 
November  i860.  Both  stories  were  subsequently  issued  in  volume  form  by 
T.  B.  Peterson  &  Brothers,  of  Philadfelphia. 

Perhaps  the  best  of  Dickens's  American  illustrators  was  Felix  Octavius  Carr 
F  O  C  D    I  Darley,  a  most  eminent  and  successful  "  character  "  draughts- 

man, whose  productions  are  both  original  and  clever.  When, 
in  1 860,  an  octavo  edition  (also  designated  the  Household  Edition)  was  prepared 
by  W.  A.  Townsend  &  Co.  of  New  York,  it  was  proposed  that  the  services  of 
Darley  and  Mr.  (afterwards  Sir)  John  Gilbert  should  be  secured  as  illustrators  for 
the  new  venture,  this  resulting  in  the  American  artist  executing  nearly  the  whole 
of  the  vignette  designs,  all  of  which  assumed  the  form  of  frontispieces.  He  had 
already  prepared  more  than  five  hundred  illustrations  for  an  edition  of  Cooper's 
novels,  so  it  is  probable  that  the  excellence  of  those  drawings  led  to  his  engage- 
ment in  a  like  capacity  for  this  Household  Edition  of  Dickens.  His  designs,  which 
were  beautifully  engraved  on  steel,  are  very  refined  both  as  regards  conception  and 
execution,  and  are  especially  interesting  as  indicating  an  intelligent  appreciation, 
on  the  part  of  a  Transatlantic  artist,  of  the  nov^ist's  characterisation,  the  ex- 
travagant and  grotesque  being  instinctively  avoided.  Darley,  although  born  in 
Philadelphia  in  1822,  was  the  son  of  an  English  actor;  his  natural  gift  for  draw- 
ing was  properly  encouraged,  and  he  developed  into  one  of  the  most  efficient  book- 
illustrators  of  his  time ;  in  addition  to  this  he  achieved  a  distinct  reputation 
through  the  production  of  large  prints,  such  as  "The  Village  Blacksmith,"  "The 
Unwilling  Labourer,"  "  The  Wedding  Procession,"  "  Washington's  Entry  into  New 
York,"  and  other  popular  subjects.  The  Dickens  series  of  designs  have  recently 
been  reprinted  by  Houghton,  Mifflin  &  Co.  (Boston  and  New  York)  for  their 
Standard  Library  Edition.  Darley  also  prepared  six  drawings  for  a  little  work 
entitled  "  Children  from  Dickens's  Novels,"  and  subsequently  painted  a  series 
of  eight  familiar  scenes  from  Dickens,  which  were  reproduced  as  photo-etchings 
and  issued  in  sets ;  these  afterwards  appeared  in  an  Imperial  Edition  of 
the   novelist's  works   by  Estes  &  Lauriat,  Boston,   U.S.A.      Darley  continued 

224  APPENDIX    I 

to  occupy  himself  with  his  art  up  to  the  end  of  his  life,  but  withdrew  in  his  latter 
years  from  the  cities  to  his  home  at  Clayton,  Delaware,  where  he  died,  March 
27,  1888.1 

The  small  number  of  frontispieces  furnished  by  Sir  John  Gilbert  to  W.  A. 
_,    _  ,     /"|c__t  p  A    Townsend  &  Co.'s  Household  Edition  are  reprinted,  with 
'  those  of  Darley,  in  Houghton,  Mifflin  &  Co.'s  Standard 

Library  Edition.  It  is  perhaps  not  generally  known  that,  in  1868,  four  woodcut 
illustrations  were  specially  designed  by  Sir  John  for  one  of  Dickens's  minor  pro- 
ductions, "  Holiday  Romance," — a  short  story  written  expressly  for  Our  Young 
Folks,  a  magazine  published  by  Ticknor  &  Fields,  of  Boston,  U.S.A.  In  the 
original  announcement  we  read  that  the  artist  had  "  consented  to  waive  his  decision 
not  to  draw  again  on  wood,  in  order  to  give  additional  interest  to  Mr.  Dickens's 
'  Romance,' "  by  which  it  may  be  inferred  that  these  are  among  the  last  examples 
of  Sir  John's  skill  in  that  direction.  For  the  initials  in  "  Holiday  Romance,"  a 
Transatlantic  artist,  G.  G.  White,  was  responsible.  Sir  John  Gilbert,  R.A.,  P.R.W.S., 
also  produced  a  series  of"  Pickwick  "  illustrations,  now  exceedingly  rare,  particulars 
of  which  will  be  found  in  the  next  chapter.  This  accomplished  painter  and  prolific 
designer  died  so  recently  as  October  5,  1897,  in  his  eightieth  year,  and  of  him  it 
has  been  truly  observed  that  in  his  most  distinctive  line — viz.,  illustration — we 
can  look  in  vain  for  his  equal.  It  is  recorded  that  he  must  have  contributed 
no  fewer  than  thirty  thousand  subjects  to  the  pages  of  The  Illustrated  London 
News  alone,  besides  supplying  innumerable  designs  to  The  London  Journal  and 
other  publications.  It  is  therefore  no  exaggeration  to  say  that  Sir  John  Gilbert 
stands  out  pre-eminently  the  great  popular  illustrator  of  the  Victorian  era. 

Among  the  American  illustrators  of  the  writings  of  Dickens,  an  important 
„      _    ,  place  must  be  conceded  to  Sol.  Eytinge,  who  was  born  in  New 

York  in  1833.  He  began  to  draw  at  a  very  early  age,  and  for 
forty  years  was  a  most  industrious  illustrator  of  books,  papers,  and  magazines.  For 
a  long  time  he  was  connected  with  Harper  &  Brothers,  but  subsequently  became 
the  chief  artist  of  Every  Saturday,  published  by  Fields,  Osgood  &  Co.,  to  which 
he  contributed  many  Dickensian  subjects,  notably  a  large  picture  entitled  "Mr. 
Pickwick's  Reception,"  representing  Sam  Weller  introducing  to  Pickwick  the  lead- 
ing characters  in  the  various  novels.  To  the  Diamond  Edition  of  Dickens's  works, 
launched  by  Ticknor  &  Fields  in  1867,  Eytinge  made  several  full-page  drawings, 
each  of  the  principal  stories  containing  sixteen  illustrations,  all  of  which  were  en- 
graved on  wood.  He  also  made  some  drawings  for  a  volume  of  "  The  Readings  of 
Mr.  Charles  Dickens,"  and  subsequently  prepared  a  series  of  character  sketches, 

*  For  many  of  these  particulars   I  am  indebted  to  Messrs.  Houghton,  Mifflin  &  Co.'s 
Standard  Library  Edition  of  Dickens's  Works.  . 

APPENDIX    I  225 

which  were  etched  for  the  "  Dickens  Dictionary  [of  Characters],"  published  by 
Houghton,  Mifflin  &  Co.  in  their  Standard  Library  Edition.  Concerning  Sol. 
Eytinge's  illustrations  Dickens  said :  "  They  are  remarkable  alike  for  a  delicate 
perception  of  beauty,  a  lively  eye  for  character,  a  most  agreeable  absence  of 
exaggeration,  and  a  general  modesty  and  propriety  which  I  greatly  like."  On 
the  whole  these  pictures  are  well  done,  although  it  must  be  admitted  that  the 
artist  has  not  always  succeeded  in  satisfactorily  interpreting  his  author.  When 
the  novelist  last  visited  America  (1867-68),  his  portrait  was  painted  by  Eytinge, 
probably  from  sittings,  and  it  is  now  in  the  possession  of  Mr.  W.  E.  Benjamin  of 
New  York.  A  lithographic  reproduction  of  this  painting,  by  the  artist  himself, 
was  published  by  Ticknor  &  Fields  of  Boston  and  New  York  in  1868,  copies 
of  which  are  now  seldom  met  with.  I  am  enabled,  through  the  kindness  of 
Mr.  Stuart  M.  Samuel,  to  include  in  this  volume  a  replica  of  a  particularly 
interesting  impression  of  this  rare  print,  on  which  Dickens  has  written  the 
concluding  words  of  "A  Christmas  Carol:"  "And  so,  as  Tiny  Tim  observed, 
God  Bless  Us,  Every  One."  In  the  summer  of  1869  Eytinge  visited  the 
novelist  at  Gad's  Hill,  in  company  with  Lowell  and  Fields,  on  which  occasion 
they  together  explored  the  slums  of  East  London,  including  the  opium-dens 
so  faithfully  described  in  "Edwin  Drood."  The  artist  has  now  been  dead  for 
some  years ;  during  the  latter  part  of  his  career  he  lived  in  retirement,  on  account 
of  ill-health. 

I  hav^  not  attempted  to  enumerate  all  the  illustrators  who  have  executed 
drawings  for  the  innumerable  editions  of  the  works  of  Charles  Dickens,  pro- 
duced by  various  publishing  houses  both  at  home  and  abroad,  as  their  name 
is  Legion.  There  are,  however,  two  or  three  artists,  not  already  mentioned, 
to  whom  a  slight  reference  may  fittingly  be  made.  In  1871,  Fields,  Osgood 
&  Co.  reprinted  Dickens's  beautiful  and  pathetic  sketch  entitled  "A  Child's 
Dream  of  a  Star,"  with  ten  full-page  drawings  by  an  American  artist,  Hammatt 
Billings,  which  were  engraved  on  wood  by  W.  J.  Linton.  The  imprint  of 
another  Transatlantic  publisher,  S.  E.  Cassino,  appears  on  the  title-page  of  a 
choice  edition  of  "A  Christmas  Carol,"  1887,  quarto  size,  containing  twenty-four 
photogravure  reproductions  of  new  designs  by  J.  M.  Gaugengigl  and  T.  V. 
Chominski,  which  forms  an  attractive  item  for  the  collector  of  fine  books. 
This  work  was  also  on  sale  in  England  by  G.  Routledge  &  Sons,  who,  in 
1894,  brought  out  a  diminutive  edition  of  "The  Cricket  on  the  Hearth,"  very 
tastefully  printed  by  Guillaume  of  Paris,  and  containing  several  little  woodcuts 
designed  by  Marold  and  Mittis.  The  same  story  was  included  in  the  reprints 
of  Dickens's  Christmas  Books  published  by  A.  &  F.  Pears,  having  twenty- 
five  clever  illustrations  by  Lucius  Rossi,  carried  out  in  a  style  somewhat 
similar  to  those  by  Charles  Green.  Particular  interest  attaches  to  certain 
volumes    published    by   Cassell    &    Co.,    entitled    "Gleanings    from    Popular 


226  APPENDIX    I 

Authors"  (1882,  &c.),  as  they  contain  several  illustrations  of  Dickens  scenes 
by  Joseph  Nash,  Fred.  Barnard,  T.  Walter  Wilson,  J.  E.  Christie,  and  Gordon 
Browne,  the  son  of  the  famous  "Phiz."  To  a  booklet  entitled  "Tales  from 
Pickwick"  (G.  Routledge  &  Sons,  1888),  Mr.  E.  J.  Wheeler  contributed  seven 
original  and  well-executed  designs. 

Messrs.  Chapman  &  Hall's  recently-pubHshed  Gadshill  Edition  of  "Hunted 
Down "  and  "  George  Silverman's  Explanation "  contains  three  designs  by  Mr. 
Maurice  Greiflfenhagen,  who,  like  Mr.  Phil  May,  now  figures  as  an  illustrator 
of  Dickens  for  the  first  time.  Mr.  Greiffenhagen  is  also  preparing  six  original 
drawings  for  "  American  Notes  "  and  "  Pictures  from  Italy,"  which  will  be  repro- 
duced by  photogravure  for  the  same  Edition,  while  another  well-known  artist, 
Mr.  Harry  Fumiss,  has  been  commissioned  to  provide  four  illustrations  pf  a  like 
character  for  "  The  Uncommercial  Traveller." 

As  I  write,  another  edition  of  "  David  Copperfield  "  is  announced  for  early 
publication  by  Mr.  George  Allen,  the  special  feature  of  which  will  be  the  thirty- 
six  designs  by  a  new  Dickens  illustrator,  Mr.  Phil  May,  whose  admirable 
draughtsmanship  is  familiar  to  us;  there  will  also  be  issued  a  limited  number 
of  sets  of  the  illustrations, — full-size  facsimiles  of  the  drawings,  signed  by  the 
artist  and  accompanied  by  descriptive  text.  Messrs.  J.  M.  Dent  &  Co.  are 
preparing  an  edition  of  Dickens's  Works  for  their  Temple  Library,  an  interesting 
feature  of  which  will  be  a  series  of  coloured  frontispieces,  from  original  drawings 
by  Miss  L.  M.  Fisher,  Mr.  F.  C.  Tilney,  and  W.  C.  Cooke. 




Independent  Publications— Unauthorised  Designs— List  of  Additional  Illustrations— Diclceni'$ 
Calendars,  Relief  Scraps,  &c— "Alfred  Crowquill"— His  Etchings  in  Beniltys 
Miscellany — An  Admirable  Vocalist— His  Illustrations  for  "Pickwick  Abroad"— Kennv 
Meadows- "The  Nestor  of  Punch's  Staff"— His  Drawings  in  the  Illustrated  London 
News — His  Work  Criticised — A  Civil-List  Pension — A  Delightful  Raconteur — T.  Onwhyn 
—His  Signatures  of  "Sam  Weller,  Junr.,"  and  "Peter  Palette"— Illustrates  Cockton's 
Novels— Plates  for  "Pickwick"  Recently  Discovered— "Jacob  Parallel"— A  Punning 
Advertisement — His  Designs  for  "  Charley  Chalk"— F.  W.  Pailthorpe— The  only  Survivor 
of  the  "Old  School"— A  Friend  of  George  Cruikshank— Coloured  Plates— C.  D.  GIBSON— 
His  Drawing  of  the  Pickwick  Club — His  Individuality  of  Style. 

SINCE  the  publication  of  "The  Pickwick  Papers"  there  have  appeared,  from 
time  to  time,  a  number  of  designs  illustrating  the  novels  of  Charles  Dickens 
which  were  issued  independently  of  the  particular  stories  that  inspired 
them,  and  generally  without  letterpress.  Artists  and  publishers  alike  thus  availed 
themselves  of  the  enormous  popularity  achieved  by  Dickens's  writings,  confident 
in  the  belief  that  financial  success  would  attend  their  efforts.  Among  those 
responsible  for  the  designing  of  what  are  usually  termed  "  Extra  Illustrations " 
were  many  well-known  draughtsmen  of  the  day,  including  Habl6t  K.  Browne 
("  Phiz  "),  Sir  John  Gilbert,  R.A.,  Onwhyn,  Kenny  Meadows,  Alfred  Forrester 
("  Crowquill "),  and,  more  recently,  Fred.  Barnard  and  F.  W.  Pailthorpe.  It  must, 
however,  be  admitted  that,  with  regard  to  certain  productions  by  artists  less 
skilled  in  the  use  of  the  pencil  or  etching-needle,  such  attempts  to  interpret 
Dickens's  conceptions  conspicuously  fail. 

In  particular  instances  the  publication  of  supplementary  plates  was  approved 
by  Dickens,  but,  for  the  most  part,  these  independent  illustrations  were  really 
unauthorised,  the  booksellers  merely  trading  on  the  popularity  of  the  novels 
(especially  the  earlier  ones),  which  afforded  unlimited  scope  for  pictorial  treatment. 
That  there  must  have  been  a  fairly  constant  demand  for  them  is  proved  by  their 
number  and  variety,  nearly  every  form  of  reproductive  art  being  made  available 
for  these  designs,  including  steel-engraving,  etching,  wood-engraving,  lithography 
chromo-Uthography,  photogravure,  &c.     Some  of  the  scarcer  sets  realise  high 


228  APPENDIX    II 

prices,  and  are  naturally  much  in  request.  In  the  following  list,  which,  I  believe, 
is  practically  complete,  I  have  included  a  few  Dickens  illustrations  that  were 
published  in  periodicals,  in  some  cases  with  letterpress;  although  these  cannot 
strictly  be  regarded  as  "  Extra  Illustrations,"  they  are  not  without  interest  to 
the  collector  of  such  ephemeral  productions.  The  names  of  the  artists  are 
alphabetically  arranged. 

J.  Absolon  and  F.  Corbeaux. 

Barnaby  Rudge. — Four  engravings  on  steel  by  Finden,  from  drawings  by 
Absolon  and  Corbeaux.  Crown  8vo,  green  wrapper,  price  one  shilling.  To 
accompany  the  first  Cheap  Edition,  1849.  London:  Chapman  &  Hall,  186 
Strand,  N.D. 

These  designs  were  portraits  of  the  principal  characters,  viz.,  Dolly  Varden 
and  Barnaby  Rudge,  by  J.  Absolon ;  Emma  Haredale  and  Miss  Miggs,  by 
F.  Corbeaux — the  latter  plate  forming  the  frontispiece. 

F.  Barnard. 

Character  Sketches  from  Dickens.— Six  lithographs,  portraits  of  Mrs. 
Gamp,  Alfred  Jingle,  Bill  Sikes  and  his  Dog,  Little  Dorrit,  Sidney 
Carton,  Pickwick.  Elephant  folio.  London :  Cassell,  Petter  &  Galpin,  N.D. 
[1879].  Afterwards  issued  as  photogravures  (20  in.  by  14J  in.),  price  one 
guinea.  Reproductions  on  a  reduced  scale,  etched  by  C.  W.  Walker,  were 
published  by  Estes  &  Lauriat,  New  York,  N.D. 

Character  Sketches  from  Dickens.— Second  Series.  Six  photbgravures. 
Portraits  of  the  two  Wellers,  Caleb  Plummer  and  his  Blind  Daughter, 
Rogue  Riderhood,  Mr.  Peggotty,  Little  Nell  and  her  Grandfather,  Mr- 
Pecksniff.     Same  publishers,  1884. 

Character  Sketches  from  Dickens. — Third  Series.  Six  photogravures. 
Bob  Cratchit  and  Tiny  Tim,  Uriah  Heep,  Dick  Swiveller  and  the 
Marchioness,  Betsy  Trotwood,  Captain  Cuttle,  Mr.  Micawber.  Same 
publishers,  1885. 

The  entire  series  of  eighteen  plates  were  republished  in  Mr.  Thomas 
Archer's  "  Charles  Dickens :  Gossip  about  his  Life,  Works,  and  Characters," 
issued  by  the  same  firm.  Sixteen  of  these  Character  Sketches  were 
subsequently  reproduced  in  a  cheap  form,  and  presented  to  the  readers 
of  CasselCs  Family  Magazine  upon  the  occasion  of  its  enlargement  in 
December  1896. 
Two  series  of  "Character  Sketches,"  reproduced  by  photogravure,  were 



Plate  LXVIII 


From  a  Phoiograph  by 
J.      F.      KNIGHTS 


From  a  Photograph  by 
J.      W.      ROLLER 

I^tit  by  Mrs.  P.  Barnard. 

]^cU^cy/<^  '^^^ 

APPENDIX    II  229 

included  in  "Gebbie's  Select  Portfolios  of  Literature  and  Art,"  Gebbie  & 
Husson  Co.  (Limited),  Philadelphia,  1888-89.  Eighteen  of  these  were 
executed  from  the  above  designs  by  F.  Barnard,  five  from  drawings  by 
other  artists,  and  one  from  a  photograph,  the  six  additional  subjects  being 
portraits  of  characters  not  comprised  in  Barnard's  gallery,  viz.,  Henry 
Irving  as  Jingle,  Mr.  Toole  as  the  Artful  Dodger,  Lotta  as  the  Marchioness, 
Jo  the  Crossing-Sweeper,  Newman  Noggs,  Mr.  Squeers  and  Mr.  Snawley, 
Montagu  Tigg  introduces  himself  to  Martin  Chuzzlewit  and  Tom  Pinch. 

The  India-Proof  Edition  was  issued  in  portfolios,  green  and  buff,  with 
embossed  design  in  gold  and  colour. 
The  Shakespeare-Dickens  Combination  Company.— Published  in  Lika 
Joko,  an  Illustrated  Weekly  Conducted  by  Harry  Fumiss,  from  November 
17,  1894,  to  February  23,  1895. 

W.  G.  Baxter. 

Studies  from  Charles  Dickens.  Two  series  of  portraits  of  the  principal 
characters,  twenty-two  in  each  series.  Published  in  Momus,  an  illustrated 
comic  weekly  periodical,  Manchester,  from  September  25,  1879,  to  February 
2,  1882.  A  selection  from  these  portraits  were  reprinted  in  C.  H.  Ros^s 
Variety  Paper,  February  1 888. 

C.  B.  Bracewell. 

Barnaby  Rudge. — Etching  of  Barnaby,  with  a  view  of  the  "  Boot "  Inn.  (The 
only  impression  I  have  seen  is  in  Mr.  J.  F.  Dexter's  Collection.) 

H.  K.  Browne  ("Phiz"). 

Pickwick. — "  Illustrations  to  the  Cheap  Edition  of  the  Works  of  Mr.  Charles 
Dickens."  Six  Illustrations  to  The  Posthumous  Papers  of  the  Pickwick 
Club,  Engraved  [on  wood]  from  the  Original  Drawings  by  "  Phiz."  Green 
wrapper,  small  8vo,  price  one  shilling,  N.D.  [  1 847].  London :  Darton  & 
Clark,  Holborn  Hill;  Joseph  Cundall,  12  Old  Bond  Street;  John  Menzies, 
Edinburgh ;  Cumming  &  Ferguson,  Dublin ;  James  Macleod,  Glasgow.  And 
sold  by  all  Booksellers  in  Town  and  Country.  The  word  "misletoe"  is 
misspelt  in  the  title  on  one  of  the  woodcuts.     {Seep.  72.) 

The  Old  Curiosity  Shop. — "Four  Plates,  engraved  [in  stipple]  under 
the  superintendence  of  Habldt  K.  Browne  and  Robert  Young,  to  illustrate 
the  first  Cheap  Edition  of  '  The  Old  Curiosity  Shop.' "  Price  one  shilling. 
Green  wrapper.  The  subjects  are:  Little  Nell  and  her  Grandfather,  the 
Marchioness,  Barbara,  and  The  Death  of  Little  Nell.     "  Published  with  the 

230  APPENDIX    II 

Approbation  of  Mr.  Charles  Dickens."  London:  Chapman  &  Hall,  1848. 
Also  proofs  on  india-paper,  one  shilling  each  portrait.  A  few  sets  coloured, 
now  very  scarce.    {See p.  85.) 

Barnaby  Rudge. — "Four  Plates,  engraved  [in  stipple]  under  the  superin- 
tendence of  Habldt  K.  Browne  and  Robert  Young,  to  illustrate  the  Cheap 
Edition  of  '  Barnaby  Rudge.' "  Portraits  of  Emma  Haredale,  Dolly  Varden, 
Barnaby  and  Hugh,  Mrs.  Varden  and  Miggs.  "  Published  with  the  Approba- 
tion of  Mr.  Charles  Dickens."  London:  Chapman  &  Hall,  186  Strand,  1849. 
Issued  in  green  wrapper,  price  one  shilling.  A  few  sets  coloured,  now 
very  scarce.  These  and  the  preceding  designs  were  re-engraved  by  E.  Roffe 
in  1889.    {Seep.  85.) 

"Little  Nell"  and  "Dolly  Varden."  Engraved  on  steel  by  Edwin 
Roffe,  from  hitherto  unpublished  drawings  by  Habldt  K.  Browne.  On  india- 
paper,  the  impression  limited  to  lOO  proofs,  with  remarques  printed  in  black, 
and  100  with  remarques  in  brown,  after  which  the  remarques  were  cancelled. 
These  plates  were  accompanied  by  explanatory  text,  and  issued  in  a  leatherette 
case,  price  los.  6d.  Published  by  Frank  T.  Sabin,  3  Garrick  Street,  W.C, 
and  John  F.  Dexter,  16  Minford  Gardens,  West  Kensington,  1889. 

DOMBEY  AND  SON.— "  The  Four  Portraits  of  Edith,  Florence,  Alice,  and  Little 
Paul.  Engraved  [on  steel]  under  the  superintendence  of  R.  Young  and 
H.  K.  Browne.  From  Designs  by  Habldt  K.  Browne.  And  Published  with 
the  Sanction  of  Mr.  Charles  Dickens."  London:  Chapman  &  Hall,  186  Strand, 
1848.  In  green  wrapper,  price  one  shilling.  These  engravings  were  also 
published  as  proofs  on  india-paper,  4to,  price  one  shilling  each  portrait. 
Some  sets  coloured. 

DOMBEY  AND  SoN. — "  Full-length  Portraits  of  Dombey  and  Carker,  Miss  Tox, 
Mrs.  Skewton,  Mrs.  Pipchin,  Old  Sol  and  Captain  Cuttle,  Major  Bagstock, 
Miss  Nipper,  and  Polly.  In  Eight  Plates,  Designed  and  Etched  by  Habldt 
K.  Browne,  and  published  with  the  Sanction  of  Mr.  Charles  Dickens." 
London:  Chapman  &  Hall,  186  Strand,  1848.  In  green  wrapper,  price  two 
shillings.  Some  sets  coloured.  The  series  of  twenty  plates,  viz.,  "The  Old 
Curiosity  Shop,"  "  Barnaby  Rudge,"  and  "  Dombey  and  Son,"  were  recently 
reprinted  on  india-paper,  and  issued  by  F.  T.  Sabin  in  a  portfolio,  price 
£2,  10s.    {See pp.  loo-ioi.) 


Master  Humphrey's  Clock.— No.  I.  Portraits  of  Master  Humphrey,  Little 
Nell,  and  the  Old  Man,  with  remarks  on  each  character,  and  an  address, 
stating  that  "The  following  sketches  are  the  commencement  of  a  series 
illustrating  the  principal  characters  in  'Master  Humphrey's  Clock,'  to 
appear  at  monthly  intervals,  in  parts  similar  to  the  present."     Etchings  by 

APPENDIX    II  231 

"Brush."  London,  printed  for  the  proprietor  by  W.  T.  Davey,  16  Great 
Sutton  Street,  Clcrkenwell;  published  by  W.  Britain,  1 1  Paternoster  Row,  1840. 
Price  one  shilling. 

Alfred  Bryan. 

Characters  from  Dickens.— Full-length  studies  of  the  principal  characters 
Published  m  Jack  and  Jill,  1886. 

Christopher  Coveny. 

Twenty  Scenes  from  the  Works  of  Dickens.— Designed  and  etched  by 
Christopher  Coveny,  with  letterpress  descriptions.  Sydney:  Printed  for 
Thos.  H.  Fielding  by  John  Sands,  374  George  Street,  1883.     4to. 

The  subjects  of  eleven  of  these  plates  are  taken  from  "  Pickwick."  A 
duplicate  plate  (No.  7),  representing  Mr.  Pickwick  and  his  friends  on  the 
ice,  is  also  included,  the  subject  being  re-etched  and  the  design  altered 
because  the  first  plate  too  much  resembled  "Phiz's"  rendering  of  this 

"Alfred  CROWQUILL"  (Alfred  Henry  Forrester). 

Pictures  Picked  from  the  Pickwick  Papers. — Forty  lithographs  (etchings 
on  stone)  by  Standidge  &  Co.,  from  drawings  by  "Alfred  Crowquill,"  com- 
prising nearly  two  hundred  subjects.  Issued  in  ten  parts  (or  sheets),  bufl 
illustrated  wrappers,  from  May  i  to  November  9,  1837.  Price  of  each 
part,  one  shilling  plain,  two  shillings  coloured.  Published  complete  in 
lavender-tinted  wrapper,  demy  8vo,  and  in  cloth.  London :  Ackermann 
&  Co.,  96  Strand  [1837].  The  plates  in  Part  \.  only  are  signed.  Repro- 
ductions have  also  been  issued,  etched  on  copper  by  F.  W.  Pailthorpe 
and  published  by  F.  T.  Sabin,  1880.  Price,  coloured,  £2,  15s.,  uncoloured, 
£\,  1 8s.  Within  the  last  few  years  sets  of  the  "Crowquill"  plates  have 
been  catalogued  at  twenty  guineas.     {See  also  "  Thomas  Onwhyn.") 

F.  O.  C.  Darley. 

Scenes  from  Dickens. — Eight  photo-etchings,  from  original  paintings — the 
last  productions  of  this  American  artist.  Issued  in  a  portfolio,  and  afterwards 
printed  in  the  Imperial  Edition  of  the  novelist's  works  by  Estes  &  Lauriat, 
Boston,  U.S.A. 


Scenes  from  the  Pickwick  Papers. — Designed  and  drawn  on  stone  by 
Augustus  Dulcken.  Four  plates,  oblong  folio,  illustrated  wrapper.  Under 
each  plate  is  a  descriptive  quotation.     London :  Bickers  &  Bush,  i  Leicester 

232  APPENDIX    II 

Square,  N.D.  [1861].  Proofs,  los.  66.  Very  scarce.  The  subjects  of  the 
designs  are :  (i)  Death  of  the  Chancery  Prisoner ;  (2)  Meeting  of  the  Ebenezer 
Temperance  Association ;  (3)  The  Leg  of  Mutton  "  Swarry ; "  (4)  The  Old 
Man's  Tale  about  a  Queer  Client.  On  the  wrapper  are  depicted  portraits 
of  Pickwick,  Sam  Weller,  and  Alfred  Jingle;  and  scenes  representing  the 
Shooting  Party  at  Wardle's,  and  Mrs.  Weller  entertaining  Stiggins. 

J.  W.  Ehninger. 

Dickens  Characters. — Photographic  reproductions  of  drawings  by  J.  W. 
Ehninger.  Cabinet  size,  price  one  shilling  each  portrait.  Published  by 
W.  A.  Mansell  &  Co.,  316,  317  (now  405),  Oxford  Street,  London,  1876. 
The  series  included  the  following :  Mr.  Pickwick,  Sam  Weller,  The  Fat  Boy, 
Rev.  Stiggins,  Mrs.  Gamp,  Mr.  Pecksniff,  Little  Nell  and  her  Grandfather, 
Dolly  Varden,  Florence  and  Paul  Dombey,  Edith  Dombey  (two  versions). 
Little  Em'ly,  and  Little  Dorrit 

C.  D.  Gibson. 

The  People  of  Dickens. — Six  large  photogravures  from  original  drawings. 
Issued  in  a  portfolio,  proofs,  20s.  London :  John  Lane ;  New  York : 
R.  H.  Russell,  1897.  These  drawings  were  originally  made  for  an 
American  publication  called  The  Ladies^  Home  Journal,  and  were  reprinted 
in  Black  and  White  at  intervals  during  1 896-97. 

Sir  John  Gilbert,  R.A. 

Pickwick. — "Appleyard's  Edition.  Price  2d.  Plates  to  illustrate  the  Cheap 
Edition  of  the  Works  of  Mr.  Charles  Dickens.  From  original  designs  by 
John  Gilbert,  Esq.  Engraved  [on  wood]  by  Messrs.  Greenaway  &  Wright." 
Eight  monthly  parts,  post  8vo,  each  containing  four  plates  engraved  on 
wood.  Buff  illustrated  wrappers.  Part  4  was  issued  with  Part  5  in  one 
wrapper,  and  the  same  condition  was  observed  regarding  Parts  7  and  8,  the 
price  of  these  double  numbers  being  fourpence.  Some  of  the  designs  are 
printed  on  the  front  of  the  wrappers,  and  on  the  inside  of  the  back  of  the  last 
wrapper  appears  a  list  of  the  thirty-two  plates,  with  pagination.  A  limited 
number  were  printed  on  india-paper.  London :  E.  Appleyard,  86  Farring- 
don  Street,  N.D.  [1847].     These  excellent  plates  are  extremely  rare. 

Nicholas  Nickleby. — "Appleyard's  Edition.  Price  2d.  Plates  to  illustrate 
the  Cheap  Edition  of  the  Works  of  Mr.  Charles  Dickens."  Thirty-two 
designs,  engraved  on  wood  by  Greenaway  &  Wright,  and  published  in 
parts.  Post  8vo.  The  first  instalment  (with  portrait  of  Squeers  on  a  buff 
illustrated  wrapper)  contains  four  designs,  which  were  all  that  Gilbert  pro- 

Plate  LXIX 


From  a  Photograph  by 
F.   W.    CLARK 

Lenliji  Ihi  Artist. 


From  a  Photograph 

Leat  by  Mr.  TmenUy  Green,  A".  /. 



APPENDIX    II  233 

duced,  the   remainder  (unsigned)  being    by  inferior  artists,   the  majority 
engraved  by  C.   M.  Gorway.     Published  complete  in  a  yellow  illustrated 
wrapper  by  E.  Appleyard,  86  Farringdon  Street,  London.     Price  is.  6d. 
"The  Cricket  on  the  Hearth."— Six  woodcut  Portraits  of  the  Principal 
Characters.     Unsigned.     The  Pictorial  Times,  Dec.  27,  1845. 

W.  Heath. 

"  Pickwickian  Illustrations."— Twenty  etched  designs,  demy  8vo.  Orna- 
mental paper  wrapper,  having  title  printed  in  gold  on  a  black  label.  Price  58. 
London:  T.  McLean,  Haymarket,  1837.  All  the  plates  bear  the  title, 
"  Pickwickian  Illustrations  "  as  a  headline,  and,  with  the  exception  of  the  last 
four,  are  numbered ;  the  last  four  bear  the  publisher's  imprint.  A  set  of  these 
scarce  etchings  was  recently  catalogued  at  twenty  guineas. 

"  Kyd  "  (J.  Clayton  Clarke). 

The  Characters  of  Charles  Dickens.— A  series  of  original  water-colour 
drawings,  signed  with  monogram,  J.C.C.  A  collection  of  these,  241  in 
number,  reaUsed  ten  guineas  at  the  Cosens  sale  in  1890.  Mr.  Thomas 
Wilson  possesses  331  drawings  by  "Kyd,"  which  probably  include  those 
formerly  owned  by  the  late  Mr.  F.  W.  Cosens. 

A  series  of  twenty-four  of  these  drawings  were  reproduced  by  chromo- 
lithography,  small  410,  illustrated  boards,  and  published  by  Raphael  Tuck  & 
Sons,  London,  Paris,  and  New  York,  N.D. 

The  Characters  of  Dickens.— Studies  of  a  few  of  the  leading  personages  in 
the  novels.     The  Fleet  Street  Magazine,  1887. 

•W.  Maddox  and  H.  Warren. 

"Little  Nell"  and  "Mrs.  Quilp." — Engraved  by  Finden  from  drawings  by 
W.  Maddox  and  H.  Warren  respectively,  for  the  first  Cheap  Edition  of  "  The 
Old  Curiosity  Shop,"  1848.  London:  Chapman  &  Hall.  Kenny  Meadows 
designed  a  portrait  of  "  Barbara  "  for  the  same  work. 

Kenny  Meadows. 

Dickens  Characters.— " Gallery  of  Comicalities." — "London  Particulars." 
This  series  of  portraits  (some  of  which  are  signed  with  the  artist's  initials) 
include  Fagin,  the  Artful  Dodger,  Charley  Bates,  Sam  Weller,  Oliver  Twist, 
Mr.  Bumble.  Each  portrait  is  accompanied  by  a  poem  of  forty  lines.  Pub- 
lished in  Belts  Life  in  London,  1838. 

Heads  from  "Nicholas  Nickleby." — Portraits  of  twenty-four  of  the  prin- 
cipal characters,  "from  drawings  by  Miss  La  Creevy."     Six  parts,  demy  Svo, 

234  APPENDIX    II 

price  6d.  each.  London:  Robert  Tyas,  Cheapside,  N.D.  [1839].  The  separate 
parts  were  enclosed  in  a  buff  illustrated  wrapper,  having  at  each  corner  a 
portrait  of  a  member  of  the  Nickleby  family,  and  in  the  centre  a  representa- 
tion of  Miss  La  Creevy,  seated  before  a  portrait  of  "  Boz  "  (after  S.  Laurence). 
Included  among  the  advertisements  in  the  first  number  is  an  announcement 
of  this  production,  with  an  engraving  depicting  Miss  La  Creevy  at  work. 
The  illustrations  are  here  said  to  be  "etched  by  A.  Drypoint,"  but  they  are 
really  woodcuts.  The  following  explanatory  statement,  which  forms  part  of 
the  announcement,  is  not  without  interest :  "  These  '  Heads '  will  comprise 
Portraits  of  tlie  most  interesting  individuals  that  appear  in  'The  Life  and 
Adventures  of  Nicholas  Nickleby,'  selected  at  the  period  when  their  very 
actions  define  their  true  character,  and  exhibit  the  inward  mind  by  its  out- 
ward manifestations.  Each  Portrait  will  be  a  literal  transcript  from  the 
accurate  and  vividly  minute  descriptions  of  this  able  and  graphic  author,  and 
will  present  to  the  eye  an  equally  faithful  version  of  the  maiden  simplicity  of 
Kate  Nickleby — the  depravity  of  Sir  Mulberry  Hawk — the  imbecility  of  his 
dupe — the  heartless  villainy  of  the  calculating  Ralph — the  generosity  of  the 
noble-minded  Nicholas — the  broken  spirit  of  poor  Smike — and  the  brutality 
of  Squeers.  These  and  many  others  furnish  subjects  for  the  display  of  the 
Artist's  genius,  and  will  form  an  interesting  and  most  desirable  addition  to 
the  work."  The  "  Heads  "  were  also  issued  in  a  collected  form,  in  a  green 
wrapper  and  in  cloth,  and  were  republished  in  "  The  Scrap  Book  of  Literary 
Varieties,"  the  names  of  the  characters  being  changed  into  brief  descriptive 
titles,  such  as  "  Miniature  Painter"  instead  of  "  Miss  La  Creevy."  Cloth,  8vo. 
London :  Edward  Lacy,  74  St.  Paul's  Churchyard,  N.D. 
"  Barbara." — Engraved  by  Finden,  and  published  with  two  plates  by  W. 
Maddox  and  H.  Warren  to  illustrate  the  first  Cheap  Edition  of  "The  Old 
Curiosity  Shop,"  1848.     Price  7d.     London:  Chapman  &  Hall. 

Thomas  Onwhyn  ("Sam  Weller,"  "Peter  Palette"). 

Illustrations  to  the  Pickwick  Club.— Thirty-two  plates  by  "Samuel 
Weller."  "The  local  scenery  sketched  on  the  spot."  The  majority  are 
signed  "Samuel  Weller,  delt. ;"  a  few  bear  the  artist's  initials,  "T.O.,"  while 
others  have  no  signature  appended.  Issued  in  eight  monthly  parts,  green 
wrappers,  demy  8vo,  one  shilling  each,  and  published  complete  in  one 
volume,  boards,  price  9s.  London:  E.  Grattan,  51  Paternoster  Row, 
1837.  According  to  the  announcement  on  the  cover  of  Part  I.,  there  were 
to  have  been  ten  parts,  and  india-proof  impressions,  4to,  price  2s.  Some  of 
the  unsigned  plates  are  much  inferior  to  those  bearing  Onwhyn's  signature. 
A  set  of  these  "  Pickwick  "  plates,  in  the  original  parts,  have  been  catalogued  at 
fifteen  guineas.    Lithographic  replicas  were  issued  in  small  8vo  by  J.  Newman, 

APPENDIX    II  235 

48  Watling  Street,  1848,  for  insertion  in  the  first  Cheap  Edition  of  "Pickwick." 
Twelve  of  these  plates  (etched  by  J.  Yeagcr)  were  included  in  a  "new 
edition  "  of  "  Pickwick  "  published  by  Carey,  Lea,  &  Blanchard,  Philadelphia, 
1838,  and  reprinted  in  1850.     {See  also  "Alfred  CrowquiU.") 

Illustrations  to  the  Pickwick  Club. — Twelve  etchings  on  steel,  1847. 
Published  in  green  wrapper  by  A.  Jackson,  224  Great  Portland  Street,  in  1894. 
Prices,  per  set,  india-proofs  30s. ;  coloured  by  Pailthorpe,  25s. ;  plain,  188. 

Illustrations  to  "Nicholas  Nickleby." — "Edited  by  'Boz.'  By  Peter 
Palette,  Esq."  Forty  etchings,  comprising  ten  portraits  and  thirty  scenes. 
Issued  in  nine  parts,  demy  8vo,  price  one  shilling  each,  green  and  buff 
wrappers,  having  a  design  representing  an  easel  with  a  palette  affixed. 
Published  at  intervals  from  June  30,  1838,  to  October  31,  1839,  and  subse- 
quently as  a  volume.  London  :  E.  Grattan,  Paternoster  Row,  1839.  The 
publisher,  when  launching  these  designs,  seemed  unable  to  determine  the 
exact  number  of  parts  in  which  they  should  appear.  On  the  wrappers  of 
Parts  I  to  5  it  is  stated  that  they  would  be  completed  in  eight  parts ;  on  the 
wrappers  of  Parts  6  and  7,  in  ten  parts ;  and  on  that  of  Part  8,  in  nine  parts. 
Parts  I  to  5  contain  four  plates  each,  6  to  8  contain  five  plates  each,  and  9 
contains  five  plates,  thus  making  the  full  complement  of  forty  designs.  The 
work  was  afterwards  republished  by  Grattan  &  Gilbert,  5 1  Paternoster  Row, 
and  again  reprinted  {circa  1847) — thirty-two  plates  only,  which  were  styled 
"  proofs " — in  small  4to,  on  buff  paper.  About  the  same  time  a  similar 
number  of  these  designs  were  issued  as  lithographs,  in  eight  parts,  small  4to. 
Newman,  N.D. 

In  1897,  Mr.  George  Allen,  of  156  Charing  Cross  Road,  issued  india-proof 
impressions  from  the  thirty-two  original  steel  plates  for  "  Pickwick,"  and 
from  thirty-eight  for  "  Nickleby,"  the  edition  being  strictly  limited  to  250 
sets  for  each  work.  Price  £S,  5s.  per  set.  Cloth  portfolio,  12  by  9  inches, 
with  title-page  and  list  of  subjects.     The  plates  have  been  well  preserved. 

H.  M.  Paget. 

Pickwick  Pictures. — Six  character  sketches,  printed  in  colours,  with  letter- 
press. Crown  8vo.  Illustrated  wrapper.  London :  Ernest  Nister,  24  St. 
Bride  Street,  E.G.  New  York:  E.  P.  Dutton  &  Co.,  31  West  Twenty-Third 
Street,  N.D. 

F.  W.  Pailthorpe. 

Pickwick. — Twenty-four  etchings,  from  original  drawings,  of  scenes  not  pre- 
viously illustrated.  Impl.  8vo.  Illustrated  wrapper.  London :  Robson  & 
Kerslake,  1882.  Price  two  guineas  the  set,  proofs  on  india-paper  (before 
letters),  three  guineas. 


236  APPENDIX    II 

Pickwick. — Three  vignette  titles,  etched  in  1892  for  an  extended  version  of  the 
Victoria  Edition.  An  original  tinted  drawing  (unpublished)  of  "  Gabriel  Grub 
and  the  Goblin  "  is  included  in  Mr.  Thomas  Wilson's  Collection. 

Oliver  Twist. — Twenty-one  etchings.  London :  Robson  &  Kerslake,  23 
Coventry  Street,  Haymarket,  1886.  Only  fifty  sets  printed,  a  few  of  which 
were  coloured  by  the  artist,  also  proofs  on  india-paper,  in  portfolio. 

Great  Expectations. — Twenty-one  etchings.  London :  Robson  &  Kerslake, 
23  Coventry  Street,  Haymarket,  1885.  Only  fifty  sets  printed,  a  few  of 
which  were  coloured  by  the  artist ;  also  proofs  on  india-paper,  in  portfolio. 

Mr.  Pailthorpe  has  designed  and  etched  frontispieces  (some  coloured)  for 
reprints  of  the  following :  "  The  Strange  Gentleman "  and  "  The  Village 
Coquettes,"  1880  (C.  Hindley);  "Is  She  His  Wife?"  "Mr.  Nightingale's 
Diary,"  and  "The  Lamplighter,"  1887  (Robson  &  Kerslake).  The  first 
set  of  impressions  of  the  frontispiece  for  "The  Village  Coquettes"  was 
coloured,  after  which  the  plate  disappeared,  so  that  no  plain  impressions 
could  be  issued.  The  only  uncoloured  print,  taken  before  the  completion 
of  the  etching,  is  included  in  Mr.  Thomas  Wilson's  Collection.  This  plate 
was  the  artist's  second  attempt  at  designing. 

Mr.  Pailthorpe  has  etched  a  portrait  of  Samuel  Weller  writing  his  love- 
letter,  for  "The  Origin  of  Sam  Weller"  (Jarvis  &  Son),  1883;  the  frontis- 
piece and  vignette-title  for  "A  New  Piljian's  Projiss,  written  by  Mrs.  Gamp, 
edited  by  Charles  Dickens,"  1890  (unpublished);  etched  borders  containing 
characters  and  scenes  from  Dickens,  for  Mr.  William  Wright,  of  Paris.  The 
artist  also  designed  six  new  plates  for  the  "  Memoirs  of  Grimaldi,"  which, 
however,  were  only  edited  by  Dickens. 

"Jacob  Parallel." 

"Jacob  Parallel's  Hands  to  Humphrey's  Clock;  or.  Sketches  from  the 
Clock  Case." — Twelve  etchings  on  steel,  illustrating  "The  Old  Curiosity  Shop  " 
and  "Barnaby  Rudge."  Two  parts,  Impl.  8vo,  green  illustrated  wrappers, 
price  two  shillings  each.  London :  G.  Berger,  Holywell  Street,  Strand, 
N.D  [1840-41].  A  series  of  illustrations  of  the  principal  scenes  and  portraits 
of  the  characters,  ten  for  the  first  story  and  two  for  the  second.  The  design 
on  the  wrapper  represents  Master  Humphrey  standing  on  a  chair  winding 
up  the  clock,  against  which  rests  a  framed  portrait  of  "  Boz." 

E.  Richardson. 

Barnaby  Rudge's  Portrait  Gallery. — During  the  serial  issue  of  "  Barnaby 
Rudge,"  Mr.  W.  Britain,  11  Paternoster  Row,  advertised  on  one  of  the 
weekly  wrappers  (August  28,  1 841)  a  series  of  twenty  "splendid  engrav- 
ings "  by  this  artist,  price  twopence,  but  I  have  never  seen  them. 

APPENDIX    II  237 

Thomas  Sibson. 

"SiBSON's  Racy  Sketches  of  Expeditions,  from  the  Pickwick  Club."— 
Ten  etchings,  with  letterpress,  demy  8vo,  green  illustrated  wrappers, 
price  2s.  6d.  London:  Sherwood,  Gilbert  &  Piper,  1838.  The  design  on 
the  wrapper  depicts  Dickens  standing  on  Mr.  Pickwick's  head,  holding  aloft 
an  enormous  quill  pen,  the  pseudonym  "  Boz  "  appearing  on  his  coat-sleevea.* 
The  above  title  is  printed  on  the  wrapper,  but  on  the  title-page  it  runs  thus : 
"  Sketches  of  Expeditions,  from  the  Pickwick  Club."  The  Preface  reads  as 
follows:  "Originally  the  Pickwick  Club  appeared  with  four  Illustrations: 
but  since  Death  chilled  the  life-depicting  hand  of  poor  Seymour,  two  Em- 
bellishments have  disappeared,  while  eight  pages  of  letterpress  have  been 
added.  These  papers,  thus  arranged,  bursting  as  they  do  with  incident,  and 
intoxicated  as  they  are  with  wit,  must  have  come  before  the  public  without 
Illustrations  for  many  of  their  most  striking  scenes.  Reader,  were  it  not  so, 
these  Sketches  had  never  seen  the  light  of  your  eyes.  The  artist's  hope  is 
(may  you  find  it  not  a  vain  one)  that  these  humble  efforts  may  afford  some  of 
the  pleasure  he  enjoyed  when  imagining  them. — 11  Buckingham  St.,  Portland 
Place,  London.  January  ist,  1838."  A  copy  of  this  scarce  work  realised 
;{ri8  at  Sotheby's  in  1895. 

"Illustrations  of  Master  Humphrey's  Clock." — Seventy-two  etchings, 
issued  during  the  publication  of  this  work,  1840-41.  Eighteen  parts,  each 
containing  four  plates,  some  with  remarques.  Impl.  8vo,  green  wrappers, 
price  one  shilling  each  part.  Afterwards  issued  in  two  volumes.  London : 
Robert  Tyas,  Paternoster  Row,  1842.  Only  seventy  plates  are  mentioned 
on  the  title-page  and  in  the  index.  On  some  of  the  wrappers  is  a  vignette 
of  a  clock,  and  on  others  we  find  a  representation  of  Master  Humphrey 
sitting  on  a  chair.  These  plates  are  exceedingly  scarce  in  the  original  parts 
as  issued,  sets  having  been  catalogued  at  twenty-five  guineas.  Copies  of 
some  of  the  Sibson  designs  were  etched  by  J.  Yeager  for  contemporary  pub- 
lication in  a  Philadelphia  edition  of  "  Barnaby  Rudge,"  together  with  similar 
replicas  of  a  few  of  "  Phiz's "  woodcuts  which  appeared  in  the  authorised 
English  edition. 

F.  Stone,  A.R.A. 

Nicholas  Nickleby. — "Three  Portraits  of  Kate  Nickleby,  'Tilda  Price,  and 
Madeline  Bray,  from  original  paintings  by  Frank  Stone,  engraved  [on  steel] 
by  Edward  Finden,  and  published  with  the  approbation  of  Mr.  Charles 
Dickens."  For  the  first  Cheap  Edition  of  "  Nicholas  Nickleby."  Crown  8vo, 
green  wrappers,  price  one  shilling.     Proofs  on  india-paper,  4to,  one  shilling 

238  APPENDIX    II 

each  portrait.  London:  Chapman  &  Hall,  i86  Strand,  1848.  The  engraved 
titles  are  as  follow :  "  Kate  Nickleby  sitting  for  her  Portrait,"  "  'Tilda  Price 
dressing  for  the  Tea  Party,"  and  "Madeline  Bray  pausing  in  her  Work." 
{See  pp.  178-9). 

"  Stylus." 

"The  Dickens  Aquarelles.  First  Series."— " Twelve  Original  Character 
Illustrations  of  the  Pickwick  Papers."  Portfolio,  illustrated  boards.  New 
York.    J.  W.  Bouton,  1152  and  706  Broadway,  1888. 

"The  Dickens  Aquarelles.  Second  Series." — "Twelve  Original  Char- 
acter Illustrations  of  '  The  Old  Curiosity  Shop.' "  Portfolio,  illustrated 
boards.  Same  publisher  and  date.  These  inferior  drawings  are  crudely 
coloured  by  hand,  the  name  of  each  Character  being  written  in  the  margin. 

Weld  Taylor. 

Nicholas  Nickleby.— "  The  Baron  von  Grogzwig."  Lithograph,  Impl.  8vo. 
"Sketches  by  Weld  Taylor,  No.  i."  London:  J.  Mitchell,  33  Old  Bond 
Street,  N.D.  In  1838  Weld  Taylor  reproduced  by  lithography  the  beautiful 
portrait  of  "  Boz  "  by  S.  Laurence. 

C.  H.  Wall. 

Martin  Chuzzlewit. — Four  woodcuts,  8vo,  green  illustrated  wrapper,  price 
sixpence.    London :  Hezall  &  Wall,  1 1 3  Strand. 

Nelson  P.  Whitlock. 

Dickens  Illustrations.—"  Twenty-four  Original  Sketches  from  the  Writings 
of  Charles  Dickens."    4to.     No  publisher's  imprint,  N.D. 

T.  C.  W. 

"Illustrations  to  Master  Humphrey's  Clock."— Four  lithographs, 
illustrating  the  first  portion  of  the  story.  Impl.  8vo.  No  publisher's  im- 
print, N.D.  Issued  without  a  wrapp>er.  Only  two  of  these  plates  are 
signed  (T.  C.  W.),  and  under  each  appears  a  descriptive  quotation. 


APPENDIX    II  239 

w.  c.  w. 

Pickwick. — Twelve  woodcut  portraits  of  "  Pickwick  "  characters,  first  published 
in  "Sam  Weller's  Jest  Book,"  issued  in  penny  numbers,  and  afterwards 
in  Nos.  48,  51,  52  of  a  weekly  paper  called  Tlu  Casket  (Dec.  2,  23,  30,  1837) 
in  twopenny  numbers.  London:  Berger  &  Co.,  Holywell  Street,  and 
Piggott  &  Co.,  Fleet  Street,  1837. 


"Original  Illustrations  to  the  Pickwick  Papers." — Four  parts,  each 
containing  four  designs.  Price  2d.  each  part.  Small  8vo.  Green  illustrated 
wrapper,  depicting  portraits  of  fourteen  Pickwickian  characters.  London : 
W.  Strange,  Paternoster  Row,  N.D.  [1847].  These  woodcuts  were  intended 
for  binding  in  the  first  Cheap  Edition.  On  the  wrapper  of  Part  I.  it  is  announced 
that  the  work  would  be  completed  in  eight  parts,  and  that  four  engravings 
would  be  issued  monthly;  but  it  is  believed  that  the  fourth  part  was  the 
final  one. 

In  1838,  a  number  of  woodcut  portraits  of  Dickens  Characters  were 
published  in  The  Penny  Satirist  and  in  Cleave' s  Penny  Gazette  of  Variety 
(Late  the  London  Satirist),  afterwards  called  Cleaves  Gazette  of  Varieties. 
These  woodcuts  consist  of  a  series  of  twelve  "  Portraits  of  Oliver  Twist "  and 
twelve  "Characters  from  'Nicholas  Nickleby,'"  with  descriptive  quotations, 
&c.,  and  were  enlarged  copies  of  the  figures  in  the  original  etchings  by  Cruik- 
shank  and  "Phiz."  They  were  afterwards  re-issued  on  a  broad  sheet, 
with  the  title,  "  Cleave's  Twelfth-Night  Characters,"  and  sold  by  J.  Cleave,  i 
Shoe  Lane,  Fleet  Street. 

In  1 84 1,  Cleave  issued  a  work  called  "  Parley's  Penny  Library,"  in  which 
were  introduced  selections  (in  the  form  of  dialogues)  from  "The  Old 
Curiosity  Shop"  and  "Bamaby  Rudge,"  then  in  course  of  pubhcation. 
They  were  illustrated  by  means  of  wood-engravings,  the  majority  of  those 
in  "  Barnaby  Rudge  "  being  enlarged  copies  from  "  Phiz's  "  original  designs. 
These  woodcuts  (twelve  in  number)  were  also  reprinted,  with  the  title, 
"  Cleave's  Gallery  of  Comicalities — Recollections  of  Barnaby  Rudge." 

On  the  wrapper  of  the  fourth  weekly  number  of  "  Master  Humphrey's 
Clock"  (April  25,  1840)  appears  the  following  announcement:  "Cheap 
illustrations  of  Boz.  Now  publishing,  on  a  broad-sheet,  nearly  as  large  as 
The  Times,  price  2d.  *  The  Twist  and  Nickleby  Scrap  Sheet,'  with  twenty- 
four  engraved  portraits.  Also,  price  2d.,  '  Sam  Weller's  Scrap  Sheet,'  con- 
taining forty  portraits  of  all  the  Pickwick  characters.    The  above  sheets  are 

240  APPENDIX    II 

enriched  with  poetic  effusions  by  A.  Snodgrass,  Esq.,  M.P.C.,  and  will  be 
found  worthy  the  attention  of  all  who  desire  '  to  laugh  and  grow  fat ; '  they 
are  alike  fit  for  the  scrap-book  of  the  mansion  or  the  walls  of  the  cottage." 
These  scarce  sheets  were  issued  by  Cleave,  having  doubtless  first  been 
published  in  his  Gazette. 

Certain  dramatised  versions  of  Dickens's  stories,  by  E.  Stirling  and 
others  (published  by  John  Buncombe  &  Co.,  lo  Middle  Row,  Holborn), 
contain  frontispieces  etched  by  Findlay,  which  are  worthy  of  the  Collector's 
attention.  Besides  these,  innumerable  Dickens  illustrations  have  appeared 
from  time  to  time,  embracing  every  form  of  reproductive  art.  Calendars, 
relief  scraps,  booklets,  &c.,  &c.,  both  in  colour  and  in  black-and-white,  are 
brought  out  by  enterprising  firms  year  by  year,  and  merely  to  catalogue 
them  would  now  be  practically  impossible. 


"Alfred  CrowqUILL." — The  actual  name  of  the  artist  who  favoured  this 
pseudonym  was  Alfred  Henry  Forrester.  Born  in  1804,  he  began  his  career 
as  a  draughtsman  when  eighteen  years  of  age,  distinguishing  himself  rather 
by  his  correctness  than  by  serious  forms  of  illustration.  At  the  death  of 
Seymour  in  1836,  he  competed  with  "Phiz,"  Thackeray,  Leech,  and  others 
for  the  vacant  post  as  illustrator  of  "  Pickwick,"  but  without  success.  For  a 
time  he  belonged  to  the  staff  of  Bentley's  Miscellany,  and  many  of  his  etchings 
appeared  in  that  journal  during  1840-43.  He  was  able  to  use  his  pen  and 
pencil  with  equal  facility  and  ability ;  in  addition  to  this  he  was  an  admirable 
vocalist,  and  we  are  told  that  most  of  the  Christmas  pantomimes  of  his  day 
were  indebted  to  him  for  clever  designs,  devices,  and  effects.  Forrester  was 
also  a  member  of  the  Punch  staff,  where,  owing  to  his  happy  and  genial 
disposition,  he  was  highly  popular.  Besides  his  "  Pickwick  Pictures,"  there 
are  other  designs  by  him  possessing  a  Dickensian  interest,  viz.,  the  illus- 
trations which  he  supplied  to  a  curious  production  entitled  "  Pickwick 
Abroad;  or, The  Tour  in  France,"  which  was  launched  by  G.,W.  M.  Reynolds 
in  1839.     "Alfred  Crowquill"  died  in  1872,  aged  sixty-eight. 

Kenny  Meadows. — This  clever  draughtsman  (who  abandoned  the  use  of  his 
first  Christian  name,  Joseph),  was  the  son  of  a  retired  naval  officer,  and  was 
bom  at  Cardigan  in  1790.  He  has  been  described  as  "the  Nestor  oi Punch's 
staff,"  and  not  only  did  he  contribute  many  humorous  designs  to  the  pages 
of  the  Fleet  Street  journal  during  the  'forties,  but  he  frequently  prepared 
elaborate  drawings  for  the  Illustrated  London  News,  in  the  early  volumes 
of  which  may  be  found  his  most  successful  delineations.  His  representations 
of  fairy  subjects,  although  marked  by  mannerisms,  were  in  great  request. 

APPENDIX    II  241 

His  work  is  hardly  remembered  in  this  generation,  but  to  speak  of  Kenny 
Meadows  "  is  to  recall  the  typical  art  of  the  illustrator  and  (such  as  it  was) 
of  the  comic  draughtsman  of  the  first  half  of  the  century." 

During  his  last  years  Kenny  Mcadows's  services  as  an  illustrator  of  books 
were  rewarded  by  a  pension  from  the  Civil  List  of  ;{^8o  per  annum.  He 
was  a  boon  companion,  a  delightful  raconteur  when  at  the  club,  and  a  jovial, 
roystering  Bohemian  when  he  left  it.  This  generous  and  kind-hearted  man 
died  in  1874,  when  he  had  almost  completed  his  eighty-fifth  year. 

It  is  worth  recording  that  a  highly-finished  drawing,  in  pen  and  ink 
and  sepia,  of  Ralph  Nickleby,  designed  by  Kenny  Meadows  as  an  illustra- 
tion for  his  series  of  "  Heads  from  '  Nicholas  Nickleby,' "  realised  £j,  los. 
at  Sotheby's  in  1893,  the  drawing  being  about  twice  the  size  of  the 

T.  OnwhyN. — This  artist,  best  known  perhaps  by  his  Extra  Illustrations  to 
"  Pickwick "  and  "  Nicholas  Nickleby,"  was  the  son  of  a  bookseller  in 
Catherine  Street,  Strand.  He  signed  his  Dickens  etchings  with  a  pseudonym, 
adopting  in  the  one  instance  that  of  "Sam  Weller,  Junr.,"  and  in  the 
other  that  of  "  Peter  Palette."  Onwhyn  also  prepared  several  plates  for 
"Valentine  Vox"  and  other  novels  by  Cockton.  He  occasionally  contri- 
buted to  Punch,  but  was  more  accustomed  to  the  etching-needle  than  the 
pencil,  his  drawing  on  wood  being  hard  and  unsympathetic.  This  popular 
book-illustrator  died  in  1886,  having  then  relinquished  drawing  for  a  period 
of  sixteen  years. 

The  twelve  plates  etched  by  Onwhyn  in  1847  to  illustrate  the  first  Cheap 
Edition  of  "  Pickwick "  were  intended  for  independent  publication,  to  com- 
pete with  the  series  of  extra  engravings  by  Gilbert;  but  before  there  was 
time  to  complete  the  necessary  arrangements  the  set  of  etchings  produced 
by  him  in  1837  were  re-issued.  This  took  the  artist  by  surprise,  and  he 
therefore  abandoned  the  idea  of  circulating  the  new  designs.  The  plates 
were  put  aside,  and  their  existence  forgotten  until  1893,  when  they  were 
unearthed  by  the  Onwhyn  family,  and  subsequently  purchased  by  Mr. 
Albert  Jackson,  of  Great  Portland  Street,  who  published  them  in  1894. 

"Jacob  Parallel."  —  The  etched  illustrations  by  this  artist  for  "Master 
Humphrey's  Clock "  are  decidedly  crude,  contemporary  criticisms  notwith- 
standing. Their  publication  was  announced  in  a  somewhat  original  manner 
on  the  wrappers  of  Dickens's  work,  when  the  latter  was  launched  in  weekly 
numbers.  One  of  these  advertisements  begins  thus:  "A  clock  is  of  no 
use  without  hands!  Then,  buy  'Hands  to  Master  Humphrey's  Clock.'" 
Concerning  these  curious  illustrations  a  contemporary  critic  punningly  ob- 
served :  "  These  '  Hands '  are,  upon  the  face  of  them,  a  very  striking  matter, 
and  no  clock  ought  to  be  wound  up  without  them.  .  .  .  They  give  the  finish 


242  APPENDIX    II 

that  was  wanted  to  the  '  Clock,'  and  the  public  will,  we  have  no  doubt,  keep 
them  going." 

In  1840,  a  book  was  published  in  parts  (by  G.  Berger,  Holywell  Street), 
entitled  "Charley  Chalk;  or,  The  Career  of  an  Artist,"  with  illustrations 
by  "  Parallel."  These  designs  were  declared  to  be  "  superior  to  many  in 
*  Nickleby,' "  while  the  volume  itself  was  described  by  reviewers  as  "  another 
'  Pickwick,' "  and  as  "  the  only  work  fit  to  stand  by  the  side  of '  Boz.' " 
F.  W.  PailTHORPE. — This  essentially  humorous  artist  and  etcher,  who  is  still 
living,  may  be  correctly  designated  the  only  survivor  of  the  "old  school"  of 
book-illustrators,  as  represented  by  Cruikshank  and  "  Phiz."  Mr.  Pailthorpe 
was  a  personal  friend  of  the  former,  to  whom  he  sometimes  alludes  as 
"dear  old  George  Cruikshank,"  and  doubtless  this  association  with  the 
famous  designer  considerably  influenced  the  style  and  manner  of  Mr.  Pail- 
thorpe's  work.  Indeed,  this  seems  obvious  to  any  one  who  compares  the 
many  Dickens  plates  drawn  and  etched  by  him  with  similar  designs  by  the 
illustrator  of  "  Sketches  by  Boz  "  and  "  Oliver  Twist."  A  noteworthy  feature 
of  Mr.  Pailthorpe's  illustrations  for  Dickens's  works  is  that  a  limited 
number  of  impressions  have  been  coloured  by  his  own  hand,  and  the 
designs  so  treated  are,  in  that  respect,  reminiscent  of  John  Leech's  plates 
for  "  A  Christmas  Carol." 

Mr.  Pailthorpe,  by  reason  of  his  unique  position  as  the  sole  represen- 
tative of  the  "old  school"  of  book-illustrators,  has  received  commissions 
from  publishers  to  copy  the  etched  designs  by  other  artists,  in  cases  where 
the  original  plates  have  been  lost  or  are  otherwise  inaccessible.  He  has 
thus  reproduced  "  Crowquill's "  "  Pickwick  "  illustrations,  the  two  cancelled 
designs  by  Buss  for  the  same  work,  two  of  Onwhyn's  illustrations  for 
"Nickleby,"  and,  quite  recently,  the  two  etchings  by  Cruikshank  for  the 
Mudfog  Papers ;  these  replicas  have  just  appeared  in  the  Gadshill  Edition 
now  being  issued  by  Chapman  &  Hall. 
Charles  Dana  Gibson. — This  young  American  artist,  who  has  frequently  con- 
tributed to  a  New  York  journal  called  Life,  recently  essayed  to  illustrate 
Dickens  by  means  of  a  series  of  cleverly-executed  drawings  representing 
some  of  the  principal  characters  and  incidents.  The  most  satisfactory  is 
his  picture  of  the  Pickwick  Club,  the  portrait  of  Mr.  Pickwick  himself  being 
capitally  depicted.  There  is  a  distinct  individuality  of  style  in  Mr.  Gibson's 
work,  rendered  for  the  most  part  in  pen-and-ink,  and  marked  by  a  simplicity 
of  treatment  which  is  eminently  attractive  and  effective.  Although  great 
ability  in  draughtsmanship  distinguishes  all  his  drawings,  it  may  be  con- 
tended that  he  is  not  invariably  fortunate  in  realising  the  novelist's  con- 
ceptions. Mr.  Gibson's  drawings  of  Dickens  subjects  have  been  excellently 
reproduced  on  both  sides  of  the  Atlantic. 



Paintings  of  Scenes  and  Characters  in  Dickens's  Novels— Portraits  of  Dolly  Varden  and 
Kate  Nickleby  Painted  for  the  Novelist  by  Mr.  W.  P.  Frith,  R.A.— A  Humorous  Adver 
tisement— Sale  of  the  Two  Pictures— Mr.  Frith's  Recollections— Mr.  James  Hamilton 
Presents  to  Dickens  his  Sketch  of  "What  are  the  Wild  Waves  Saying?"— The  Artist 
Rewarded  for  his  Generosity — Water-Colour  Drawings  by  Charles  Green — How  they 
Originated — An  Interesting  Series. 

THE  novels  of  Charles  Dickens  are  an  interminable  storehouse  of  subjects 
for  pictures,  so  it  is  not  surprising  that  they  have  always  exercised  a 
fascination  over  painters.  The  following  is  a  list  merely  of  those  pictures 
that  have  come  under  my  notice, — a  collection  which,  doubtless,  could  be  much 
amplified  by  reference  to  the  catalogues  of  the  Royal  Academy  and  other  im- 
portant Art  galleries. 

\y.  A.  Atkinson. — "  Little  Nell  and  the  two  Gravediggers  "  ("The  Old  Curiosity 

Shop").     Royal  Academy,  1856. 
Fred.  Barnard.—"  Sidney  Carton  "  ("A  Tale  of  Two  Cities  ")•     Exhibited  at 
the  Royal  Academy,  1882. 
"  Horatio  Sparkins  "  ("  Sketches  by  B02  ").     Institute  of  Painters  in  Water- 
Colours,  1885. 
W.  H.  Bartlett.— "  '  The  sea,  Floy,  what  is  it  always  Saying  ? ' "  ("  Dombey 

and  Son  "). 
Edgar  Bundy,  R.I. — "  Bamaby  Rudge  at  the  Country  Justice's."     Institute  of 

Painters  in  Oil-Colours,  1896. 
R.  W.  Buss.—"  Peerybingle,  Dot,  and  Tilly  Slowboy "  ("  The  Cricket  on  the 
"Joe  Willet  taking  leave  of  Dolly  Varden"  ("Bamaby  Rudge"). 
"Trotty  Veck  and  his  Dinner"  ("The  Chimes").     {Seep.  55.) 
G.  Cattermole.—" Little  Nell's  Home"  ("The  Old  Curiosity  Shop"),  1842. 

"  Little  Nell's  Grave"  (companion  picture),  1842.     {Seep.  134.) 
Horace  H.  CauTY. — "Bebelle  looking  out  for  the  Corporal"  ("Somebody's 
Luggage").     Society  of  British  Artists,  1880. 



Herbert  Dicksee.  "The  Grandfather  at  the  Grave  of  Little  Nell."  Royal 
Academy,  1887. 

W.  Maw  Egley. — "The  Marchioness  Playing  Cribbage  in  Dick  Swiveller's 
Sick-Room "  ("The  Old  Curiosity  Shop ").     Royal  Academy,  1898. 

F.  Edwin  Elwell. — "  Charles  Dickens  and  Little  Nell."  A  bronze  group,  pur- 
chased by  the  Fairmount  Park  Art  Association  for  the  Fairmount  Park, 
Philadelphia,  U.S.A.  The  figure  of  Little  Nell  was  exhibited  at  the  Art  Club, 
Philadelphia,  and  awarded  the  Gold  Medal,  while  the  entire  group  obtained 
a  prize  at  the  Columbian  Exhibition.  When  exhibited  in  England,  this 
work  of  Art  met  with  warm  approval,  and  the  sculptor  offered  it  to  the 
London  County  Council,  but  the  emphatic  wish  of  Dickens  (as  expressed  in 
his  Will)  prohibited  their  acceptance  of  this  interesting  memorial. 

W.  P.  Frith,  R.A. — "  Dolly  Varden,"  1843.     Also  replicas  and  other  portraits, 
including  one  representing  her  with  Emma  Haredale.     {See  pp.  246-7.) 
"Kate  Nickleby  at  Madame  Mantalini's."     Royal  Academy,  1843. 
"  The  Jailer's  Little  Daughter  Feeding  '  the  Birds  in  the  Cage.' "    ("  Little 

Dorrit "). 
"  Little  Dorrit  Visits  Arthur  Clennam  at  the  Marshalsea." 
The  first  portrait  of  Dolly  Varden  was  engraved  by  C  E.  Wagstaffe  in 
1843;  the  third  (now  in  South   Kensington   Museum)  was  reproduced  in 
mezzotint   by   S.    W.   Reynolds;    the   fourth,    "Dolly  Varden  and   Emma 
Haredale,"  was  engraved  by  S.  W.  Reynolds  and  G.  S.  Shury  in   1845. 
The  second  portrait  of  Dolly,  which  was  painted  for  Dickens,  has  never 
■  been  engraved;  there  are  in  existence,  however,  a  few  impressions  of  a 
chromo-lithographic  reproduction  (now  very  scarce)  of  Mr.  Frith's  original 
sketch  for  the  picture,  the  publication  of  which  was  unauthorised.     The 
portrait  of  Kate  Nickleby  was  engraved  by  W.  HoU,  A.R.A.,  and  published 
in  1848  exclusively  for  the  members  of  the  National  Art  Union  for  Ireland. 

The  "Dorrit"  pictures  were  painted  in  1859,  and  engraved  on  steel  by 
Lumb  Stocks,  R.A.,  as  vignettes  for  the  Library  Edition,  then  in  course  of 

W.  Gale.—"  Mr.  F.'s  Aunt "  ("  Little  Dorrit ").     Royal  Academy,  1857. 

When  Wilkie  Collins  saw  this  clever  picture  at  the  Academy,  he  was  so 
much  impressed  that  he  wrote  at  once  concerning  it  to  Dickens,  who  replied 
(May  22,  1857):  "I  am  very  much  excited  by  what  you  tell  me  of  Mr.  F.'s 
Aunt.  I  already  look  upon  her  as  mine.  Will  you  bring  her  with  you  ?  " 
The  painting  was  purchased  by  Dickens  through  Collins,  and  realised  at  the 
sale  of  the  novelist's  effects  the  sum  of  sixty  guineas. 

Florence  Graham. — "Little  Nell  seated  in  the  Old  Curiosity  Shop."  En- 
graved in  mezzotint  by  Edward  Slocombe,  and  published  by  Buck  &  Reid, 
179  New  Bond  Street,  1888. 


Largt  Drawings  in  Water-Coloun. 

Charles  Green,  R.I.—"  Gabriel  Varden  Preparing  to  go  on  Parade  "  ('•  Bamaby 
"Tom  Pinch  and  Ruth"  ("Martin  Chuzzlewit "). 

"  Nell  and  her  Grandfather  at  the  Races  "  ("The  Old  Curiosity  Shop"). 
"  Captain  Cuttle  and  Florence  Dombey." 
"  Little  Dorrit's  Visit  to  her  Sister  at  the  Theatre." 
"  Mr.  Turveydrop's  Dancing  Academy  "  ("  Bleak  House  "). 
"Mr.  Mantalini  and  the  Brokers"  ("Nicholas  Nickleby"). 
"The  Pickwick  Club." 

Small  Drawings  in  Water-Colours. 

"  Barnaby  Rudge  with  the  Rioters." 

"Simon  Tappertit  addressing  the  Rioters  at  the  'Boot'  Tavern"  ("Bar- 
naby Rudge  "). 

"Dolly  Varden's  Visit  to  Miss  Haredale"  ("Barnaby  Rudge"). 

"Dick  Swiveller  and  the  Marchioness"  ("The  Old  Curiosity  Shop"). 

"  Dick  Swiveller  and  Fred.  Trent  in  the  Old  Curiosity  Shop." 

"Sam  Weller's  Valentine." 
James  Hamilton.— "What  are  the  Wild  Waves  Saying?"  ("Dombey  and  Son"). 
Edgar  Hanley. — "  Dolly  Varden."     Royal  Academy,  1883. 
E.   Hunter.— " Little  Charlotte's  Writing- Lesson "  ("Bleak  House").      Royal 

Academy,  1858. 
C.  R.  Leslie,  R.A.— "  Mr.  Pickwick  and  Mrs.  Bardell."    Painted  for  Dickens  and 

engraved  for  the  first  Cheap  Edition  of  the  "Pickwick  Papers."    {Seep.  220.) 
Eleanor  E.  Manly. — " '  It's  Cobbs !  It's  Cobbs ! '  cries  Master  Harry.     '  We 

are  going  to  be  married,  Cobbs,  at  Gretna  Green.     We  have  run  away  on 

purpose ' "  ("  Boots  at  the  Holly  Tree  Inn  ").     Royal  Institute  of  Painters  in 

Water-Colours,  1893. 
Mrs.  M^Ian. — "Little  Nell  Reading  Inscription  on  the  Tombstone."     Presented 

to  Dickens  by  the  artist. 
Fred.  Morgan. — "Little  Nell  and  her  Grandfather."    Royal  Academy,  1883. 
R.  H.  NiBBS.— "  Peggotty's  Hut "  ("  David  Copperfield  ").    Royal  Academy,  1852. 
Charles  W.  NichoLLS. — "What  are  the  Wild  Waves  Saying?"  ("Dombey 

and  Son  ").     Engraved  by  G.  H.  Every,  and  published  by  A.  Lucas,  37  Duke 

Street,  Piccadilly,  188 1. 
Kate  PeruGINI. — "  Brother  and  Sister. — '  Oh,  Floy ! '  cried  her  brother,  '  how 

I  love  you !  how  I  love  you,  Floy  ! '     '  And  I  you,  dear.'     '  Oh,  I  am  sure 

of  that,  Floy ' "  ("  Dombey  and  Son  ").     Royal  Academy,  1893. 

"Little  Nell."     Institute  of  Painters  in  Water-Colours,  1885. 
Mary  S.  Pickett.—"  Little  Nell  in  the  Old  Church."     Royal  Academy,  1898. 


A.  J.  RaemaKER. — "  What  are  the  Wild  Waves  Saying  ?  "     Sculpture. 

J.  HalfORD  Ross. — "Our  Mutual  Friend."     Eight  Original  Drawings  in  Water- 

Colour,  illustrating  incidents  in  the  story. 
H.   R.  Steer,  R.I.— "The  Ball   at   Dr.  Blimber's   Establishment"  ("Dombey 
and  Son  "). 
"Little  Nell  and  her   Pet   Bird."     Royal   Institute  of  Painters  in  Water- 

Colours,  1888. 
"Nicholas   Nickleby  Interposes  on   Smike's   Behalf."      Royal   Institute  of 
Painters  in  Water-Colours,  1897. 
Lawson  Stewart. — " '  A  Quiet  Happy  Place — A  Place  to  Live  and  Learn  to  Die 
In.' "     The  Graveyard  in  "  The  Old  Curiosity  Shop."     Institute  of  Painters 
in  Water-Colours,  1885. 
Frank  Stone,  A.R.A,— "  'Tilda  Price ,"  "  Madeline  Bray,"  and  "  Kate  Nickleby." 

These  three  pictures  were  painted  for  Dickens.    {See  pp.  178-9.) 
F.  W.  TOPHAM. — "  Barnaby   Rudge  and  his  Mother."     Presented  to  Dickens 
by  the  artist.     (5«/>.  190.) 
"Little  Nell  and  her  Grandfather  in  the  Tent,  making  Bouquets  for  the 
Racecourse."     Presented  to  Dickens  by  the  artist.     {See  p.  190.) 
H.  Wallis.— "  The  Devotion  of  Sydney  Carton  "  ("  A  Tale  of  Two  Cities  "). 
T.  Webster,  R.A. — "Dotheboy's  Hall:   The   Brimstone  and   Treacle  Scene." 
Painted  for  Dickens,  and  engraved  for  the  first  Cheap  Edition  of  "  Nicholas 
Nickleby."    {See p.  220.) 

In  the  above  list  the  most  interesting  picture,  in  many  respects,  is  Mr.  Frith's 
"  Dolly  Varden."  The  artist  was  quite  a  young  man,  just  rising  into  fame,  when 
(in  1843)  he  made  great  success  with  several  charming  presentments  of  the 
locksmith's  bewitching  daughter,  and  on  seeing  one  of  these  (described  by  DickenS 
as  "Dolly  with  the  bracelet"),  the  novelist  so  much  admired  it  that  he  com- 
missioned Mr.  Frith  to  paint  another  portrait  of  her,  together  with  a  companion 
picture  of  Kate  Nickleby.  Writing  shortly  afterwards  to  the  artist,  whose 
acquaintance  Dickens  then  made,  he  said,  in  reference  to  an  engraving  of  the 
subject  by  C.  E.  Wagstaffe :  "  I  saw  an  unfinished  proof  of  Dolly  at  Mitchell's 
some  two  or  three  months  ago :  I  thought  it  was  proceeding  excellently  well  then. 
It  will  give  me  great  pleasure  to  see  her  when  completed."  The  two  pictures, 
when  finished,  were  hung  in  the  dining-room  of  the  novelist's  house.  At  the 
expiration  of  a  few  years,  the  portrait  of  Kate  Nickleby  was  sent  to  Ireland 
(by  Mr.  Frith's  desire)  for  the  purpose  of  being  engraved,  and  was  delayed  there 
so  long  that  Dickens  began  to  feel  impatient.  Accordingly,  one  morning  he 
forwarded  to  the  artist  the  following  document,  indited  by  himself: — 

"Advertisement. — To  K — e  N — y.— The  Young  Lady  in  Black,  K.N.— If 
you  will  return  to  your  disconsolate  friends  in  Devonshire  Terrace  your  absence 
in  Ireland  will  be  forgotten  and  forgiven,  and  you  will  be  received  with  open  arms. 


Think  of  your  dear  sister  Dolly,  and  how  altered  her  appearance  and  character 
are  without  you.     She  is  not  the  same  girl.     Think,  too,  of  the  author  of  your 
being,  and  what  he  must  feel,  when  he  sees  your  place  empty  every  day  I 
"  October  Tenth,  1848." 

For  each  of  these  remarkable  canvases  Mr.  Frith  received  the  by  no  means 
extravagant  sum  of  twenty  pounds,  that  being  the  price  demanded  by  him.  At 
the  sale  of  Dickens's  effects,  however,  the  portrait  of  Dolly  Varden  realised 
a  thousand  guineas,  while  that  of  Kate  Nickleby  found  a  purchaser,  on  the 
same  eventful  occasion,  for  two  hundred  guineas — a  tribute  alike  to  author  and 
artist.  Mr.  Frith  has  favoured  me  with  some  interesting  information  respecting 
his  presentments  of  Dolly  Varden : — 

"The  picture  of  'Dolly  Varden'  which  I  painted  for  Dickens  was  never 
engraved.  Before  I  began  it  I  made  a  study  of  the  figure,  but  only  the  half- 
length,  down  to  below  the  waist.  This  study  was  bought  by  Sir  R.  Rawlinson, 
who  allowed  (without  asking  my.  permission)  a  most  villainous  chromo-lithograph 
to  be  made  from  it,  and  one  day  to  my  horror  I  saw  it  in  a  shop-window.  For 
anything  I  know  to  the  contrary,  many  of  these  things  may  have  been  sold.* 
The  original  completed  picture  never  left  Dickens's  possession  from  the  time  it 
was  finished  till  he  died,  nor  was  it  ever  exhibited.  The  portrsiit  of  Dolly  (the 
'laughing'  Dolly)  now  in  the  South  Kensington  Museum,  was  bequeathed  by 
Forster,  who  had  it  from  Frank  Stone,  for  whom  I  painted  it.  I  painted  two 
copies  of  the  'laughing'  Dolly,  but  I  don't  know  what  became  of  them.  I  also 
painted  two  pictures  in  which  Dolly  figures  in  company  with  Emma  Haredale — 
in  one  she  .is  feeling  in  her  pocket  for  a  letter  addressed  to  Miss  Haredale,  and 
in  the  other  she  is  disdainfully  treating  Miss  Haredale's  hints  about  Joe  Willet — 
she  throws  up  her  head  and  '  hopes  she  can  do  better  than  that,  indeed  ! '  I  have 
just  remembered  another — a  small  half-length — in  which  she  is  looking  at  herself 
in  a  mirror  and  giving  her  curls  a  '  killing  twist.'  I  have  no  idea  where  these 
pictures  are.  I  may  add  that  when  Dickens  came  to  see  (on  completion)  my 
portraits  of  Dolly  Varden  and  Kate  Nickleby,  which  I  painted  expressly  for  him, 
he  told  me  they  were  '  exactly  what  he  meant.'  This,  of  course,  delighted  me. 
They  led  to  a  friendship  which  lasted  till  his  death."  It  will  be  remembered  that 
in  1859  the  novelist  gave  sittings  for  his  portrait  by  Mr.  Frith,  which  was 
painted  as  a  commission  from  Forster,  by  whom  it  was  bequeathed  to  the 
Nation.  This  portrait,  now  at  South  Kensington,  occupies  the  most  important 
place  between  the  earlier  portraits  of  Dickens  by  Samuel  Laurence,  Maclise,  and 
R.  J.  Lane,  and  the  later  presentments  of  him  by  photography. 

It  is  not  generally  known  that  Mr.  Frith  once  had  the  privilege  of  illustrating 

'  That  Mr.  Frith  did  not  always  entertain  such  an  absolute  objection  to  this  reproduction  is 
testified  by  the  following  memorandum  written  by  him  on  a  copy  of  the  print  now  in  the  collec- 
tion of  Mr.  W.  R.  Hughes  : — "  This  is  a  very  good  chromo-lithograph  from  the  first  study  for  the 
picture  painted  by  me  for  the  late  Charles  Dickens.    (Signed)  W.  P.  FRITH,  December  22, 1884.'' 


a  Dickens  novel,  Apropos  of  which  the  artist  writes :  "  I  told  Dickens  one  day 
when  he  was  sitting  for  his  likeness  that  I  should  like  to  be  allowed  to  illustrate 
one  of  his  books.  He  seemed  pleased,  and  proposed  '  Little  Dorrit'  I  forget  to 
whom  I  sold  the  pictures,  and  where  they  are  now  I  know  not."  The  two 
paintings  were  beautifully  engraved  on  steel  by  Lumb  Stocks,  R.A.,  as  vignettes 
for  the  Library  Edition,  1858-59. 

The  sketch  by  an  American  artist,  Mr.  James  Hamilton,  of  "What  are  the 
Wild  Waves  Saying  ?  "  has  a  little  history  attached  to  it.  While  Dickens  was  in 
Philadelphia,  during  his  last  visit  to  America,  he  expressed  a  wish  to  purchase  a 
painting  of  this  subject, — one  of  the  artist's  most  successful  productions, — but, 
much  to  the  novelist's  regret,  it  had  already  been  sold.  The  original  sketch  was 
still  available,  however,  and  with  this  Dickens  was  so  greatly  pleased  that  he 
immediately  offered  to  buy  it ;  whereupon  the  artist  insisted  on  presenting  it  to 
the  famous  author  of  "  Dombey  and  Son."  Soon  afterwards,  Mr.  Hamilton  was 
agreeably  surprised  to  receive  a  set  of  Dickens's  novels,  containing  a  pleasant 
inscription  in  the  novelist's  autograph. 

The  titles  of  Mr.  Charles  Green's  admirable  series  of  Dickens  pictures  were 
supplied  to  me  by  the  artist  himself,  who  favoured  me  with  a  complete  list  shortly 
before  his  death.  In  reference  to  these  remarkable  drawings  I  have  received 
the  following  communication  from  Mr.  William  Lockwood,  of  Apsley  Hall, 
Nottingham,  for  whom  they  were  painted  on  commission  :  "  The  first  work  of  Mr. 
Green's  that  really  attracted  my  attention  was  his  famous  water-colour  Race 
drawing,  entitled,  I  believe,  '  Here  they  come ! '  I  saw  that  at  a  friend's  house,  and 
was  so  struck  with  admiration  of  Mr.  Green's  delicate  sense  of  humour,  subtle 
rendering  of  character,  and  fine  drawing,  that  I  at  once  told  my  friend  of  my 
great  appreciation  of  Charles  Dickens,  and  saw  that,  in  my  opinion,  Mr.  Charles 
Green  would  make  the  very  best  illustrator  of  his  day  of  that  great  man's  work. 
I  then  sought  an  introduction  to  Mr.  Green,  which  resulted  not  only  in  my 
beautiful  series  of  drawings,  but  in  a  warm  friendship  with  the  artist.  In  the 
execution  of  these  pictures  Mr.  Green  found  most  congenial  work,  and  I  think 
fully  justified  my  judgment  of  his  special  power.  When  the  series  was  exhibited 
at  our  local  museum,  it  attracted  universal  admiration  and  the  delighted  apprecia- 
tion of  all  classes."  Mr.  Lockwood  has  generously  lent  these  pictures  to  many 
London  galleries,  including  the  English  Humorists'  Exhibition,  held  at  the  Royal 
Institute  of  Painters  in  Water-Colours  in  1889. 


Abbey,  E.  A.,  R.A.,  322. 

Absolon,  J.,  228 

Ainsworth,  H.,  21,  23,  24,  54,  65,  1 13. 

All  the  Year  Round,  111,  160,  215. 

"American  Notes,"  designs  for,  157-158,  202, 

219,  221,  222,  226. 
"  Artist  and  the  Author,  The,"  22. 
Athenaum,  The,  33,  43,  44,  60,  76. 
Atkinson,  W.  A.,  243. 

Barnard,  Fred,  221, 222,  226,  227  ;  character 
sketches,  228-229  ;  pictures,  243. 

Bartlett,  W.  H.,  243. 

"Battle  of  Life,  The,"  designs  for,  142-145, 
151,  156-157,  164-168,  221. 

Baxter,  W.  G.,  229. 

Becker,  F.  P.,  137,  163. 

Bell,  Mackenzie,  33. 

Belts  Life  in  London,  3,  30,  139,  233. 

Benjamin,  W.  E.,  225. 

Bentley,  Richard,  9,  61. 

BentUys  Miscellany, ()-\o,  11,  17, 19,21,25-26, 
61,  340  ;  designs  by  G.  Cruikshank,  25,  242. 

Bicknell,  E.,  114. 

Billings,  H.,  225. 

Bolton,  T.,  158. 

Bonchurch,  118,  147. 

Bracewell,  C.  M.,  229. 

Browne,  Dr.  E.  A.,  99,  loi. 

Browne,  Gordon,  226. 

Browne,  Habldt  K.  ("Phiz"),  25,  52,  54,  59- 
120,  122,  123,  124,  132,  146,  147,  192,  193, 
•95.  197.  204,  209,  217,  221,  226,  227,  229- 
230,  239,  240,  242 ;  biographical  sketch, 
113-118;  remuneration,  116;  illness,  116; 
applies  for  pension,  117;  death,  117; 
pers0n.1l  characteristics,  117-118;  water- 
colour  replicas  of  Dickens  illustrations, 
118  ;  "  extra  illustrations,"  229-230. 

"  Browne,  Habl6t  K.,  "  Life  and  Labours  of," 
96,  III,  Ii9-I2a 

Browne,  W.  G.  R.,  in. 

Brune,  Morton,  61. 

"Brush,"  330-231. 

Bryan,  Alfred,  231. 

Bull  and  Mouth  Street,  St.  Martin's  le 
Grand,  48. 

Bundy,  E.,  243. 

Burnett,  H.,  47. 

Buss,  Frances  Mary,  49,  57. 

Buss,  Rev.  A.  J.,  51,  56,  57. 

Buss,  Robert  W.,  47-57,  58,  60,  62,  63,  64 ; 
remuneration  for  the  "Pickwick"  designs, 
51  ;  his  pictures,  55-56,  243;  his  illustra- 
tions, 56  ;  death,  57. 

Calvert,  E.,  183. 

Cambridge,  59. 

Camden  Street,  Camden  Town,  57. 

Cancelled  designs — by  G.  Cruikshank,  16-17, 

23;   by   R.   W.   Buss,   50-51,   242;   by  J. 

Leech,  141. 
Canonbury  Tower,  30. 
Canterbury  Cathedral,  105. 
Casket,  The,  239. 
Caswell,  E.,  74. 
Cattermole,    G.,   80,   82,   83,    121-135,    162 ; 

pictures,  134,  843 ;  illness  and  death,  134. 
Cauty,  H.  H.,  343. 
Century,  The,  3 10. 
Chapman,  E.,  33,  37,  38,  43,  44,  45,  47,  61,  83, 

128,  139,  158. 
Chapman,  F.,  139,  212. 
Character  Studies — by  F.  Barnard,  238-339  ; 

by  W.  G.  Baxter,  229 ;  by  A.  Bryan,  231  ; 

by  J.  W.  Ehninger,  232  ;  by  C.  D.  Gibson, 

232,  239,  242  ;  by  "  Kyd,"  233 ;  by  "  Stylus," 

238  (and  see  343-348.) 
"  Charles  Dickens  by  Pen  and  Pencil,"  308. 
"  Charles   Dickens :    Gossip  about   his   Life, 

Works,  and  Characters,"  228. 
"  Charley  Chalk  :  or  the  Career  of  an  Artist," 

Charterhouse,  The,  138. 
Cheap  editions,  illustrators  ol,  219-226. 
Cheltnam  (engraver),  137. 



"Children  from  Dickens's   Novels,"  designs 

by  F.  O.  C.  Darley,  223. 
"Child's   Dream  of  a  Star,  A,"  designs  by 

H.  Billings,  225. 
"  Child's  History  of  England,  A,"  designs  for, 

189,  193,  202,  221. 

Chominski,  T.  V.,  225. 

"Chimes,  The,"  designs  for,  141, 144,  150-151, 
155-156,  162-163,  221 ;  picture  by  Buss,  55, 


Christie,  J.  E.,  226. 

Christmas  Books,  designs  for,  119,  322. 

"Christmas  Carol,  A,"  designs  for,  140,  144, 
146,  221,  225,  242. 

Christmas  Stories,  designs  for,  221,  222. 

Clarke,  J.  Clayton.    See  "  Kyd." 

Clint,  G.,  A.R.A.,  48. 

Colbom,  Henry,  25. 

Collins,  C.  Alston,  204,  205,  209. 

Collins,  Wilkie,  159,  203,  204,  244. 

Cooke,  W.  C,  226 

Corbeaux,  F.,  228. 

Corbould  (engraver),  137,  173. 

Cornwall,  Logan  Stone  in,  154  ;  St.  Nighton's 
Keive  in,  168. 

Cosens,  F.  W.,  13,  77,  86,  118,  201,  233. 

Coveny,  C,  231. 

"  Cricket  on  the  Hearth,  TTie,"  designs  for, 
141-142,  151,  156,  163-164,  180,  225,  233; 
picture  by  R.  W.  Buss,  55,  243. 

"Crowquill,  Alfred,"  see ''A.  H.  Forrester." 

Cruikshank,  George,  1-28,  33,  47,  54i  55.  60, 
68,  91,  114,  133,  146,  214,  217,  239,  242  ; 
portraits  of,  5-6  ;  Fairy  Tales,  26-27  ;  de- 
scribed by  Mrs.  Gamp,  27-28  ;  as  an  actor, 
28  ;  remuneration,  28  ;  death,  28  ;  bust  by 
Adams,  28. 

Daily  News,  99,  182. 

Daly,  Augustin,  37,  38. 

Dalziel  Brothers,  137,  167,  198,  201,  212. 

Dalziel,  E.  G.,  221. 

Dariey,  F.  O.  C,  223-224,  231  ;  pictures  by, 

Devonshire  Terrace,  Regeiit's  Park,  246. 
Dexter,  J.  F.,  85,  86,  89,  93,  98,  100,  io8,  1 11, 

112,  141,  229. 
"  Dickens  and  Punch,"  174. 
Dickens,   Charles,  portraits  of,   5-6,  56,   74, 

168,  220,  221,  225, 236,  237,  238,  247. 

Dickens,  Frederick,  44,  45. 

Dickens,   Kate,  205   (and   see  "Kate    Peru- 

Dickens,  Lieut.  Sydney,  178. 
Dickens,  Mrs.  Charles,  44,  45,  191. 
Dickleburgh,  121. 
Dicksee,  H.,  244. 
Dobson,  Austin,  15. 
Dolly  Varden,  notes  on  portraits  by  W.  P. 

Frith,  R.A.,  246-247. 

Doyle,J.  ("H.  B."),  149. 

Doyle,  R.,  137,  141,  142, 149-152,  165,  172. 

Drury  Lane,  Theatre  Royal,  154. 

Duchess  of  St.  Albans,  The,  85,  98,  104,  107. 

Duke  Street,  Grosvenor  Square,  56. 

Dulcken,  A.,  231-232. 

Du  Manner,  G.,  146. 

Eastlake,  Sir  C,  181. 
East  London  Theatre,  1 53. 
Eddystone    Lighthouse,    C.    Stanfield's   act- 
drop,  159. 
Edinburgh,  153;  theatre,  154. 
Edwards  (engraver),  85,  loa 
Egley,  W.  M.,  244- 
Ehninger,  J.  W.,  232. 
Elderton,  Miss,  121. 
Elwell,  F.  E.,  244. 
"Empty  Chair,  The"  215. 
"  English  Graphic  Satire,"  57. 
"  Etchings  and  Sketchings,"  by  John  Leech, 

Etty,  William,  R.A.,  63. 
Everitt,  Graham,  26. 
Eytinge,  Sol.,  224-225. 

"Fagin  in  the  Condemned  Cell,"  15-1O,  21- 

22,  23,  214. 
"  Fairy  Library,  The,"  27. 
Fennell,  J.  G.,  62,  117. 
Field  Lane,  21. 
Fields,  J.  T.,  209,  225. 
Fildes,  Luke,  R.A.,  117,  204-217  ;  recollections 

of  Dickens,  208,  216  ;  his  drawing  of  "  The 

Empty  Chair,"  215. 
Finden,  E.  &  W.,  60,  62,  63,  64,  74,  114,  119, 

120,  179,  228,  233. 
Findlay  (engraver),  10,  240. 
Fisher,  Miss  L.  M.,  226. 
Flaxman,  138. 
Fleet  Market,  132. 



Forrester,  A.    H.   ("Alfred   Crowquill"),   59, 

337,  231,  240. 
Forster,  John,  i8,  19,  32,  24,  51,  92,  93,  94, 

107,  118,  127,  134,  143,  1 44,  "45.  147,  «5o, 

154,  156,  157,  163,  163,  164,  165,  168,  169, 

"  Fortunio,"  203. 
Fraser,  F.  A.,  221. 
"  Frauds  on  the  Fairies,"  26. 
French,  222. 
French,  H.,  221. 

Frith,  W.  P.,  R.A.,  148, 205,  213 ;  pictures,  244. 
Frost,  A.  B.,  221,  222,  223. 
"  Frozen  Deep,  The,"  203. 
Furniss,  H.,  226. 
Fumival's  Inn,  36,  39,  45,  S9i  9".  "9- 

"  Gabriel  Grub,"  ("  Pickwick"),  designs  by 

T.  Nast,  223. 
Gad's  Hill,  205,  214,  225. 
Gale,  W.,  344. 
Gaugengigl,  J.  M.,  225. 
"George   Silverman's   Explanation,"  designs 

by  F.  Barnard,  222  ;  by  M.  Greiffenhagen, 

Gibson,  C.  D.,  232,  242. 
Gilbert,  Sir  John.,  R.A.,  223,  224,  227,  232- 

333.  241- 
"  Gleanings  from  Popular  Authors,"  Dickens 

illustrations  by  J.  Nash,  F.  Barnard,  T.  W. 

Wilson,  J.  E.  Christie,  and  G.  Browne,  326. 
Gorway,  C.  M.,  233. 
Graham,  Florence,  244. 
Graphic,  The,  206,  207,  2 1 5. 
Gray,  C.,  61,  80,  137. 
"Great  Expectations,"  designs  for,  201,  221, 

222,  223,  236. 
Greenaway  (engraver),  232. 
Green,  Charies,  221-222,  225  ;  pictures,  245, 

Green,  Townley,  221 
Green,  W.  T.,  85,  137,  198. 
Greiffenhagen,  M.,  226. 
Groves  (engraver),  137. 

Habl6t,  Colonel,  114. 

Hall,  Mr.  (Chapman  &  Hall),  44i  49.  "6. 

Hamerton,  P.  G.,  2,  183. 

Hamilton,  Colonel,  6. 

Hamilton,  J.,  245,  248. 

Hampstead  Road,  199. 

Hanley,  E.,  245. 

"  Hard  Times,"  designs  for,  22o,  321,  323. 

Harley,  J.  P..  73. 

Harrison,  F.,  Ho,  83. 

"Haunted  Man,  The,"  designs  for,  146,  i$7, 

'73.  »75-'78,  331. 
Haweis,  Rev.  H.  R.,  151. 
Heath,  W.,  233. 
"  Heiress,  The,"  32,  38. 
Highgate  Cemetery,  116,  179. 
"  History  of  Punchy'  149. 
Hodder,  G.,  1 5. 

Hogarth,  Miss  G.,  100,  168,  216. 
"  Holiday  Romance,"  designs  by  F.  Barnard, 

222  ;  by  Sir  J.  Gilbert  and  G.  G.  White, 

"Holly  Tree  Inn,  The,"  picture  by  Eleanor 

E.  Manly,  245. 
Hood,  Tom,  113,  14a 
"  Hook  and  Eye"  Club,  The,  6. 
Hook,  Theodore,  32. 
Houghton,  A.  Boyd,  220. 
Household  Words,  23,  26,  189. 
Hove,  117. 
Hughes,  W.  R.,  347. 
Hunted  Down,"  designs  by  F.  Barnard,  333  ; 

by  M.  Greiffenhagen,  236. 
Hunter,  E.,  24;. 
Hunt,  Holman,  148. 
Hunt,  Leigh,  32,  107,  150. 
Hyde  Park  Place,  206,  208,  21 1,  216. 

Illustrated  London  News,  224,  240. 

Irving,  Washington,  22a 

Ishngton,  3'.  35.  38- 

"Is    She    His    Wife?"    design    by    F.    W. 

Pailthorpe,  236. 
Italy,  162,  182. 

"  Jack  Ketch,"  33. 

Jackson,  John,  4,  36,  41,  48,  54,  56. 

Jackson,  Mason,  6a 

"Jacob  Parallel,"  236,  241-242. 

"Jack  Straw's  Castle,"  Hampstead,  162. 

Jerrold,  Blanchard,  24. 

Jerrold,  Douglas,  140,  153. 

Jodrell,  Rev.  Sir  E.  R.,  168. 

Kate  Nickleby,  notes  on  the  portraits  by 

W.  P.  Frith,  R.A.,  246-347. 
Keeley,  Robert,  143. 




Kennington,  113. 

Kensal  Green,  28. 

"  Ketch  Papers,  The,"  33. 

Knight  (engraver),  85,  icxj. 

Knight,  Admiral  Sir  John,  114. 

Knight,  Charles,  56. 

"  Kyd"  (pseudonym  of  J.  Clayton  Clarke),  233. 

"  Lamplighter,  The,"  25  ;  design  by  F.  W. 

Pailthorpe,  236. 
"  Lamplighter's  Story,  The,"  25-26. 
Landells,  E.,  46,  80. 

Landseer,  Sir  E.,  R.A.,  135,  137, 162, 180-181. 
Lane,  R.  J.,  A.R.A.,  247. 
Lang,  A.,  92. 
Laurence,  S.,  238,  247. 
Leamington,  96. 
Lee,  59. 

Leech,  John,  59,  60,  114,  138-148,  161,  173, 
176,  240;  extraordinary  blunder  in   "The 
Battle    of   Life"  by,    145;    "The    Rising 
Generation,"  147  ;  as  an  actor,  147  ;  acci- 
dent to,  147  ;  death,  148  ;  portrait  by  Sir  J. 
E.  Millais,  P.R.A.,  148. 
Leighton,  Lord,  P.R.A.,  195,  206. 
Leslie,  C.  R.,  R.A.,  219-220,  245. 
Letters : — 

Browne  (H.  K.)  to  W.  G.  R.  Browne,  1 1 1- 
112  ;  to  Morton  Brune,  61  ;  to  Dickens, 
83,  84,  115  ;  to  R.  Young,  113,  120. 
Cattermole  (G.)  to  Dickens,  13a 
Chapman  (E.)  to  Dickens,  43. 
Chapman  (F.)  to  Anon.,  139. 
Cosens  (F.  W.)  to  author,  118. 
Cruikshank  (G.)  to  Dickens,  14  ;  to  The 

Times,  19-22. 
Dickens  (C.)  to  Anon.,  re  "Pickwick," 
36-37  ;  to  The  Athenaum,  43-44  ;  to 
H.  K.  Browne,  88-89, 93.  94>  96-97,  99, 
100,  in,  1 1 5-1 16;  to  G.  Cattennole, 
122-134;  to  Chapman  &  Hall,  205; 
to  E.  Chapman,  83-84,  158;  to  F. 
Chapman,  212  ;  to  G.  Cruikshank,  16- 
17  ;  to  C.  Dickens  the  younger,  44-45  ; 
to  Mrs.  C.  Dickens,  191  ;  to  J.  T. 
Fields,  209  ;  to  L.  Fildes,  R.A.,  207  ; 
to  J.  Forster,  24,  92,  94,  103,  145,  147, 
'57)  179)  200;  to  T.  Longman,  194; 
to  S.  Palmer,  184 ;  to  R.  Seymour,  39- 
40 ;  to  C.  Stanfield,  R.A.,  154,  155-156, 
159  ;  to  F.  Stone,  A.R.A.,  158-159, 176- 

178  i  to  M.  Stone,  R.A.,  193,  196,  197- 
198  ;  to  Wilkie  Collins,  244. 
Fennell  (J.  G.)  to  author,  62. 
Leech  (J.)  to  J.  Forster,  143-144. 
Lockwood  (W.)  to  author,  248. 
Maclise  (D.,  R.A.)  to  C.  Dickens,  169- 
170;  to  J.  Forster,  163,  164,  165,  166, 
167,  170. 
Young  (R.)  to  author,  64. 
"  Letters  of  Charles  Dickens,  The,"  159. 
Lever,  Charles,  65,  113. 
"  Library  of  Fiction,  The,"  3,  33,  45-46,  54-55, 

"  Lighthouse,  The,"  1 59. 
Lincoln's  Inn  Fields,  163. 
Linnell,  J.,  182. 
Linton,  W.  J.,  137,  140,  144  (and  see  note 

144),  225. 
"  Little  Talk  about  Spring  and  the  Sweeps,  A," 

designs  by  Buss  and  Cruikshank,  54-55. 
Liverpool  Road,  Islington,  35. 
Lockwood,  W.,  248. 

Mackenzie,  Dr.  S.,  17-18,  19. 

Maclise,  D.,  R.A.,  74,  122,  134,  137,  143,  I44. 
I54i  161-171,  247 ;  amusing  sketch  by, 
163  ;  portrait  of  Dickens  by,  168  ;  letter 
re  "Grip,"  169-170;  death,  170;  Dickens's 
tribute,  1 70-171. 

Macready,  W.,  127. 

Macrone,  J.,  3,  4,  25,  115. 

Maddox,  W.,  233. 

Maguire,  T.  H.,  220. 

Mahoney,  J.,  221. 

Manly,  Eleanor  E.,  245. 

Marold,  225. 

Marshalsea,  The,  in. 

Martin  (engraver),  137,  173. 

"  Maxims  and  Hints  for  an  Angler,"  31,  38. 

Mayhew,  Horace,  15,  32. 

M«Ian,  Mrs.,  245. 

McLean,  32. 

M^Lenan,  J.,  223. 

Meadows,  Kenny,  227,  233-234,  240-241. 

"  Memoirs  of  Grimaldi,"  designs  by  G. 
Cruikshank,  24  ;  by  F.  W.  Pailthorpe,  236. 

Meynell,  Mrs.,  210. 

Millais,  Sir  J.  E.,  P.R.A.,  148,  195,  205,  206. 

Minories,  The,  97. 

Mittis,  225. 

Monthly  Magazine,  The,  3,  116. 



Morgan,  F.,  34$. 

Morning  Chronicle,  The,  3.  4,  33. 

"  Mr.  Nightingale's  Diary,"  design  by  F.  W. 

Pailthorpe,  336. 
Mudfog  Papers,  The,  designs  by  G.  Cruik- 

shank,  35,  343. 

Nash,  J.,  336. 

Nasmyth,  154. 

Nast,  T.,  323,  333. 

"  Nemo  "  (pseudonym  of  H.  K.  Browne),  65. 

Newman  Street,  62. 

"  New  Piljian's  Projiss,  A,"  37  ;  designs  by 

F.  W.  Pailthorpe,  336. 
Nibbs,  R.  H.,  345. 
Nicholls,  C.  W.,  345. 
Nickleby,  Kate,  Notes  on  the  Portraits  by  W. 

P.  Frith,  R.A.,  346-347. 

Onwhyn,  T.,  237,  234-235,  241. 

"Origin    of   Sam   Weller,  The,"  design    by 

F.  W.  Pailthorpe,  336. 
Our  Young  Folks,  334. 

Paget,  H.  M.,  335. 

Pailthorpe,  F.  W.,  6,  73.  227.  231,  235-236, 

Palmer,  A.  H.,  184,  185,  188. 

Palmer,  Samuel,  182-188:  his  water-colour 
drawings,  183,  184  ;  etchings,  183. 

"  Parallel,  Jacob,"  236,  241-242. 

Payn,  James,  108. 

Peggotty's  Boat,  103. 

Perugini,  Kate,  345  (and  see  "  Kate  Dickens"). 

"  Peter  Palette "  (pseudonym  of  Thomas 
Onwh>Ti),  227, 234-235. 

Phillips,  Watts,  ni. 

"  Phiz,"  65  (and  see  "  Habl6t  K.  Browne")- 

Pickett,  Mary  S.,  245. 

Pickwick,  Mr.,  prototype  of,  38-39  ;  Sketches 
by  H.  K.  Browne,  72  ;  by  C.  U.  Gibson,  343. 

"  Pickwick  Papers,  The,  An  Account  of  the 
Origin  of,"  42. 

"Pickwick,  Tales  from,"  designs  by  E.  J. 
Wheeler,  236. 

"  Pic  Nic  Papers,  The,"  35,  115. 

Pictures  of  Dickens  subjects,  243-248. 

"  Pictures  from  Italy,"  182 ;  designs  by  H.  K. 
Browne,  1 19  ;  by  S.  Palmer,  183-187  ;  by  M. 
Stone,  R.A.,  202  ;  by  G.  Thomson  (House- 
hold Edition),  321 ;  by  M.  Greiffenhagen,  326. 

Phiwell,  G.  J.,  880. 

Pl.inchrf,  I  $0,303. 

Portraits  :— 

Cruikshank  (G.),  5-6,  38 ;  Dickens  (CX 
K-d,  $6,  74,  i6«,  330,  231,  225,  336,  337, 
338, 347;  Dickens  (Lieut.  Sydney),  178 ; 
Leech  (J.),  148  ;  Seymour  (R-X  37. 

Punch,  75,  136,  138,  139,  140,  147,  150,  173, 
'73.  «74,  240.  241. 

"Punch's  Valentines,"  75. 

Putney  Bridge,  31 1  ;  church,  43,  211. 

"  Quiz"  (pseudonym  of  Dickens),  74. 

Raemaker,  a.  J.,  346. 

Ralston,  J.  M=L.,  331. 

"Readings  of  Mr.   Charles    Dickens,  The," 

designs  by  S.  Eytinge,  334. 
Regent's  Canal,  199. 
Reinhart,  C.  S.,  333. 
"  Reprinted  Pieces,"  designs  by  F.  Walker, 

A.R.A.,  321  ;  by  E.  G.  Dalziel  (Household 

Edition),  331. 
Richardson,  E.,  236. 
"Rising  Generation,  The,"  by  John  Leech, 

Roberts,  C,  313. 
Roberts,  D.,  R.A.,  154. 
Rochester,  314  ;  Castle,  3i6  ;  Cathedral,  3ii, 

316;    Eastgate    House,    211,    216;    High 

Street,  211. 
Roe  (engraver),  59. 
Roffe,  E.,  330. 
Ross,  J.  Halford,  346. 
Rotherhithe,  198. 
Ruskin,  Prof  John,  i,  16,  83,  I3i,  146,  15a 

Sala,  G.  a.,  4,  28,  67,  143. 

"  Sam  Weller "  (pseudonym  of  Thomas  On- 

whyn),  327,  234-235  ;  "  The  origin  oi;"  336. 
"Sam  Weller's  Jest  Book,"  239. 
Sands  (engraver),  63. 
Sandys,  F.,  195. 
Scenes  (various)  from  Dickens,  depicted  by 

C.  Coveny,  231  ;  by  F.  O.  C.  Darley,  331  ; 

by  N.  P.  Whitlock,  338  ;  by  C.  D.  Gibson, 

332,    342  ;    miscellaneous,    340 ;    pictures, 

"  Scrap  Book  of  Literary  Varieties,  The,"  234. 
Seymour,    Mrs.,    42,   44 ;    her    "  Pickwick " 

pamphlet,  42-45. 



Seymour,  R.,  29-46,  47,  5«.  54.  60.  64,  66,211, 
240  ;  death  of,  35,  36-37.  >39  ;  tribute  to, 
35  ;  final  drawing,  36  ;  remuneration,  40  ; 
portrait  of,  46. 

Seymour,  R.,  jun.,  43. 

Shaw,  William,  prototype  of  Squeers,  75-76. 

Sheppard,  W.  L.,  222. 

Shury,  G.  S.,  244. 

Sibson,  T.,  237. 

"  Sketches  of  Young  Couples,"  designs  by 
H.  K.  Browne,  74. 

"  Sketches  of  Young  Gentlemen,"  designs  by 
H.  K.  Browne,  74. 

"  Sketches  of  Young  Ladies,"  designs  by  H. 
K.  Browne,  74. 

Smith  (engraver),  137. 

Smith,  Orrin,  61. 

"Somebody's  Luggage,"  picture  by  H.  H. 
Cauty,  243. 

Spielmann,  M.  H.,  60,  77.  "49.  210.  222. 

"  Squib  Annual,  The,"  43- 

St.  Andrew's  Street,  Seven  Dials,  199. 

St.  Bartholomew's  Hospital,  138. 

St.  Dunstan's  Church,  Fleet  Street,  150,  155. 

St.  James's  Theatre,  73,  191. 

St.  James's,  Westminster,  20,  21. 

St.  Martin's  Lane,  63. 

St.  Nighton's  Keive,  near  Tintagel,  168. 

St.  Paul's  Cathedral,  28,  181. 

Stanfield,  C,  R.A.,  137.  150,  153-160,  168, 
173.  2'9  ;  presents  from  Dickens,  155,  157, 
159  ;  drawing  of  S.S.  Britannia,  15S  ;  Eddy- 
stone  Lighthouse,  act  drop,  159;  nick- 
names, 159;  death,  160  ;  Dickens's  tribute, 

Stanfield,  F.,  156,  159. 

Stanfield,  G.,  160. 

Staple  Inn,  212. 

Steer,  H.  R.,  246. 

Stewart,  Lawson,  246. 

Stone,  F.,  A.R.A.,  137,  158,  i73. 175-179,  192, 
'94.  195.  203,  237-238,  247  ;  as  an  actor, 
178  ;  Mrs.  Gamp's  description  of,  178  ; 
nicknames,  178  ;  his  portrait  of  Lieut.  Syd- 
ney Dickens,  178  ;  death,  179 ;  pictures,  246. 

Stone,  Marcus,  R.A.,  113,  175,  177,192-203, 
204,  215  ;  his  first  design  for  Dickens,  195  ; 
his  drawings  for"  Our  Mutual  Friend,"  195- 
201 ;  the  prototype  of  Mr.  Venus,  199-200  ; 
private  theatricals,  203. 

"  Strange  Gentleman,  The,"  73  ;   designs  by 

H.  K.  Browne,  73  ;  by  F.  W.  Pailthorpe, 

"Stroller's  Tale,  The"  ("Pickwick"),  36,  39- 

"Stylus,"  238. 

"  Sunday  Under  Three  Heads,"  61-62. 
Swain,  Joseph,  106,  137,  15a 

Talfourd,  Sergeant,  84. 

Tavistock  House,  158,  159,  175,  203  ;  Square, 

Taylor,  Weld,  238. 
Tenniel,  Sir  John,  136,  137,  147. 172-174,  176, 

Thackeray,  W.  M.,  12-13,  '5.  28,  59,  62,  135, 

138,  139,  166,  175,  180,  195,  219,  240. 
Theatrical  entertainments,  27,  158-159,   178, 

190,  191,  203. 
Thomas,  W.  L.,  206. 
Thomson,  D.  C,  96,  iii,  119. 
Thomson,  Gordon,  221. 
Thompson,  J.,  137,  166. 
Tilney,  F.  C,  226. 

"  Timothy  Sparks"  (Dickens's  pseudonym),  61. 
Topham,  F.  W.,  189-191  ;  pictures  of  scenes 

in  "Master  Humphrey's  Clock,"  190,  246; 

love    of    acting,     190-191  ;    ability    as    a 

juggler,  191. 
Topham,  F.  W.  W.,  190. 
"Travelling      Sketches"     ("Pictures     from 

Italy"),  182. 
Trollope,  Anthony,  113,  201. 
"  Tuggses  at  Ramsgate,  The,"  33,  54  ;  designs 

by  Seymour  and  Cruikshank,  46. 

"Uncommercial  Traveller,  The,"  designs 
for,  320,  221,  222,  226. 

Varden,  Dolly,  notes  on  portraits  by  W.  P. 

Frith,  R.A.,  246-247. 
Vasey  (engraver),  80. 
"Village  Coquettes,  The,"  design  by  F.  W. 

Pailthorpe,  236. 

Walker,  C.  W.,  228. 

Walker,  F.,  A.R.A.,   195,  221 ;    pictures  by, 

Wall,  C.  H.,  238. 
Wallis,  H.,  246. 
Warren,  H.,  233. 



Weatherhead  (engraver),  64. 

Webster,  T.,  R.A.,  219,  220, 146. 

Wedmore,  F.,  6,  7. 

"  Weller,    Sam "    (pseudonym    of     Thomas 

Onwhyn),  227,  234-235 ;  "  The  Origin  of,' 

Wheeler,  E.  J.,  226. 
White,  G.  G.,  224. 
Whitehead,  C,  33,  45. 
"  Whole  Hogs,"  23. 
Williams,  S.,  80,  123. 
Williams,  T.,  133,  137,  167,  220. 
Willis  (prototype  of  Mr.  Venus),  199-200. 

Wilson,  Thomas,  233,  336. 
Wilson,  T.  Walter,  3j6. 
Worth,  T.,  222. 
Wright  (engraver),  232. 
Wright,  W.,  4,  105,  220,  236. 
W.,  T.  C,  238. 
W.,  W.  C,  239. 

Yarmoitth  Dbnks,  103,  106. 
Yates,  Edmund,  60. 
Yeagcr,  J.,  235,  237. 

Young,  Robert,  63,  64,  85,  87,  loo,  113,  117, 
119-120,  329. 


"  Barnaby  Rudge,"  81-86, 127-133, 169, 202. 
Designs  by  Habl6t  K.  Browne,  85-86, 
230  ;  by  George  Cattermole,  127-133  ;  by 
Frederick  Barnard,  222;  by  Absolon  and 
Corbeaux,  228 ;  by  C.  B.  Bracewell,  229 ; 
by  E.  Richardson,  236 ;  by  T.  Sibson, 
237  ;  Anon.,  239.  Pictures  by  E.  Bundy, 
243;  by  R.  W.  Buss,  55,  243 ;  by  W. 
F.  Frith,  R.A.  244,  246-247  ;  by  C.  Green, 
245  ;  by  E.  Hanley,  245  ;  by  F.  W.  Topham, 
igo,  246  (and  see  "  Master  Humphrey's 
Clock  "). 

"Bleak  House,"  106-109,  193.  Designs  by 
H.  K.  Browne,  106-109  ;  by  F.  Barnard, 
222.  Pictures  by  C.  Green,  245  ;  by  E. 
Hunter,  245. 

"David  Copperfield,"  102-106,  207,  208. 
Designs  by  H.  K.  Browne,  102-106  ;  by  F. 
Barnard,  222 ;  by  Phil  May,  226.  Picture 
by  R.  H.  Nibbs,  245. 

"Dombcy  and  Son,"  90-101,  170.  Unpub- 
lished designs  by  R.  W.  Buss,  55  ;  designs 
by  H.  K.  Browne,  90-101,  230;  by  F. 
Barnard,  222  ;  by  W.  L.  Sheppard,  222. 
Pictures  by  H.  K.  Browne,  99  ;  by  W.  H. 
Bartlett,  243 ;  by  C.  Green,  245  ;  by  J. 
Hamilton,  245,  248  ;  by  C.  W.  Nicholls, 
245  ;  by  K.  Perugini,  245  ;  by  A.  J.  Rae- 
maker  (sculpture),  246 ;  by  H.  R.  Steer,  246. 

"  Little  Donrit,"  109-111,  160.  Designs  by  H, 
K.  Browne,  109-111  ;  by  M.  Stone,  R.A. 
195,  201  ;  by  J.  Mahoney  (Household 
edition),  221  ;  by  W.  P.  Frith,  R.A.,  244, 
247.  Pictures  by  W.  P.  Frith,  R.A.,  244 ; 
by  W.  Gale,  244  ;  by  C.  Green,  245. 

"Martin  Chuizlewit,"  86-90.  Designs  by 
H.  K.  Browne,  86-90  ;  by  F.  Stone,  A.R.A., 
179  ;  by  F.  Barnard,  222  ;  by  C.  H.  Wall, 
238.     Picture  by  C.  Green,  245. 

"  Master  Humphrey's  Clock,"  79-86,  239-240. 
Designs  by  H.  K.  Browne,  79-86 ;  by  G. 
Cattermole,  122-134,  162;  by  D.  Maclisc, 
R.A.,  162  ;  by  F.  Barnard,  222  ;  by  "Brush," 
230-231 ;  by  "Jacob  Parallel,"  236, 241-242  ; 
by  T.  Sibson,  237  ;  by  T.  C.  W.,  238  (and 
see  "The  Old  Curiosity  Shop"  and  "Bar- 
naby Rudge  "). 

"  Mystery  of  Edwin  Drood,  The,"  202,  204, 
205,  206,  207,  208,  209-216,  225.  C.  A. 
CoUins's  design  for  wrapper,  205  ;  designs 
by  L.  Fildes,  R.A.,  208-217. 

"Nicholas  Nickleby,"  74-78,  168,  180.  De- 
signs by  H.  K.  Browne,  76-78  ;  by  F.  Stone, 
A.R.A.,  178-179,  237-238  ;  by  T.  Webster, 
R.A.,  220 ;  by  F.  Barnard,  222  ;  by  C.  S. 
Reinhart,  222  ;  by  Sir  John  Gilbert,  R.A., 
232  ;  by  K.  Meadows,  233-234,  241  ;  by  T. 
Onwhyn,  235,  042  j  by  W.   Taylor,  338; 



Anon.,  239.  Pictures  by  W.  P.  Frith,  R.A., 
244,  246-247  ;  by  C.  Green,  245  ;  by  H.  R. 
Steer,  246  ;  by  F.  Stone,  A.R.A.,  178-179, 
246  ;  by  T.  Webster,  R.A.,  220,  246. 

"Old  Curiosity  Shop,  The,"  80-81,  123-127  ; 
Designs  by  H.  K.  Browne,  80-81,  85,  221,   { 
229-230;  by  G.  Cattermole,  123-127,  133;  1 
by  D.  Maclise,  R.A.,  162  ;  by  C.  Green,  221  ;  , 
by  T.  Worth,  222  ;  by  W.  Maddox  and  H. 
Warren,   233  ;  by  K.   Meadows,   234 ;  by 
"  Stylus,"  238  ;   Anon.,  239  ;  Water-colour 
drawings  by  H.  K.  Browne,  86.    Pictures  ' 
by    G.    Cattermole,   134,  243 ;   by  W.   A. 
Atkinson,  243  ;  by  H.  Dicksee,  244  ;  by  W. 
M.  Egley,  244  ;  by  F.  E.  Elwell  (sculpture), 
244  ;  by  F.  Graham,  244  ;  by  C.  Green,  245  ; 
by  Mrs.  M'lan,  245  ;  by  F.  Morgan,  245  ; 
by  M.  S.  Pickett,  245  ;  by  K.  Perugini,  245  ; 
by  H.  R.  Steer,  246 ;  by  L.  Stewart,  246  ;  by 
F.  W.  Topham,  190,  246  (and  see  "  Master 
Humphrey's  Clock  "). 

"Oliver  Twist,"  9-24,  60.  Designs  by  G. 
Cruikshank,  9-24  ;  sale  of  original  drawings, 
13  ;  water-colour  replicas,  13  ;  Edition  <U 
luxe,  13;  The  Cancelled  Plate,  16-17,  22: 
Cruikshank's  Account  of  the  Origin  of  the 
Story,  17-24.  Designs  by  H.  K.  Browne, 
119;  by  J.  Mahoney  (Household  edition), 
221  ;  by  F.  W.  failthorpe,  236;  Anon., 

"  Our  Mutual  Friend,"  148,  192, 195-201,  204. 
Designs  by  A.  B.  Houghton,  220  ;  by  J. 
Mahoney  (Household  edition),  221.  Pic- 
tures by  J.  H.  Ross,  246. 

"Pickwick  Papers,  The,"  29,  32-45,  47,  48, 
49-54,  58-61,  139,  182,  211,  213,  240. 
Designs  by  R.  Seymour,  36-37,  41,  50,  64 ; 
by  R.  W.  Buss,  50-54,  62,  64,  242  ;  by  J. 
Leech,  60,  139;  by  H.  K.  Browne,  62-73, 
229  ;  by  C.  R.  Leslie,  R.A.,  219,  220  ;  by  T. 
Nast,  222  ;  by  A.  B.  Frost,  223  ;  by  E.  J. 
Wheeler,  226 ;  by  C.  Coveny,  231  ;  by 
"Crowquill,"23l,  242  ;  by  A.  Dulcken,  231- 
232  ;  by  Sir  John  Gilbert,  R.A.,  232,  241  ; 
by  W.  Heath,  233  ;  by  T.  Onwhyn,  234- 
235 ;  by  H.  M.  Paget,  235  ;  by  F.  W. 
Pailthorpe,  235-236  ;  by  T.  Sibson,  237  ;  by 
"Stylus,"  238;  by  W.  C.  W.,  239;  Anon., 
239.  Pictures  by  C.  Green,  245  j  by  C.  R.  . 
Leslie,  R.A.,  200,  245.  J^— 

"  Sketches  by  Boz,"  3-9,  23,  24,  32,  46,  60, 
73.  Designs  by  G.  Cruikshank,  3-9,  54 ;  by 
H.  K.  Browne,  118-119;  by  F.  Barnard, 
222  ;  by  A.  B.  Frost,  222.  Picture  by  F. 
Barnard,  243. 

"Tale  of  Two  Cities,  A,"  111-113,  192. 
Designs  by  H.  K.  Browne,  112-113  ;  by  M. 
Stone,  R.A.,  202  ;  by  F.  Barnard,  222  ;  by 
J.  M'Lenan,  223.  Pictures  by  F.  Barnard, 
243  ;  by  H.  Wallis,  246. 


y  Printed  by  Ballantyne,  Hanson  cSr*  Co. 

Edinburgh  Is"  Ix)ndon 


BIND;r;c  CC3T.  FEB5  8197f